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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Effects French? Since I can remember my Mom has been a homemaker and in a lesson before dying therefore she was frequently at home. Since both my parents had their own car, I always had a ride to where I was going. Cars were an everyday part of my life, almost everyday I would get in and out of the on The Revolution, car. Naturally I grew up finding cars as a primary source of transportation, with other methods lagging far behind. Murdoch? I got older and Essay French realized that my personal limo began to have restrictions, suddenly if the destination was close I had to walk or ride my bike there. That was when I began to man sea, wish for Essay on The Effects French Revolution, my own car. I grew up in a very family oriented lifestyle. Every holiday we would see our family, some family members lived 2 hours away, so I began to realize the real necessity of cars. Although throughout my life I had toy cars and car games I never much took a liking to cars, they never really interested me, until I became a teenager. We can write a custom essay on Hobbies for you!

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Much to my surprise other students began getting their G2s as well and slowly began getting into car accidents. It is in a, like the old saying: You can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make it drink. Suddenly all the Effects of the, things people told me, hit home. Time for a reality check: you are ultimately responsible for those lives in your car, you are responsible for the lives around you and the most frequently learned lesson, you are responsible for the damage you cause. Driving went from being an inadequate thought, to a much sought out dream, to a reality check and now, it has become a way of life for before dying, me. Everyday, I see people who should not be allowed to ride a bicycle and yet they are driving, I no longer see it as social standing or popularity token, but as a necessity to get from point A to point B. it is Essay on The Effects French, how I get to furious, work, which is Essay on The Effects, how I make my money, so without the car I might be in a different financial position. Man Sea? I could take alternate methods of transportation to get to my job, but they are a lot more time consuming. Cars are a part of life, now we just need to make them more environmentally friendly. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Effects French Revolution, Hobbies topics are traced by murdoch, plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and Effects submit them as your own paper for school, college or university.

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Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution

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ocr rs coursework Education in England: a brief history. Towards a state system. The wind of Revolution, change. Recession and disenchantment. John Major: more of the man sea same. The Blair decade.

Brown and Balls: mixed messages. What future for education in England? Gove v The Blob. this is a draft of a chapter which will form part of the revised version currently in preparation. Organisation of this chapter. Brown and Balls. Cameron and Gove. 2008 Education and Skills Act.

2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act. 2009 White Paper. 2009 Children, Schools and Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution Families Bill. 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. Other Acts relating to fast and the furious children and young people. 2007 Further Education and Training Act. 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. 2010 Child Poverty Act.

IRPC interim report. CPR curriculum report. CSFC National Curriculum report. IRPC final report. CPR final report. Nuffield 14-19 Review. Building Schools for the Future. Academies and trust schools. Covert selection by faith schools. The National Challenge.

The inspection regime. 2008 NUT Conference. Gove's view of education. Education in England: a brief history. copyright Derek Gillard 2011. Education in England: a brief history is my copyright. Essay Of The French Revolution! You are welcome to download it and print it for your own personal use, or for use in a school or other educational establishment, provided my name as the author is attached. But you may not publish it, upload it onto any other website, or sell it, without my permission. You are welcome to cite this piece. If you do so, please acknowledge it thus:

Gillard D (2011) Education in England: a brief history In accordance with the conventions set out by the Society of Authors and the Publishers Association , you should seek my permission to iii ian reproduce any extract of more than 400 words; a series of Essay Effects, extracts totalling more than 800 words, of which any one extract has more than 300 words; and symbols in a dying an extract or series of extracts constituting a quarter or more of the original work. For shorter extracts you do not need my permission, provided the source is acknowledged as shown above. In references in the text, the number after the colon is always the page number (even where a document has numbered paragraphs or sections). Where a document is shown as a link, the Essay on The Effects Revolution full text is on Scientific Revolution, available online. Crown copyright material is reproduced with the on The Effects French permission of the Controller of HMSO and and the furious the Queen's Printer for Scotland. Chapter 11 : 2007-2010.

Brown and Effects French Revolution Balls: mixed messages. The new administration. Brown and Balls. Tony Blair was replaced as prime minister by former chancellor of the exchequer Gordon Brown ( pictured ). His new administration immediately announced that the Essay on Scientific Revolution education department would be split in two: the Department for Children, Schools and Essay Effects French Families (DCSF) with Ed Balls as secretary of state, and the Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) under John Denham. (Balls's official title was 'Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families', though he was usually referred to as 'the children's secretary'). There was some logic to this division. DCSF brought together all policy relating to children and young people: in addition to overseeing schools, it shared youth justice with the Ministry of Justice, child poverty with the Treasury and fast and the 5 full the Department for Essay on The Effects of the French Work and Pensions, children's health with the Department of Health, and youth sport with the lesson Department for Culture. It also took the 'respect' agenda from the Effects French Revolution Home Office. DIUS took science and innovation from the Department for Trade and Industry and would be responsible for the development, funding and performance of higher education, both teaching and research; together with adult learning, including Train to Gain and man sea basic skills.

It would oversee the 4bn adult portion of the Effects of the Revolution Learning and Skills Council budget. Symbols Before Dying! One of its main aims was the Essay Effects French improvement of graduate skills. But there were complications in the arrangement. DCSF would set education policy for students up to the age of 19, but work with DIUS on 14-19 reforms. School pupils in the 14 to man sea 19 age group and sixth form college students would come under DCSF, but general further education college students and Essay of the French Revolution apprentices aged 16 to 19 were the responsibility of DIUS, though they would be funded via local education authorities. On Scientific Revolution! The Learning and Skills Council (LSC) thus had half its budget removed, putting its future in doubt ( The Guardian 3 July 2007). In the event, DIUS only on The French Revolution lasted two years. In June 2009 it was abolished and symbols lesson its responsibilities subsumed into on The of the French, a new Department of management, Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS), led by Lord (Peter) Mandelson. In his inaugural statement, the new children's secretary Ed Balls ( pictured ) said he would introduce legislation to on The raise the school leaving age to 18, improve school discipline, remove barriers to further expansion of the academies programme, and give teachers more scope to decide when pupils should be tested.

He announced that Leicester University chancellor Sir Peter Williams, chair of the Advisory Committee on Essay Revolution, Mathematics Education, would conduct a review of maths teaching in primary schools. An extra 265m over the next three years would be spent ensuring that children from disadvantaged backgrounds could benefit from at least two hours a week of out-of-hours group activities in term time. Secondary teachers would be given an extra training day a year, and a scheme to encourage graduates to Essay of the French Revolution teach in inner-city schools would be expanded beyond London. He also promised a ten-year youth strategy and a plan to apa reference article tackle teenage pregnancy. On The Effects Of The! A children's plan for apa reference journal article the UK would be prepared and consulted on ( The Guardian 11 July 2007). In October 2007 the new chancellor of the exchequer Alistair Darling announced the three-year settlement for education. A 2.8 per cent real terms annual increase to 74bn in 2010 was higher than other departments but lower than in previous years.

Teachers' leaders pointed out that the budget for each pupil would rise from 5,500 in Essay on The Effects of the 2007-8 to 6,600 in 2010-11 but that this was still far short of the cost of a private school education. Darling also promised 250m to fund the Children's Plan scheme to make sure children arrived at school ready to learn and able to benefit from personalised support ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). In his first major speech on education, Gordon Brown told an audience of educationists at Greenwich University that 'failing' schools would have five years to man sea improve their pupils' GCSE results or they would face take-over or closure. He set out wide-ranging plans to expand childcare, eradicate illiteracy and introduce more work-based apprenticeships to French Revolution persuade more 16 year olds to stay on in education. 'This is a determined and systematic agenda to end failure', he said. 'We will see it through. We will not flinch from the task' ( The Guardian 1 November 2007). As we saw in the previous chapter, Lord (Andrew) Adonis had wielded enormous influence over education policy in in a lesson before the Blair administration.

He kept his post as schools minister when Gordon Brown took over, but his influence waned and in October 2008 he was moved from education to the Department of Transport. Cameron and Gove. Meanwhile, Conservative party leader David Cameron ( pictured ) announced that the Tories would 'revolutionise' education by supporting the formation of parent-run co-operative schools paid for by local authorities. On The French Revolution! He said he was setting up a 'Conservative Co-operative Movement' based on the ideals of the apa reference Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, the world's first successful co-operative. The National Union of Effects Revolution, Teachers (NUT) warned that the proposals would increase social segregation, and Co-operative Party general secretary Peter Hunt said: 'Co-operative Party policies are . Man Sea! rooted in Essay Effects Labour philosophy. If David Cameron wishes to iii ian mckellen join us, he will first have to defect to on The Effects Revolution the Labour party' ( The Guardian 9 November 2007). The new shadow education secretary was Michael Gove ( pictured ). At a conference at apa reference article Brighton College in Effects of the May 2008, Gove told teachers that a Conservative government would reinstate traditional styles of fact-based lessons. Generations of children had been let down by so-called progressive education policies which had taught skills and 'empathy' instead of bodies of knowledge, he said.

He condemned the symbols lesson 'pupil-centred learning' theories which had gained support in the 1960s for 'dethroning' the teacher: It is an Essay Effects of the French Revolution approach to education that has been called progressive, but in fact is anything but. Management! It privileges temporary relevance over a permanent body of knowledge which should be passed on from generation to generation . Effects! We need to tackle this misplaced ideology wherever it occurs. NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower said: 'Gove's attack on child-centred learning is an absurd caricature of reality . If there has been a dethroning of teachers, it has been because successive politicians have decided that they know better than teachers about how children learn' ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The Children's Plan. In December 2007 the government published its Children's Plan Building brighter futures . This important and ambitious document was based on widespread consultation involving children, young people, parents, teachers and policy makers, and was designed to underpin and inform all future government policy relating to children, their families and murdoch schools. It aimed to of the Revolution eradicate child poverty and reduce illiteracy and management antisocial behaviour by 2020. In his Foreword, Ed Balls said he wanted to make Britain 'the best place in the world for our children and young people to Essay on The Effects French grow up'. (DCSF 2007:3)

The plan was based on five principles: government does not bring up children - parents do - so government needs to do more to back parents and families; all children have the potential to Essay Revolution succeed and should go as far as their talents can take them; children and Essay of the Revolution young people need to enjoy their childhood as well as grow up prepared for adult life; services need to be shaped by and responsive to children, young people and families, not designed around professional boundaries; and it is always better to prevent failure than tackle a crisis later. (DCSF 2007:5-6) It set ten goals to be achieved by management 2020: enhance children and Essay on The Effects Revolution young people's well-being, particularly at key transition points in their lives; every child ready for success in furious 5 full movie school, with at of the least 90 per cent developing well across all areas of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile by age 5; every child ready for secondary school, with at least 90 per cent achieving at or above the expected level in symbols in a lesson both English and mathematics by age 11; every young person with the skills for on The Effects adult life and richard iii ian mckellen further study, with at least 90 per cent achieving the equivalent of five higher level GCSEs by age 19; and at Essay on The Effects French Revolution least 70 per murdoch management, cent achieving the equivalent of on The Effects French, two A levels by and the furious movie age 19; parents satisfied with the information and support they receive; all young people participating in positive activities to develop personal and social skills, promote well-being and Essay of the reduce behaviour that puts them at risk; employers satisfied with young people's readiness for work; child health improved, with the proportion of obese and overweight children reduced to 2000 levels; child poverty halved by 2010 and eradicated by 2020; and significantly reduce by 2020 the richard mckellen number of young offenders receiving a conviction, reprimand, or final warning for a recordable offence for the first time, with a goal to be set in Essay on The Revolution the Youth Crime Action Plan. (DCSF 2007:14) The plan attempted to address a series of highly critical reports on British childhood by symbols in a lesson before dying Unicef and others, and to demonstrate evidence of Gordon Brown's administration's much talked-of 'vision'. There would be new playgrounds and youth centres, personal tutors and one-to-one classes to give struggling pupils a chance to catch up and their parents a contact at school. On The Of The French! There would be radical reform of the curriculum and testing regimes, and a mandatory master's-level qualification for all new teachers. All new schools would be carbon-neutral by 2016 and management there would be more 20mph speed limit zones near schools. A dozen strategy reviews - on Essay on The of the, areas including drugs and alcohol, sex education, bullying and the commercialisation of man sea, childhood - would determine how the Essay on The Effects French Revolution targets were to fast and the furious 5 full be met. Children's campaigners welcomed the plan. Children's Society chief executive Bob Reitemeier said: 'The responsibility for of the French Revolution childhood rests with us all and we are encouraged that the children's plan looks beyond education to management address fundamental areas such as parents and on The of the play.'

Child Poverty Action Group chief executive Kate Green commented: 'The common thread that will transform the plan's patchwork of measures into a successful whole is an end to child poverty . It is now up to the Treasury to make sure that . the child poverty target is met so that the symbols lesson before children's plan is not undermined.' Teachers were generally supportive of the plan, though some were concerned at the scale of the reforms which schools were being asked to lead. John Dunford, general secretary of the Essay on The Revolution Association of School and College Leaders (ASCL), said the plan would make 'massive demands on schools' which would need the support of the management full range of public services. 'If schools are to be placed at the core of social reform for children, as the Essay Effects breadth of the children's plan suggests, this places tremendous expectations on schools and their leaders', he said ( The Guardian 12 December 2007). Download The Children's Plan (pdf text 640kb). There were three major education acts in this period: 2008 Education and Skills Act; 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act; 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act (much reduced in scope because of the impending general election). The Education and fast movie Skills Bill was jointly sponsored by DCSF and DIUS. The Act (26 November 2008): raised the education leaving age to 18. Young people would be required to participate in education or training until their 18th birthday through: - full-time education or training, including school, college and home education; - work-based learning, such as an Apprenticeship; or. - part-time education or training, if they were employed, self-employed or volunteering more than 20 hours a week; rationalised the regulation and monitoring regime for independent schools and non-maintained special schools; improved careers education for 11 to Essay Effects 16 year olds; transferred responsibility for delivering the 'Connexions' service (which offered a wide range of support to young people) to local authorities; empowered local authorities to murdoch management arrange learning difficulty assessments in a person's final year of compulsory education and up to the age of 25 for Essay on The Effects of the any young person who would benefit from one; placed a duty on the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) to ensure the free provision of fast and the 5 full, basic skills and first full level 2 qualification courses; placed a duty on the LSC to ensure that 19 to Essay on The Effects of the 25 year olds who were undertaking their first full level 3 qualification did not have to pay tuition fees; required school governing bodies to invite and consider the lesson before views of pupils on policy matters which affected them; gave young people the right to Essay on The of the Revolution express a school preference for sixth-form education and to appeal against any decision made; required local authorities to produce annual reports on school admission arrangements in their area; and made minor changes to the legislative regime governing the National Curriculum so that, from 2009, Key Stage 3 tests would no longer be compulsory. Download the richard iii ian mckellen Education and Skills Act 2008 (pdf text 672kb). 2009 Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act.

This Act (12 November 2009): created a statutory framework for apprenticeships and a right to an apprenticeship for suitably qualified 16-18 year olds; gave employees the right to request time off for training, and required employers to consider such requests seriously; abolished the Learning and Skills Council; transferred responsibility for funding education and training for 16-18 year olds to local authorities; made provisions with respect to the education of offenders; created the Young Person's Learning Agency, the Essay on The Effects French Revolution Skills Funding Agency, the Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), and a new agency to carry out the fast 5 full movie non-regulatory functions currently performed by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority; strengthened the on The Effects of the accountability of children's services; amended intervention powers in respect of schools which were causing concern; established a new parental complaints service; changed the apa reference article school inspection arrangements; created a new negotiating body for support staff pay and conditions; and made provisions in on The French respect of pupil and richard iii ian mckellen student behaviour. On The Effects Of The Revolution! The bill gave Ed Balls and management John Denham 153 new powers. 'Is this the most centralising education bill in history?' asked Warwick Mansell. He noted that under the 1944 Education Act the minister of education had had just three central duties: 'to promote the education of the people of England and Wales'; 'to promote the progressive development of Essay on The, schools and colleges'; and 'to secure that local authorities execute the national policy for richard mckellen providing a very comprehensive educational service'. But in on The of the French the last twenty years, he argued, there had been 'a steady growth in management the powers of central government, with the introduction of the national curriculum, national teaching strategies, and the targets and league table regime, all overseen and directed by ministers and civil servants' (Mansell 2009a). Barry Sheerman, Labour chair of the Commons children, schools and families committee, agreed. 'There does seem to be a general feeling out there, in the evidence the committee has received on several inquiries, of people desiring a swing back towards local autonomy', he said. 'Ministers need to understand this before they continue plodding on in the opposite direction.' And John Fowler, a consultant for the Local Government Information Unit, added 'If the government was really serious about devolving power, it would just scrap this bill and start again.

I cannot see that happening.' It didn't. 2009 White Paper: Your child, your schools, our future. Before the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act had even received the Royal Assent, the on The of the government published its next education white paper, in June 2009. Journal Article! Your child, your schools, our future was to form the basis for the 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill (which was intended to Effects become the 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act, though most of it would be lost in the run-up to murdoch management the general election). The white paper signalled the abandonment of what many had seen as Blair's most significant education reform - the National Strategies for literacy and numeracy. Essay Effects French Revolution! It also removed central government prescription of teaching methods and dramatically cut the use of the private consultants employed to improve schools. Schools would have more freedom and would be enabled to establish networks of school-to-school support to help drive up standards in a 'new era of localism'. Murdoch Management! Parents of children who regularly behaved badly in class could face court-imposed parenting orders. The white paper's key points were: a pupil guarantee setting out Essay new entitlements to personalised support for every child, matched by a parent guarantee for every parent; all schools to have good behaviour, strong discipline, order and safety; all pupils to be taught in a way that meets their needs; all pupils to have opportunities to take part in sport and cultural activities; all schools to promote their pupils' health and well-being; schools to work in partnership with other schools and with wider children's services; local consortia to lesson before offer a choice of Essay Effects of the French, every one of the apa reference new diplomas to 14-19 year-olds; partnerships of primary schools to share specialist teaching; develop a system for accrediting good education providers who wish to run groups of on The Effects French Revolution, schools; more academies and trust schools; develop a system for accrediting good education providers to run groups of schools; strong accountability and rapid intervention when needed to further improve schools; expand the role of 'School Improvement Partners' (SIPs); develop a new School Report Card (SRC); give schools greater flexibility and encourage greater innovation; improve the relationship between central government, local authorities and schools; new Masters degree in Teaching and Learning; better development of richard iii ian mckellen, support staff; and governing bodies' fundamental duties to children, young people and Essay French the wider community to be enshrined in law.

Download the White Paper Your child, your schools, our future (pdf text 2.2mb). 2009 Children, Schools and Families Bill. These proposals formed the basis of the Children, Schools and Families Bill. One of the bill's provisions, first announced by ministers in in a lesson October 2008, was that sex education from the Essay Effects of the French Revolution age of five would be made a compulsory part of the national curriculum in Essay on Scientific primary and secondary schools. Schools would not be allowed to Essay Effects of the French Revolution opt out, and faith schools would be given guidance on man sea, how to provide sex and relationship education - to include contraception, abortion and homosexuality - alongside conflicting religious beliefs ( The Guardian 24 October 2008). But religious groups objected, and the government amended the Essay of the French new regulations, which were due to come into Essay Revolution, effect in September 2011. While all schools would still be required to teach sex education, it now said that parents could withdraw children under 15 from the lessons, which would only be compulsory for 15 and 16 year olds ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). This still wasn't enough for the Catholic Education Service, which lobbied the government to make further amendments to the Bill. The government caved in and agreed that sex and relationships education (SRE) could now 'reflect a school's religious character'. Campaigners said the change would allow faith schools to discourage the use of contraception and Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution teach that homosexuality was wrong.

The Accord Coalition (a newly-formed group of Hindu, Christian and Humanist organisations campaigning to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on mckellen, the grounds of Essay on The, religion) accused Balls of implicitly condoning homophobia in schools and man sea undermining his own attempts to tackle homophobic bullying. Chair of Accord Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain said: It is Effects of the French, astonishing that the government plans to deny young people of murdoch management, their right to accurate, balanced SRE . On The Revolution! Children at faith schools have just as much right to information that could help them avoid an unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) A DCSF spokesman dismissed the complaints: All maintained schools will be required to lesson before dying teach full programmes of study in line with the Essay on The French Revolution principles outlined in the bill, including promoting equality and encouraging acceptance of diversity. Schools with a religious character will be free to express their faith and apa reference journal reflect the ethos of their school, but what they cannot do is suggest that their views are the only ones. ( The Guardian 18 February 2010) In other words, a Catholic school would be required to Essay on The Effects teach children the facts about contraception, but would be allowed to try to persuade them that its use was immoral. Balls insisted the amendment would not 'water down' the symbols in a lesson bill: it would still require state schools to teach pupils about the importance of Essay on The of the French, stable relationships, including civil partnerships, and it would forbid the promotion of apa reference journal, homophobia. Liberal Democrat schools spokesman David Laws accused ministers of being in a 'terrific muddle' over the issue and said the amendment 'completely undermines the objectives of this part of the bill' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). Despite the concerns, the amendment was passed by Revolution 268 votes to 177 without debate (because of a lack of time at the report stage). Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL) education policy adviser Alison Ryan said: 'We believe this amendment is unhelpful and unnecessary because it upsets the balance of the bill by placing the apa reference journal religious character of the school above the promotion of equality and tolerance of diversity.' National Secular Society executive director Keith Porteous Wood commented: 'The government have once more bowed to Essay on The of the French pressure from the Catholic church, betraying the children in faith schools who have a right to man sea objective and balanced sex education' ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). And an editorial in The Guardian commented: This looks like a case of the government being led away from the path of on The of the, righteousness by richard iii ian mckellen ecclesiastical lobbying, which has happened several times before. There was, for instance, the Essay on The of the French Revolution climbdown over the plan to force faith schools to take some children from outside their own flock.

There was also section 37 of the 2008 Education Act, which undercut Labour's solid record on discrimination at work by allowing schools to hand-pick staff on the basis of their creed. Mckellen! Many devout people - and many believers in Essay French Revolution faith schools - are represented by the Accord Coalition, which argues that no state-funded institution should be exempted from norms that all other public bodies must follow. Unless all religious schools are required to see the light, the contradictions will become unsustainable. The recurring pattern of church lobbying and furious Whitehall climbdowns is testing society's faith in church schools as being a force for good. ( The Guardian 24 February 2010) 2010 Children, Schools and Families Act. In the event, with the general election just a month away, all the sex education provisions (and many others) were lost from the Children, Schools and Families Act (8 April 2010). Essay Effects Of The Revolution! Download the apa reference Children, Schools and Families Act 2010 (pdf text 124kb).

Other Acts relating to children and young people. In addition to Essay Effects of the the three major education acts summarised above, there were three other acts relating to symbols dying children and young people during this period: 2007 Further Education and Training Act. The Further Education and Training Act (23 October 2007) made provisions about: the Learning and Effects French Skills Council for England; institutions within the man sea further education sector; industrial training levies; the formation of, and investment in, companies and charitable incorporated organisations by higher education corporations; and the making of Welsh Assembly Measures in relation to the field of education. Essay French Revolution! Download the Further Education and management Training Act 2007 (pdf text 196kb). 2008 Children and Young Persons Act. The Children and Young Persons Act (13 November 2008) made provisions about: the delivery of local authority social work services for children and young persons; the functions of local authorities and others in relation to children and young persons; the French enforcement of care standards in relation to certain establishments or agencies connected with children; and the independent review of determinations relating to adoption. Download the Children and Young Persons Act 2008 (pdf text 228kb). 2010 Child Poverty Act. The Child Poverty Act (25 March 2010): set targets relating to fast 5 full the eradication of child poverty; and made other provisions about child poverty.

Download the Child Poverty Act 2010 (pdf text 140kb). Three major reviews of the curriculum were undertaken in this period: the government's 'Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum' (IRPC), conducted by Sir Jim Rose, published its interim report in December 2008 and on The Effects French Revolution its final report in April 2009; the Cambridge Primary Review, which had begun work in 2006, published Towards a new primary curriculum in February 2009 and its final report Children, their World, their Education in 2010; the House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee (CSFC) published its report on man sea, the National Curriculum in April 2009. Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum. As the Essay on The of the French Revolution Cambridge Primary Review was getting into its stride, Ed Balls threw a spanner into the works. On 9 January 2008 he wrote to Sir Jim Rose inviting him to conduct 'an independent review of the primary curriculum' with a view to making 'final recommendations to the Secretary of management, State by March 2009 so that the new primary curriculum can be introduced from of the Revolution, September 2011'. The government's justification for this new review of primary education was presumably that it had already commissioned a review of the secondary curriculum and had introduced an richard iii ian mckellen early years 'foundation stage'. As Rose put it, you couldn't 'just extend one backwards, the on The French other forwards, tie a knot in man sea the middle and say that's primary education' (Wilby 2008).

However, given that the Essay Effects of the French Cambridge Review - the furious biggest investigation of primary education since Plowden - was already under way, many felt that the Rose review was designed as a spoiler. The government was fed up with adverse headlines like 'Poor performance linked to substandard classrooms', 'Government policy has created impersonalised education', and 'Study reveals stressed out Effects of the French Revolution 7 to 11 year olds' (Wilby 2008). Richard! It was also concerned that the Cambridge Review would condemn England's testing regime - the Essay Effects of the French Revolution hated SATs. So it created the IRPC as a diversion, 'with a suspiciously similar email address, a claim that it too is independent, and an identical deadline for apa reference its final report of spring 2009' (Wilby 2008). There were other concerns about the on The Effects French IRPC. And The 5 Full! One was that the Qualifications and Curriculum Agency (QCA) was required to produce draft programmes of study based on the report's recommendations during the Essay Effects consultation period, effectively rendering redundant most of the in a dying responses. Another was that the views of representatives of local authorities and teachers' professional associations who attended meetings during the 'informal' consultations were apparently excluded. A third concern was that consideration of SATs tests was 'specifically excluded from Rose's remit' (Wilby 2008). Introducing the IRPC's interim report on 8 December 2008, Rose urged ministers to review the arrangements for SATs (already abolished in all parts of the UK except England). 'I'm ruled out of Effects French, making recommendations about testing', he told Polly Curtis. 'That's not to man sea say every school doesn't ask about testing. It's the elephant in of the Revolution the room' ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). IRPC Interim Report.

The report's main recommendations were: there should be a smoother transition between early years and in a primary education, and between primary and secondary education; subjects should be combined with cross-curricular study; teachers should have more flexibility within a richer curriculum; there should be more and French better computer education; the value of play to furious 5 full children's learning and development should be made explicit in any revisions to the primary curriculum; primary schools should focus on teaching only one or two foreign languages; children should acquire a range of personal, social and emotional qualities essential to their health, well-being and life as a responsible citizen in the 21st century; and summer-born children should start primary school in Effects French the September after their fourth birthday, with some children starting part-time. The report proposed that the primary curriculum should comprise six 'areas of man sea, learning': understanding English, communication and languages; mathematical understanding; scientific and Essay Revolution technological understanding; human, social and environmental understanding; understanding physical health and well-being; and understanding the arts and man sea design. The Review found overwhelming support for the National Curriculum and Essay on The Effects of the French much good practice in schools. It recommended that the curriculum should be reviewed periodically but stressed that schools and teachers needed stability so as to be able to plan effectively. The Cambridge Primary Review - Towards a new primary curriculum. In order to fast 5 full movie contribute to the final IRPC report, the Effects of the French Revolution Cambridge Review brought forward publication of Essay Revolution, its material on Essay Effects of the French Revolution, the curriculum. Symbols Dying! Towards a New Primary Curriculum was published on 20 February 2009 in two parts: Past and Present and Effects of the Revolution The Future . Its authors commented: Some readers may become impatient with the history, the account of witnesses' concerns and our apparent preoccupation with the management problematic. For them, solutions are more important. They are of course welcome to turn straight to Part 2. Yet it is only by understanding the history, recognising the deeply-rooted and often cyclic nature of the problems, and by Effects of the Revolution accepting the inadequacy of some of the Essay Revolution surrounding discourse, that we can make progress. Essay Effects Revolution! That is why the grounding provided by Part 1 is essential. Apa Reference Journal Article! Without it, we shall simply repeat past mistakes. (Alexander and Flutter 2009a:1) It bemoaned the politicisation of the curriculum and warned that children's lives were being impoverished by the government's insistence that schools focus on literacy and on The French numeracy at the expense of creative teaching.

It argued for a broad, balanced and rich curriculum including art, music, drama, history and geography. In the authors' view, a future primary curriculum must: 'confront and attempt to address the problems and challenges in current arrangements; be grounded in explicit principles of Essay on Scientific Revolution, design and implementation; and Essay Effects Revolution pursue and remain faithful to a clear and defensible statement of man sea, educational aims and values.' (Alexander and Flutter 2009b:21) CSFC Report on Essay on The French, the National Curriculum. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee published its report on the National Curriculum on 2 April 2009. The key points in its 32 conclusions and recommendations were: the National Curriculum was in 'urgent need of fast 5 full movie, significant reform': it should prescribe as little as possible, parents should be better informed, the Programmes of Essay on The Effects of the Revolution, Study for the new secondary curriculum were 'overly complex'; the richard iii ian mckellen Early Years Foundation Stage and the Early Learning Goals should be reviewed; the curriculum freedoms that academies enjoyed should be immediately extended to all maintained schools; a system of Single Level Tests linked to targets, and potentially to Essay of the French Revolution funding, could further narrow the richard iii ian mckellen curriculum; the Essay French idea that there was one best way to teach was not supported by the research evidence and so should not be the basis for the delivery of the National Curriculum; the richard Department should cease presenting the National Strategies guidance as a prop for the teaching profession and adopt a more positive understanding of how schools and teachers might be empowered in of the relation to the National Curriculum; the Department should spend less on producing guidance and symbols before more on Essay French, the dissemination of research findings; the theory and practice of curriculum design should be given a much higher profile within the apa reference article standards for Qualified Teacher Status; the Department should show how it would support the move to on The a much less prescriptive curriculum and murdoch management less centrally-directed approach to its delivery; there should be better continuity and coherence in the current National Curriculum - and of the French Revolution across the National Curriculum, Early Years Foundation Stage and 14-19 arrangements; the Department should take more account of the views of children and symbols young people; the Essay Effects Revolution Department should put in place a cycle of around five years for murdoch management curriculum review and on The Effects Revolution reform and avoid initiating additional change outside that cycle: reviews should scrutinise the Essay Early Years Foundation Stage, National Curriculum and Essay on The Effects French 14-19 arrangements as a continuum, not as discrete 'chunks'; the agency with main responsibility for and the furious 5 full the development of the Revolution National Curriculum should be truly independent from the Department; like the Office of the Qualifications and on Scientific Examinations Regulator (Ofqual), the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) should be independent of Ministers and required to report to Parliament through the Essay on The of the French Select Committee; there should be 'an overarching statement of aims for journal article the National Curriculum' to provide it with 'a stronger sense of purpose, continuity and coherence'; a statement of Effects of the French Revolution, provision for learners from 0 to 19 should be introduced; there should be 'an overarching diploma' which would replace all other qualifications for learners aged 14 to 19; and these changes must be accompanied by improved communication and man sea co-ordination between teachers and practitioners across the on The of the Revolution different phases of education. (CSFC 2009:39-43) The Committee described the Cambridge Review as 'very welcome' but commented that it contained 'extensive analysis of the apa reference journal article problems but has not enough to of the French Revolution say about what might be done in practice to address them' (CSFC 2009:23). It went on: The Rose Review and the Cambridge Review both recognise that the Revolution primary curriculum is overly full, but neither offers a practical basis that appeals to Essay on The Effects us for reducing the load. As we have indicated, we would see greater merit in lesson stipulating a basic entitlement for literacy and numeracy and offering general guidelines on breadth and balance to be interpreted by of the French schools and teachers themselves. (CSFC 2009:23) Writing in article The Guardian , Robin Alexander described the committee's jibe that the Essay on The French Cambridge Review offered 'a good analysis of the problems but no solutions', as 'bizarre'. He continued: Apart from the detailed proposals on curriculum aims, substance, structure, development and implementation, which the committee appears not to have noticed, other ideas from the Cambridge review appear, almost verbatim, in the committee's own recommendations: abandoning the richard national strategies in their present form; supporting local ownership; reconfiguring the roles of national agencies, local authorities and schools; making Curriculum Matters central to initial teacher training. More bizarre still, the committee's report includes as an Essay on The of the appendix a comparison of the Rose and Cambridge curriculum reports, which says enough to contradict its criticisms of both of symbols in a before, them. (Alexander 2009a) Download the on The Effects of the French CSFC Report on the National Curriculum (pdf text 1.5mb). IRPC Final report. The IRPC's final report was published on 30 April 2009.

Jim Rose said he had tried to 'capture the distinctiveness of the primary phase and to ensure it is recognised as more than a postscript to the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and a prelude to secondary education' (DCSF 2009a:9). The report's key points were: subjects, and iii ian the essential knowledge, skills and Essay Effects of the understanding they represented, were important but were not sufficient - cross-curricular studies were important, too; there should be a stronger focus on curriculum progression; by dying the age of seven, children should have a secure grasp of the Essay Revolution literacy and numeracy skills they needed to make good progress thereafter; the teaching and learning of information and communication technology (ICT) should be improved; there should be greater emphasis on personal development through a more integrated and simpler framework for schools; there should be stronger links between the EYFS and Key Stage 1, and between Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3; and 7-11 year olds should be offered 'exciting opportunities' for learning languages. 5 Full! (DCSF 2009a:10-12) Writing in The Guardian , Mike Baker compared the Rose review with the on The of the French Plowden report of 1967. In A Lesson Dying! He noted that the Plowden committee had had 25 members, including several heads, and had benefited from having six school inspectors and one local authority inspector seconded to it throughout. It had taken three years and produced 556 pages covering 'the physical development of children, the growth of the brain, parental attitudes, social change, health and social services, and the ways schools were organised, designed and Essay Effects of the equipped'. By contrast, the journal article Rose review 'was made up of one, albeit very experienced, person: Rose himself'.

He had an on The French advisory group of leading heads - which met just five times, his report was only 154 pages long and apa reference restricted in scope - his remit didn't even allow him to consider the question of tests. Baker noted that: There is, of on The of the French Revolution, course, another inquiry currently under way, which aims to match the on Scientific thoroughness of Plowden. Essay On The Effects French Revolution! The Cambridge primary review has been running for two-and-a-half years now. Its remit is broad and it has not been afraid to say things the government does not want to hear. And there is the rub. In the past, governments set up big independent education inquiries; now they prefer to have their own short, sharp reviews - and seem scarcely interested in anything else. (Baker 2009) A statutory consultation on the IRPC's recommendations followed by publication of revised programmes of study and guidance should have enabled the new primary curriculum to be implemented, as planned, in September 2011. But when Labour lost the 2010 general election, Rose's recommendations were lost too.

Cambridge Primary Review - Children, their World, their Education. The Cambridge Primary Review published its final report on 16 October 2009. Symbols In A Before! The Review had been the most extensive inquiry into primary education since the Essay Effects of the French Revolution Plowden Report forty years earlier, involving 14 authors, 66 research consultants and a 20-strong advisory committee at apa reference journal article Cambridge University, led by Professor Robin Alexander. Its final report was based on 28 research surveys, 1,052 written submissions and reports from dozens of regional meetings. In its 75 recommendations it argued that formal lessons should not start before the age of six, SATs and league tables should be replaced with teacher assessments in a wider range of subjects, and Essay on The Effects French Revolution the system of in a before dying, generalist primary teaching should be reviewed. The report was critical of political decision-making processes. It condemned: centralisation, secrecy and the 'quiet authoritarianism' of the new centres of power; the disenfranchising of local voice; the French rise of unelected and unaccountable groups and individuals taking key decisions behind closed doors: the 'empty rituals' of consultation; the replacement of professional dialogue by the monologic discourse of power; the politicisation of the entire educational enterprise so that it becomes impossible to debate ideas or evidence which are not deemed to be 'on message', or which are 'not invented here'; and, latterly coming to light, financial corruption. (Alexander 2009b:481) It noted that since 1989, and especially since 1997, national government had 'tightened its control over what goes on in local authorities and lesson schools'; and warned that 'the power of government and its agencies has reached far more deeply into the recesses of professional action and thought than is proper in a democracy or good for schools themselves' (Alexander 2009b:508). It noted a growing 'pervasive anxiety' about children's lives, and emphasised the link between educational underachievement and poverty. 'What is on The, worrying is the persistence of a long tail of severely disadvantaged children whose early lives are unhappy, whose potential is unrealised and whose future is bleak' (Alexander 2009b:71). The Review's conclusions were backed by man sea all the teacher unions. National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT) general secretary Mick Brookes said: This comprehensive study of Essay Effects of the French, primary education must be taken seriously by in a lesson dying government.

The fact the work in progress has been completely ignored by the government is a sign of on The French, weakness. This report is truly independent, unlike work commissioned and management controlled by the DCSF which largely says what it wants to hear. French Revolution! There are recommendations in this report that could transform the primary ethos and movie turn pessimism into hope. On The! ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) NUT general secretary Christine Blower said: It is absolutely extraordinary that the and the movie government has decided to ignore the Cambridge Review recommendations. Any government worth its salt, particularly in on The Effects of the front of an impending general election, would have embraced this immensely rich report as a source of policy ideas. It is not too late for the government to furious 5 full recognise that not all good ideas emanate from the minds of civil servants. ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And Nansi Ellis, head of education policy and research at the ATL, warned that 'primary education must not become a battlefield in the forthcoming election - children and Essay Effects of the Revolution their learning will be the first casualties' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009). Unsurprisingly, the symbols in a before report was rubbished by the government. Schools minister Vernon Coaker said the government was already reforming the curriculum and testing, and accused Alexander's report of Essay Effects French, suggesting a 'woolly' accountability system: It's disappointing that a review which purports to be so comprehensive is simply not up to symbols in a lesson before dying speed on many major changes in primaries. The world has moved on since this review was started. If every child making progress and reaching their potential is what matters, then Professor Alexander's proposals are a backward step.' ( The Guardian 16 October 2009) And just to rub salt into the wound, Balls announced that every four year old in England would be offered a place at school or nursery so that they could start full-time education a year earlier. The Cambridge Primary Review had recommended delaying the start of formal learning until the age of Essay, six ( The Guardian 19 October 2009).

Robin Alexander expressed his disappointment at the reaction of politicians and his frustration that the Labour government, with its 'micro-managed' system, had refused to 'listen, engage and learn' from independent advice. He said it was clear from the management inaccuracies in their responses that neither government ministers nor their Conservative shadows had actually read it ( The Guardian 24 October 2009). Peter Mortimore, former director of the University of London Institute of Education (ULIE), also bemoaned the response of politicians. Writing in The Guardian , he commented: Weep, Cambridge team. Your efforts to produce clear analyses and innovative ideas in the interest of fostering something better than political point-scoring, repetitive myths and ideological rigidity have been strangled at birth. Console yourselves, however, for good ideas are seldom so easily dismissed.

He concluded: The pity is that politicians, who pollsters tell us are only trusted by 13% of the Effects of the population, can so easily make such fools of themselves by endeavouring to Essay Revolution close down all thinking outside their own. How much wiser to welcome new ideas and give civil society, including teachers - who are trusted by 82% of the Effects of the population - the chance to debate how best to improve the education of man sea, our youngest learners. Essay Effects Of The! (Mortimore 2009) For more on the Cambridge Primary Review see the fast furious 5 full movie Routledge website for Effects of the Revolution details of Children, their World, their Education which is available as a large format paperback priced 35.99; the Cambridge Primary Review Trust website, which now contains probably the largest single compendium of evidence and commentary on English primary education; Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and symbols in a dying training. In addition to French these three major reviews of the symbols lesson curriculum, in on The Effects of the Revolution February 2008 the apa reference Oxford-based Nuffield Foundation published its final report on on The French Revolution, education and training for 14-19 year olds. Education for management All warned that ministers were treating school pupils as if they were business products to be managed rather than children to be educated. On The Effects! The government's aim of boosting the British economy was overshadowing the true role of schools in young people's lives. Businesses increasingly ran state schools and even awarded their own A Level-style qualifications. The lead director of the Review, Professor Richard Pring, said: The changes at 14-19 are too often driven by 5 full movie economic goals at the expense of on The French Revolution, broader educational aims. This is reflected in the rather impoverished language drawn from article, business and management, rather than from a more generous understanding of the whole person.

We need to give young learners far more than skills for employment alone, even if such skills are key to the country's economy. Inevitably, the DCSF rubbished the report. A spokesman said: 'This depressing view of education is simply not one that we recognise' ( Oxford Times 14 February 2008). Various documents, including a summary of Education for All , can be downloaded from the website of the Nuffield Review of 14-19 education and training . Testing and assessment. Concerns about the level of French Revolution, testing in English schools - and particularly about the symbols in a before dying annual SATs tests - intensified during this period.

The QCA urged schools to stop 'drilling' pupils for the tests. Chief executive Ken Boston warned that 'in many schools too much teaching time is taken up with practice tests and preparing for the key stage tests in on The of the English, mathematics and science, at the expense of actual teaching in these core subjects and other areas' ( The Guardian 11 August 2007). Three reports for the Cambridge Primary Review highlighted many of the concerns. One found that national tests at 7 and iii ian 11 left most children stressed and led to a 'pervasive anxiety' about Essay Effects French Revolution, their lives and the world they were growing up in. Professor Robin Alexander said 'these findings do build up to a sense that important changes are needed within the primary sector' ( The Guardian 12 October 2007). Another noted that English children were among the youngest in the world to journal start formal learning and were the of the most tested throughout their education. It found that parents were increasingly seeking alternative forms of education such as home schooling or Steiner schools to free their children from the state sector's regime of testing and targets ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). And a third showed that higher test results in England's primary schools had been achieved at the expense of the quality of education offered.

Teacher-pupil relationships had been eroded by a focus on whole-class teaching and preparation for man sea 'high stakes' national tests ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). CSFC Report on Testing and Assessment. A further report, this time by MPs themselves, reached similar conclusions. The House of Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Testing and French Assessment , published in May 2008, warned the government that SATs tests had distorted the education of millions of children because schools focused on getting them through the tests rather than improving their knowledge and understanding. Fast 5 Full! Committee chair Barry Sheerman urged the on The French government to conduct 'a root and branch reform of the system'. The report recommended: an inquiry to find the extent of the problem of schools 'teaching to the test'; a reduction in the number of symbols lesson dying, times children were tested; more use of internal teacher assessment; whole-cohort tests should be replaced with sample testing of on The Effects of the Revolution, a handful of pupils in each school; and and the the exams watchdog should conduct 'a full review of assessment standards' as ministers had failed to address concerns about grade inflation.

Download Testing and Assessment (pdf text 631kb). Although the government was adamant it would keep the tests in England (they had already been abolished in other parts of the French Revolution UK), it did at Essay Revolution least make some attempt to respond to the worries about them by French trialling new 'lighter touch' tests. More than 400 schools took part in man sea the two-year 'Making Good Progress' pilot project in which children were tested when their teachers felt they were ready rather than at the end of the key stage. Ministers hoped the new tests, which formed part of the Children's Plan, would replace the existing SATs tests from 2010 ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). They also hoped, no doubt, that the Effects of the new test regime would silence some of the man sea critics. But disaster was about to strike.

First, schools reported widespread IT problems with the on The Effects French Revolution summer's SATs tests: markers struggled with the new online marking system and schools were unable to log on to register students at murdoch management the start of this week's tests ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). Then the French Revolution publication of fast furious 5 full, results for Essay of the Revolution 11 and 14 year olds was delayed. QCA head Ken Boston said the government's testing regime was under 'very great stress'. He told an emergency Commons select committee meeting that he was considering legal action against ETS, the American company which had failed to deliver the year's SATs results on time. Iii Ian! He told journalists that the pressure in the system - including the government's preference for French Revolution testing 9.5 million pupils a year in order to Essay compile league tables - could have contributed to the problems ( The Guardian 15 July 2008). Then it became clear that the results were not only late, they were also inaccurate. ASCL general secretary John Dunford called for an overhaul of the entire key stage 3 testing system. Essay Effects Of The French! He said: The government and and the furious 5 full movie Ofsted use the SATs results to make judgements about whether schools will fail their inspections and French heads can lose their jobs as a result. The results need to be accurate and murdoch management schools will be much angrier at lack of accuracy than delay. Results will be scrutinised this year as never before and the number of appeals is almost certain to rocket. ( The Guardian 18 July 2008) Kathleen Tattersall, head of the on The French Revolution newly-created Office of the on Scientific Revolution Qualifications and Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) warned that if the Essay results proved to be as inaccurate as reports suggested, the government should annul them.

And two of the three major exam boards confirmed that they were not bidding for the five-year 165m contract to man sea run the SATs because they did not believe there was a strong enough educational rationale for them ( The Guardian 19 July 2008). Ministers ordered an inquiry into the fiasco, to be led by Lord Sutherland. When they did eventually appear, the on The Effects year's SATs results showed that more than a third of pupils starting secondary school had failed to reach the level expected for richard their age in reading, writing and arithmetic and that the proportion of children scoring top marks had fallen significantly. Essay On The Effects French Revolution! Head teachers said it could be because schools were neglecting the brightest pupils so as to focus their effort on getting as many pupils as possible up to article the national targets ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In January 2004 David Miliband, then school standards minister, had announced a new system for judging schools.

Since then, schools had been given a 'contextualised value added' score (CVA), which took into account the on The French number of students on free school meals and with special educational needs, ethnicity, age, gender and the spread of ability. Miliband had said CVA would be a 'fairer' way to judge schools. But in August 2008 a study by Ofsted, Using data, improving schools , concluded that ranking schools by their CVA scores was 'meaningless' and could lead to 'inappropriate conclusions'. Apa Reference Article! Its author, David Jesson, professor of Effects of the French Revolution, education at the University of York, warned the government to use CVA 'with care' and 'recognise its limitations'. He argued that CVA could lower teachers' expectations of how much certain groups of pupils could achieve. 'Misusing the data to predict future performance could depress expectations of groups of pupils that have performed less well in symbols lesson before dying previous years', he said ( The Guardian 6 August 2008). In an extraordinary U-turn, Ed Balls announced that Key Stage 3 SATs tests for 14 year olds would no longer be compulsory. (The change was made in the 2008 Education and Skills Act). But he insisted that the even more controversial Key Stage 2 tests for Essay Effects of the French Revolution primary school pupils would continue.

He told parliament that there would be extensive changes to the national testing system which would halve the testing burden on schools, and a new 'report card', based on a New York scheme, which would grade every school in England and apa reference journal give parents more information ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). Teacher unions welcomed the Essay on The Effects French scrapping of the Key Stage 3 tests but expressed 'bitter disappointment' at ministers' resolve to preserve those at Key Stage 2. Lesson Before Dying! NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said: 'We are dismayed at Essay on The French Revolution the decision to keep the current test arrangements for 11 year olds. This will mean that England's 10/11-year-olds will be the only children in the UK to be put under this pressure' ( The Guardian 15 October 2008). The government's announcement that Key Stage 3 SATs were effectively to be abolished resulted in symbols lesson before dying a dramatic drop - around fifty per of the, cent - in the number of teachers taking part in murdoch management courses run by the Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC). Jacqui O'Hanlon, the RSC's director of education, said: 'School managers will not release teachers for a day's training because Shakespeare is no longer seen as a priority' ( The Guardian 26 November 2008). Balls published further details of how his New York-style 'report card' for of the Revolution schools would work. In A Before! It would pull together all the information currently available about schools into a single annual document, including test scores, ratings of how quickly children progressed, Ofsted scores and measures of child well-being through parent and pupil surveys.

It would provide a single score for every school with an A-E sliding scale or a traffic light system ( The Guardian 8 December 2008). QCA chief executive Ken Boston resigned three days before the publication of Lord Sutherland's report on Essay on The French Revolution, the summer's SATs problems, saying he was 'taking responsibility' for the worst exam fiasco to hit schools in recent years. Lesson Dying! Teaching unions regretted his decision and described him as a great asset to British education ( The Observer 14 December 2008). The acrimonious spat between ministers and the QCA came to a head in Essay on The French December. The QCA board disbanded the National Assessment Agency (NAA), responsible for the SATs tests, and suspended the agency's chief executive, David Gee. It also suspended Boston, having refused to accept his resignation. Sutherland's inquiry into the summer's SATs fiasco revealed that it was Gee who had recommended that the 156m contract be awarded to ETS. Richard Iii Ian! Sutherland said the the QCA and Essay on The of the French Revolution NAA collectively failed to furious movie check ETS's appalling track record in on The Effects Revolution the US.

The report blamed everyone involved: ETS was 'not fit for purpose', the QCA had failed to prevent the marking process spiralling into fast and the movie, chaos, and DCSF officials had ignored the warning signs ( The Guardian 17 December 2008). The QCA announced that exam board Edexcel had been awarded a 25m one-year contract to run Key Stage 2 SATs tests and other non-statutory national curriculum tests in Essay Effects of the French 2009. Edexcel had previously held the SATs contract from 2005 to 2007. But the QCA warned that the rush to in a lesson dying appoint Edexcel to run the 2009 tests had left little time to test marking systems to Effects French Revolution ensure they did not collapse again. Before he was suspended in mid-December Ken Boston had written to Balls, warning him that whilst Edexcel was committed to achieving the deadline, there was 'no guarantee that events will not cause them to miss it' ( The Guardian 31 December 2008). At their annual conference in April 2009 NUT members voted to boycott the Key Stage 2 SATs tests. But instead of debating the sound educational reasons for doing so, they demanded a ten per cent pay rise and a minimum of a day a week to mark and prepare work. In The Guardian , Jenni Russell commented: What timing.

What judgement. Here were militant employees with secure jobs and good pensions picking this particular moment in our economic history to demand less work for more money. Even the people who - like me - believe in the long-term need for better paid educators were left dumbfounded. At a stroke, the moral authority behind the unions' claims about SATs had withered, and teachers once again looked like people who could be portrayed as whingeing professionals, out for man sea themselves. The government - which has always taken the line that national tests are an on The Revolution essential check on whether teachers are actually doing their job - must have breathed a tremendous sigh of relief. (Russell 2009) Just days after NUT members voted to in a lesson before dying boycott SATs, members of the rival NASUWT union did exactly the opposite: they threatened to strike if ministers abolished the tests. Ed Balls thus faced the on The Revolution possibility of industrial action whatever he chose to on Scientific do ( The Guardian 16 April 2009).

The government's proposed new 'lighter touch' testing system - 'single level tests' (SLTs) - had been hit by 'substantial and fundamental' problems. According to The Guardian , unpublished reports of pilot tests conducted by the NAA and five independent academics revealed that the tests had given wildly unpredictable results and subjected children to higher levels of stress than the SATs they were designed to replace ( The Guardian 22 June 2009). By October 2009 more than a quarter of a million people had signed a petition organised by French the NUT and symbols lesson before dying NAHT urging the government to scrap Key Stage 2 SATs. The two unions began exploring with their members whether there would be widespread support for a boycott of the tests ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). In April 2010 head teacher members of the NUT and NAHT in England voted overwhelmingly for Essay Effects a boycott ( The Guardian 16 April 2010).

Ed Balls consulted lawyers over whether to mount a legal challenge to iii ian the decision ( The Guardian 21 April 2010). Heads accused Balls of urging council chiefs to dock their pay and issue them with written warnings if they refused to administer the tests ( The Guardian 30 April 2010). NUT general secretary Christine Blower told the NAHT annual conference that the Essay Effects number of fast 5 full movie, teachers who said they would boycott the SATs was growing and that at least half of Effects French, England's 17,000 primary schools would not administer the tests ( The Observer 2 May 2010). The SATs began on Monday 10 May - four days after the general election. A quarter of all primary schools boycotted them - a significant proportion but disappointing, given the murdoch level of support for Essay Effects of the French the boycott expressed by heads and teachers and the hostility to fast and the furious 5 full the tests among the of the French wider public. Exams and qualifications. GCSE results in 2007 showed an overall pass rate of 98 per cent with comprehensive schools improving more than independents and grammars in performance at the top grades. Fewer students took French or German, but more took separate exams in chemistry, physics and biology and and the 5 full attained better grades. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: GCSE students this year submitted over 26m papers and Essay Effects of the French Revolution pieces of coursework.

This bloated exam system is reaching breaking point and must be slimmed down. Especially for exams at 16 and 17, greater trust should be placed in the professional judgement of iii ian mckellen, teachers. ( The Guardian 24 August 2007) The government barred state schools from Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution, offering Cambridge University exam board's new elite International GCSE in core subjects, raising fears that the divide between state and Essay on Scientific Revolution private schools would grow as independent schools were enthusiastic about the new qualification ( The Guardian 4 November 2009). The QCA said it would - for on The the first time - intervene in the setting of A Level papers to ensure they were more rigorous. Heads' leaders welcomed the announcement ( The Guardian 24 November 2007). The Office of the Qualifications and murdoch management Examinations Regulator (Ofqual) was launched on 16 May 2008. Its head, Kathleen Tattersall, promised to investigate the 'reliability' of exams ( The Guardian 16 May 2008). The first five of the government's new diplomas - in construction, media, engineering, IT and society, and health and development - were due to be introduced in Essay on The of the September 2008 for man sea 40,000 students in Effects Revolution 900 schools and colleges. Man Sea! By 2011 14 vocational diplomas would be available, and in October 2007 Ed Balls announced that three more diplomas, in science, languages and Essay Effects French Revolution humanities, would be added to these.

A Levels would be reviewed in 2013 and might be scrapped if the diplomas proved successful, he said. NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said the man sea move represented a 'fundamental change of Essay Effects, heart' by the government, which, under Tony Blair, had rejected Mike Tomlinson's 2004 proposals to Essay on Scientific end the historic divide between academic and vocational education ( The Guardian 24 October 2007). In March 2008, Balls announced that an extended diploma with more emphasis on academic skills to prepare students for Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution university would also be introduced in 2011. He hoped the new qualification would be backed by the universities. Tomlinson said his original plan had now been fully implemented ( The Guardian 7 March 2008). But the diplomas were not without their critics: the Commons Children, Schools and Families Select Committee report on Essay, Testing and Essay Effects of the French Revolution Assessment , published in May 2008, warned that the introduction of symbols before dying, diplomas for 14 to 19 year olds was in danger of being undermined by insufficient teacher training, and urged ministers to end uncertainty in schools by Essay on The deciding whether to Essay Revolution abolish A Levels and GCSEs after the diplomas were introduced; leading independent schools said the diplomas were too complex and of the decided to opt out; researchers at murdoch management ULIE warned of a widening gap between vocational and Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution academic education, as private schools increasingly opted for a new range of academically elite qualifications, including the international baccalaureates and Cambridge University's Pre-U ( The Guardian 30 June 2008); and in October 2008 the Commons public accounts committee warned that the government's plan to introduce diplomas to replace A Levels and GCSEs in England was at risk because the new qualification was not seen as credible by parents, employers and universities. Nearly 30,000 had been spent for each of the 20,000 students who had just started diplomas and it was intended that the courses should be available to every 14 to 19 year old within five years. But, the MPs said, the government didn't know the future costs of the scheme, many schools and colleges were not ready, and students were confused about the Essay Revolution purpose of the diplomas.

To deliver the full range of qualifications, schools and colleges would have to link up to form complex consortia, with pupils travelling to different centres to study different aspects of the curriculum. The report commended the aim of ending the academic-vocational divide but warned that careers guidance was so poor that pupils might be confused by the extra option of diplomas on top of the of the GCSEs, A Levels and vocational courses already available ( The Guardian 7 October 2008). Qualifications rapidly became a key election issue. Before! As the 2009 exam results season began, the on The Effects of the Conservatives accused the government of encouraging children to give up academic GCSEs in favour of vocational qualifications. The government accused the Tories of management, presenting 'misleading' figures ( The Guardian 24 August 2009). There was a clear divide between the aims of Effects French Revolution, Ball and management Gove. Essay On The Effects Of The Revolution! Balls wanted to replace GCSEs and richard iii ian A Levels with diplomas which would span the academic/vocational divide. Gove wanted all children to have a purely academic grounding at least until the of the Revolution age of 16.

Schools and colleges watched anxiously from the lesson before sidelines, knowing that they would have the responsibility of implementing the winning policy ( The Guardian 26 August 2009). Andrew Hall took up his post as the new chief executive of the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA), facing the of the French Revolution possibility that if the Conservatives won the forthcoming general election he might quickly be out of a job ( The Guardian 3 November 2009). Building Schools for the Future. The Commons education select committee published its report on the early stages of the 45bn Building Schools for the Future (BSF) programme. It said the scheme should be regularly reviewed and questioned the use of the public finance initiative (PFI) for about half the new projects. Under PFI, private companies constructed the man sea buildings and then leased them back to the schools on long contracts, often 25-30 years.

The committee noted that central government often pressured local authorities into accepting academies as part of the BSF scheme and it argued that local authorities should have more freedom over the regeneration of on The of the Revolution, schools ( The Guardian 9 August 2007). In October 2007 the lesson before new Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling announced that every local authority would get a new or refurbished primary school. Essay Effects Of The French Revolution! A 200m fund would pay for building work for 75 schools by man sea 2011, doubling the planned primary school building programme over the next three years ( The Guardian 10 October 2007). But the BSF programme had been beset with problems over its four-year history, as local authorities struggled to set up the PFI partnerships which provided most of the funding. So in of the April 2008 ministers announced that it would be replaced by a programme to build just four new schools in fast and the furious 5 full movie every local authority area. A DCSF spokesman said there were still 'ambitions' for every school to have a plan in place, even if building work hadn't started by 2020 ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). And an audit conducted by the government's architecture watchdog, the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE), said that eight out of ten designs for secondary schools proposed under the BSF initiative were 'mediocre' or 'not yet good enough' and only one in five were considered to be 'good' or 'excellent'. On The Effects Of The Revolution! Problems identified in the forty proposed designs which were reviewed by CABE included bullying hotspots in murdoch secluded yards, noisy open plan areas which made teaching difficult, and classrooms which were too dark or prone to overheating on sunny afternoons ( The Guardian 21 July 2008). Academies and trust schools. While Tony Blair had been prime minister, Gordon Brown seemed to have little enthusiasm for academies and Essay on The of the Revolution trust schools - at least, he had said very little about them until three months before Blair resigned. Then, in his first public pronouncement on man sea, the subject, he had praised the 'tremendous success of the academy movement' (The Guardian 20 March 2007).

As prime minister, however, he seemed happy enough for Ed Balls to Effects Revolution continue - indeed, to apa reference expand and Essay on The French intensify - the policy of handing over the education of the nation's children to used car salesmen, carpet manufacturers and, of course, 'faith groups'. But the problems and controversies surrounding academies wouldn't go away. Private schools which were struggling financially decided the academies programme was the answer: they could carry on doing much as they wanted but with taxpayers' money. Lesson Before Dying! When the government announced it would welcome them as academies, they must have thought Christmas had come early. By August 2007 four were already changing status, two more had applied and twenty were thinking about it. Other private schools were considering sponsorship of academies and Anthony Seldon, head of on The of the Revolution, Wellington College, argued that this would help end Britain's 'educational apartheid' ( The Guardian 4 August 2007). A report from MPs on the Commons public accounts committee noted routine overspending in the building of academies, with 17 of the first 26 projects overrunning by an average of 3m.

And it warned that academies were still using exclusions to get behaviour under control, breaking laws by procuring services from symbols before, their sponsors, and failing to engage with local communities ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). Twenty-one universities had been persuaded by ministers to adopt academies, but Oxford and Cambridge rejected the idea, saying they preferred to pursue their 'national role' rather than work with individual schools ( The Guardian 3 December 2007). Arms company BAE Systems, which was under criminal investigation in Britain, the US and Europe over Essay on The of the French, corruption allegations, offered 400,000 to sponsor an academy in murdoch management Barrow-in-Furness, where it built nuclear submarines. Unsurprisingly, the proposal attracted hostility from local parents ( The Guardian 11 December 2007). Major changes at the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) saw its forty-strong council replaced with a new board of twelve directors, and Sir Cyril Taylor, who had chaired the Essay Effects Revolution Trust for twenty years, replaced by Sir James Hill, chair of Revolution, governors of a Bradford academy. Effects Revolution! Taylor had been a favoured adviser to both Tory and Labour governments and his removal from SSAT was seen as reducing the influence of schools minister Lord Adonis. Under Tony Blair, Adonis and Taylor had promoted the Essay Revolution academies programme ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). Adonis was subsequently moved from Effects of the French Revolution, education to the Department of Transport in October 2008.

Desperate to find more sponsors, Ed Balls had already exempted some universities, colleges and schools from raising the 2m fee to sponsor an in a lesson before academy. Now, the government announced that it would pay successful state schools up to 300,000 to sponsor academies or set up new 'trust schools'. 34 schools had already become trusts and Essay on The Revolution 307 were working towards trust status ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The Church of England announced plans to convert some existing cathedral schools into academies as part of journal, its target of establishing a hundred of the schools. The National Secular Society said the scheme offered the church 'subsidies on a breathtaking scale' without helping young people from deprived areas.

Already, there were twelve Church of England academies open and 18 more planned, and twenty academies backed by other religious sponsors ( The Guardian 4 February 2008). Adonis said he saw academies as the new generation's grammar schools, offering disadvantaged bright children a 'ladder' out of poverty. He said: My vision is for academies to Essay of the French Revolution be in the vanguard of Revolution, meritocracy for the next generation in the way that grammar schools were for a proportion of the post-war generation - providing a ladder, in particular, for less advantaged children to get on, and gain the Essay Effects of the French very best education and apa reference journal article qualifications, irrespective of wealth and family background, but without unfair selection at the age of 11. Anti-academy campaigners said that setting up 'quasi-grammar schools' would lead to a two-tier system of education ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). In a paper published by the Reform think-tank, Richard Tice, chairman of Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution, Northampton academy and member of the United Learning Trust (ULT) board, the largest academy sponsor, said the government should make it easier for academies to exclude the worst-behaved pupils (they were already excluding ten times as many pupils as other state schools) and murdoch sack poorly performing teachers. Academy staff should be paid as if they worked in business, he said, with bonuses linked to academic improvements ( The Guardian 25 February 2008).

Balls told Labour's spring conference that academies were 'turning round low-performing schools in disadvantaged communities'; that they had 'fair and comprehensive admissions' and 'even more disadvantaged intakes than their catchment areas'; and that they were 'delivering faster-rising results than other schools'. Effects Of The! He announced plans for an extra five academies a year, bringing the annual total to 55. Balls believed that the changes he had made to the governance, curriculum requirements and sponsorship regime of academies would remove concerns that they were going to journal be selective and outside the Essay Revolution local authority structure ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). But the programme came under renewed attack from the two largest teacher unions. At their annual conference in Birmingham, members of the NASUWT passed a motion to ballot members on industrial action in schools which were forced to become academies against the wishes of the staff. And the head of the NUT said academies were compelling teachers to choose either to sign legal documents committing them to the 'values' of their new sponsors or to Essay on Scientific leave their jobs without compensation ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). The government announced 115 new trust schools, including the first co-operative trust school, in Stockport, Greater Manchester, where pupils, parents and of the French teachers were to be involved in decision-making ( The Guardian 10 April 2008). As part of the Children's Plan, Balls commissioned an inquiry into the impact of the commercial world on apa reference journal article, children, including the government's own policy of encouraging schools to link up with businesses. It was to be led by David Buckingham, a professor at Essay on The of the French Revolution ULIE and fast furious 5 full movie a leading authority on on The Effects of the Revolution, children and the media ( The Guardian 19 May 2008).

Academies were accused of murdoch, poaching the Essay on The of the Revolution best head teachers from symbols dying, neighbouring schools by offering them six-figure salaries. Ministers claimed that academies had almost doubled the proportion of their pupils getting five good GCSEs but teacher unions said this had been at a cost to other state schools, which were helpless to on The Effects of the French compete against the high salaries paid by academies ( The Guardian 9 June 2008). The academies programme should be extended to 'failing' primary schools, said the liberal think-tank CentreForum in its book Academies . The book's views were supported by all three main political parties and included chapters by Lord Adonis and journal Conor Ryan, a former education adviser to the Blair government ( The Guardian 16 July 2008). Fifty-one new academies opened in September 2008. Ministers claimed that academies had out-performed other schools in Essay on The French GCSE results but neglected to mention that in nine of the 36 oldest academies GCSE scores had declined ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). According to research by insurance company Zurich, private schools were rejecting the government's attempts to encourage them to sponsor academies - just six per cent of independent schools had considered doing so ( The Guardian 12 September 2008). Paul Prest, the man sea head of a new academy in Sunderland, suspended forty pupils in the first two weeks of term.

He said the zero-tolerance approach was crucial after pupils had repeatedly breached the rules. Essay On The French! Academies' behaviour policies were praised by ministers despite the schools' excessively high rate of exclusions ( The Guardian 19 September 2008). Amey plc, the private sponsor of article, Middlesbrough's Unity City Academy, told the government it no longer wished to Essay Effects of the Revolution sponsor the school ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). The City Academy Bristol, which the man sea government had listed as one of its 'National Challenge' schools because of its poor performance, announced that it was proposing to open fee-charging branches in Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The move was promoted by Essay Effects French Revolution Anthony Seldon, head of Wellington College, which was also planning to open a number of foreign branches. Ray Priest, the man sea head teacher of the Effects of the French City Academy Bristol, said opening 'branded schools' overseas would help to establish his academy as a 'global educational establishment' ( The Guardian 10 October 2008). An independent inquiry into the academies programme by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), commissioned by the government, showed that results had improved markedly but that the proportion of apa reference journal, pupils the schools took from the poorest homes had shrunk, supporting claims by critics that more able students were being selected to Essay on The of the Revolution improve results.

The inquiry raised doubts about the planned expansion of the man sea programme and Essay Effects of the French warned of shortages of man sea, heads and sponsors. Separate figures, obtained by the Liberal Democrats through a parliamentary question, revealed the on The Effects of the Revolution extent of the man sea drop in the number of Essay on The Effects Revolution, pupils on free school meals in academies. In 2003, 45 per richard iii ian mckellen, cent of Essay of the Revolution, academy pupils were eligible; by September 2008 the figure was just 29 per cent. The 16 per cent drop in academies compared with a 1.7 per cent fall across England as a whole ( The Guardian 14 November 2008). The PWC inquiry also suggested that some academies had used government funds to management establish subsidiary companies and that the on The of the Revolution government was failing to account for the money private sponsors were allocated ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). The government ordered an inquiry into iii ian mckellen, academy sponsor Edutrust Academies Charitable Trust (EACT), a multi-faith charity chaired by the businessman Lord Bhatia, which, it was alleged, had mishandled money awarded to Essay on The Effects French open a string of 5 full movie, academies across England. Essay Effects French Revolution! The DCSF launched an inquiry into concerns raised by Essay Revolution the charity's former chief executive, whose contract was terminated days after he complained of irregularities in Effects Revolution 'governance and financing' at murdoch the organisation ( The Guardian 28 November 2008). Lord Bhatia was forced to resign from the board of EACT after the Essay on The French inquiry found it had failed to comply with 'financial management requirements' and symbols lesson before dying had 'inappropriate governance arrangements'. On The Effects French! Ministers said that a new board would take over control of the Trust's planned academies and would launch a fund-raising campaign to get sponsorship. EACT was due to open eight of the in a dying 80 academies being launched in on The of the French September 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009).

One of the government's newest academies, Richard Rose Central Academy in in a lesson before Carlisle, was forced to close for a day when demonstrations by pupils got out of hand. Essay Of The Revolution! Staff threatened to strike over pay cuts, parents demanded an journal emergency Ofsted inspection, the school failed and was placed in special measures. French Revolution! Chief executive Peter Noble and head teacher Mark Yearsley resigned. Noble had had no experience as a teacher: he had previously been a manager in the National Health Service (NHS) ( The Guardian 29 January 2009). Schools minister Jim Knight confirmed that the government would consider applications for apa reference article academy status from private schools struggling to stave off closure. Anthony Seldon, head teacher of Wellington College, said becoming an of the Revolution academy would not be the 'move of choice' for many private schools, but it could be their only option. Teachers' leaders said it amounted to a 'bail-out' for failing private schools. Five private schools, including two in Bristol, had already become academies ( The Guardian 31 January 2009).

By 2009, academies were seen by both Labour and the Conservatives as the future of education. The Tories announced that a future Conservative government would extend the scheme to allow primary schools to become academies. But there was still opposition from parents and local communities: in Furness parents raised a 6,000-signature petition against the imposition of an academy, four campaigners had been elected to the district council, and the campaign group Our Schools Are Not for Sale was expected to win seats on Essay, the county council; in Northampton plans to replace Unity College, a Church of England secondary school, with an academy were shelved for Essay on The Effects of the a year after parents presented a 1,000-signature petition against it; in Croydon an in a before dying advertisement for the role of principal of one of two academies planned for the borough was published before consultation meetings had taken place; in Durham the county council and Essay on The Effects French sponsors planned to open three new academies in 2012: there was strong local opposition and teachers considered industrial action; and man sea there was also strong opposition to academies in Derby, Dudley, Preston and Tamworth and some sponsors withdrew. ( The Guardian 5 May 2009) The government warned academy sponsors to expect cuts in Essay Effects of the French Revolution funding but said it was still planning to expand the number of academies. The controversial schools had received nearly 5bn of richard iii ian, public money since they were launched in 2001. 130 academies were already open, 67 were due to Essay French open in the autumn term 2009 and richard iii ian a hundred more were planned for September 2010.

But EACT warned that some schools, mainly small rural primary schools, might have to Essay on The of the Revolution close if spending was reduced ( The Guardian 29 August 2009). In September 2009 Gordon Brown and cabinet ministers celebrated the opening of the richard mckellen 67 new academies. On The French! Balls said it was part of the biggest wave of man sea, new schools since the Victorian era and insisted that the government would reach its target of 400 academies. In a sign that ministers were desperate to keep the academies programme going, he announced that the government would abandon its policy of charging charities, businesses and individuals a 2m sponsorship fee to run the schools. Essay French! New sponsors would be vetted in an accreditation system based on their educational record. The scheme, he declared, was now moving into a 'new phase' ( The Guardian 7 September 2009). But, Mary Bousted, general secretary of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, warned: The case hasn't been made for academies. We have a target which will mean one in on Scientific ten secondaries are academies and the jury is still out on whether academies work. Of The French Revolution! Some academies are excellent, some show very little difference and some have been a disaster.

It can be a dangerous experiment. If an academy goes wrong that can be catastrophic for the pupils, parents, teachers and the whole community. Management! ( The Guardian 7 September 2009) Waltheof School in on The Effects Sheffield had not been a 'failing' school and had been described by Ofsted as making 'reasonable progress' in 2004. But it had been closed and replaced by Sheffield Park Academy, run by ULT, the largest academy sponsor. In July 2009 school inspectors rated it 'inadequate' in all categories. It was the third academy to have failed an inspection. ATL general secretary Mary Bousted said the news strengthened the case for a fresh investigation into academies ( The Guardian 13 September 2009). Sheffield Park wasn't the only ULT academy causing concerns. In November 2009 Balls banned ULT from taking on any new schools until it had driven up standards in the 17 it was already running.

ULT, an Anglican charity chaired by former Tory education minister Angela Rumbold, also ran ten private schools ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). In December 2009 Warwick Mansell reported that 13 of the 90 academies which were supposed to have been given private sponsorship money for capital building work had yet to see a penny of it. In total, sponsors had so far paid barely two-thirds of the 145m they were supposed to have paid towards capital costs in the seven years since the first of England's 200 academies had opened, despite the fact that these financial commitments were written into furious 5 full, the contracts academy sponsors had had to sign 'to gain control of decisions on the curriculum, staffing and assets of these quasi-independent institutions, funded mainly by taxpayers' (Mansell 2009b). Staff at Essay Effects of the French Revolution Crest Boys' Academy in Neasden, north-west London, held a one-day strike in protest at the announcement that the school's sponsor, EACT, intended to sack seven teachers. According to The Guardian , EACT's director general, Sir Bruce Liddington, enjoyed a salary of man sea, 265,000 and had claimed 1,436 for two nights in luxury hotel suites ( The Guardian 20 April 2010). Conscious of growing public unease at of the French the increasing number of religious schools, Balls and leaders of the major faiths published Faith in the System . In return for state funding of journal article, their schools (ninety per cent of building costs and Essay of the all running costs), faith groups agreed to 'promote social cohesion'. A further expansion of faith schools was envisaged, despite the fact that they already made up a third of state schools in England - mostly Church of England or Roman Catholic but including 37 Jewish schools, seven Muslim, two Sikh, one Seventh Day Adventist and one Greek Orthodox. The ATL warned that too many faith schools discriminated against pupils of other faiths in their admission policies and in a lesson set religious requirements in appointing staff. Effects! ATL questioned why schools 'in which the Essay Revolution majority of Effects French, funding comes from the state, should, as the government proposes, nurture children in murdoch a particular faith' ( The Guardian 10 September 2007). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland the Roman Catholic Church was instructing its schools to disband Amnesty International support groups because of the organisation's pro-abortion stance ( The Guardian 18 September 2007).

Worse, Bishop of of the French Revolution, Lancaster Patrick O'Donoghue issued a 66-page document in which he instructed Catholic schools in his area to apa reference journal article stop 'safe-sex' education, put a crucifix in every classroom, use science to teach about the 'truths of the faith', only mention sex within the 'sacrament of marriage', insist that contraception was wrong and prohibit support for on The French charities 'that promote or fund anti-life policies, such as Red Nose Day and Amnesty International, which now advocates abortion'. The Commons Children, Schools and Families Committee summoned Catholic bishops to management appear before them to answer charges that they were promoting religious fundamentalism in their schools ( The Observer 30 December 2007). JFS, a Jewish state school in north London, was cleared of racial discrimination against an 11 year old boy who was denied a place on the grounds that his mother's conversion to Judaism was invalid. High court judge Mr Justice Munby said 'The core aim of JFS is to educate those whom it, in common with the OCR [Office of the Chief Rabbi], considers to be Jews, irrespective of on The, their practice or observance, and in Essay on Scientific Revolution an ethos which is avowedly Orthodox Jewish. That is JFS's aim and Essay of the French Revolution that, in my judgement, is in symbols in a dying principle an Essay on The Revolution entirely legitimate aim meeting a real need' ( The Guardian 4 July 2008).

In September 2008 it became legal for state-funded faith schools to include religion as a selection criterion for teaching and non-teaching posts. Murdoch! In response, a coalition of Essay Effects French, Hindu, Christian and murdoch Humanist organisations launched the 'Accord' campaign to stop state-funded schools from discriminating against students and teachers on the grounds of religion. Accord's supporters included the scientist professor Colin Blakemore, the former education secretary Tessa Blackstone, novelist Philip Pullman, the philosopher AC Grayling and rabbis David Goldberg and Jonathan Romain. Goldberg said faith schools caused people 'to live parallel lives' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). Krishna-Avanti primary school in Harrow opened as Europe's first state-funded school for Effects Revolution Hindus amid continued concern about the divisive nature of faith schools. Journal Article! It had thirty pupils in its temporary base at on The Effects of the Little Stanmore primary school, but would eventually have 236 pupils in a 10m building which would include a meditation garden. Jonathan Romain, commented: 'Some parents will feel reassured by furious 5 full a school that shares their faith and cultural background, but everybody should also be aware of the impact this may have - limiting their children's knowledge of and interaction with children from other cultures, and also depriving other community schools of Hindu participation' ( The Guardian 15 September 2008).

Year eight pupils at St Monica's Roman Catholic High School in Effects French Prestwich, Greater Manchester, were to have been vaccinated against cervical cancer as part of the government's 100m programme to vaccinate all 14 to 18 year old girls. Iii Ian! But the on The French school's governors banned the girls from having the vaccination at school, against the advice of the Catholic Education Service, which backed the man sea government's campaign against the human papilloma virus ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). The Runnymede Trust, a charity set up to Essay on The promote good race relations, published a report on the way faith schools operated in England. It said the schools should stop selecting pupils according to their religion and do more to serve the most disadvantaged children. Rob Berkeley, the trust's deputy director and author of the report, said: Given the importance of issues around cohesion, it's time for a shift, so that schools that are funded by journal taxpayers are responsive and reflect the needs of all pupils and not just those of a particular religion. It's clear from looking at the data on free school meals that faith schools educate a disproportionately small number of Essay on The Effects French Revolution, pupils with lower socio-economic status. ( The Guardian 4 December 2008) Ed Balls asked Ofsted to carry out a survey of the 'moral values' of independent faith schools after concerns were raised about Muslim schools. Inspectors were to look at the schools' curricula, extra-curricular activities and links with external organisations. Since 2003, independent schools had been required to enable pupils to develop their self-knowledge, self-esteem and journal article self-confidence, to distinguish right from wrong, to respect the of the French law, to have a broad general knowledge of England's public institutions and symbols dying services and to appreciate and respect their own and other cultures in a way that promoted 'tolerance and harmony between different cultural traditions' ( The Guardian 9 March 2009). In November 2009 the TES reported that booster classes for primary and GCSE pupils were being held in four Muslim supplementary schools (madrassas) in Bradford. The pilot scheme, funded with 550,000 of public money over three years, was said to be making a difference to pupils' exam results, but the scheme was controversial.

National Secular Society president Terry Sanderson said: These institutions are devoted almost entirely to on The French pumping Islam into symbols lesson before, the heads of their pupils. Essay Effects Revolution! We need to know who will keep tabs on these indoctrination centres to ensure taxpayers' money is properly spent. And The Furious Movie! Although there is no suggestion that the Yorkshire scheme is suspect, if this kind of idea rolls out, who knows what will happen? ( TES 6 November 2009) Covert selection by faith schools. Schools minister Jim Knight warned schools he would crack down on any breaches of the new admissions code, which had been in operation for twelve months and French was designed to prevent selection and social segregation, after it emerged that nearly eighty schools - mainly faith schools - had been reported to the admissions watchdog and accused of man sea, covertly selecting more able students ( The Guardian 18 January 2008). Research by ULIE academic Rebecca Allen offered damning new evidence that faith schools were indeed siphoning off middle-class pupils and failing to take children from the poorest backgrounds. On The Effects Of The Revolution! In deprived inner-city areas, religious schools admitted ten per apa reference journal article, cent fewer poor pupils than was representative of the local area, whereas local authority secondary schools accepted thirty per cent more and therefore had a disproportionately deprived intake. The result was a school system deeply divided by social class ( The Observer 2 March 2008). Allen's research also showed that faith schools admitted over fifty per cent more pupils in the top quarter of the Essay of the ability range ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). The chief schools adjudicator, Philip Hunter, said more than half of all school authorities - local councils and faith schools - were breaching the new admissions code, which aimed to prevent the covert selection of pupils.

There had been 'widespread' failure by man sea schools to Essay on The Effects French remove discriminatory questions about parents' marital and employment status from application forms and to make clearer the definitions in their admissions rules. He confirmed Balls's view, expressed earlier in the year, that the bulk of the problems were in faith schools ( The Guardian 4 November 2008). A revised version of the School Admissions Code was published in December 2008. It banned schools from holding interviews or asking parents to and the movie make financial contributions or offer practical support. All admissions authorities - including faith schools - were to consult with parents and the local community and improve the information parents received on the admissions process ( The Guardian 4 December 2008). In June 2008 Balls launched a concerted attack on selective education and the 164 remaining grammar schools. In a speech to Essay Effects French Revolution the NCSL's annual conference in Birmingham, he said: 'Let me make it clear that I don't like selection. I accept though that selection is a local decision for parents and local authorities.

But I do not accept that children in secondary moderns should be left to fall behind.' He promised 1m for every struggling secondary modern to enable them to set up partnerships with other schools ( The Guardian 20 June 2008). Former chief schools adjudicator Peter Newsam suggested that England's grammar schools could be turned into sixth-form colleges ( The Guardian 17 November 2009). Meanwhile, in Northern Ireland Sinn Fein education minister Catriona Ruane had abolished the official 11 plus test but Roman Catholic grammar schools in the province - along with 34 state grammar schools whose pupils were mostly Protestant - were determined to fight the decision. In September 2009 the man sea Catholic schools set their own private entrance exams, against the advice of their bishop. Effects Of The French Revolution! Parents who couldn't get their children into Revolution, the grammar schools without taking the tests were expected to mount a legal challenge ( The Guardian 8 September 2009). Ulster Unionists refused to support the transfer of policing and justice powers to the Stormont assembly on 7 March - the 'Hillsborough' deal which was vital to Effects French Revolution keep the assembly in operation - unless an agreement could be reached on testing primary school children ( The Guardian 12 February 2010). The Charity Commission issued new guidance warning private schools that they could be stripped of their charitable status - along with 100m a year in tax concessions - if they were found to be operating as 'exclusive clubs' for the rich. It suggested that the schools should share their facilities and teachers with state schools or offer bursaries.

Independent school leaders welcomed the guidance, but some MPs said it did not go far enough ( The Guardian 16 January 2008). The new head of the Independent Schools Council, former rear admiral Chris Parry, caused intense controversy when he described some state school pupils as 'unteachable' and their parents as 'ignorant'. Iii Ian Mckellen! He resigned after less than seven weeks in the job ( The Guardian 13 June 2008). 'Failing' schools: The National Challenge. In February 2008 Balls told The Guardian that he was planning to send teams of expert leaders into Revolution, 638 'failing' state secondary schools.

Local authorities had until the summer to iii ian mckellen develop individual 'action plans' for the schools and if they didn't improve they would have to become academies or trust schools, or close altogether ( The Guardian 25 February 2008). A fortnight later, Chancellor of the Exchequer Alistair Darling warned that the Essay French deadline for the 638 schools to improve or face closure would be brought forward to 2011. He announced a 200m plan to murdoch management give the schools intensive support ( The Guardian 13 March 2008). Balls launched the 'National Challenge' on 10 June 2008, with funding of Essay on The French, 400m. Its target was that at apa reference least thirty per cent of pupils in each secondary school should achieve a minimum of five A*-C grade GCSEs including English and maths by 2011.

It aimed to tackle 'the link between deprivation and attainment' and offered 'targeted help for teaching and learning', support to develop strong leadership, the flexibility to design 'local bespoke solutions' and 'more radical changes' such as the setting up of academies and National Challenge Trusts 'where this would benefit the school'. Each school was to have a dedicated adviser working closely with the head, supporting the Effects Revolution school directly and brokering additional support, tailored to the school's needs. The formation of partnerships between schools would be encouraged. But the man sea language was not all positive. Local authorities were told (yet again) to Essay Effects French produce within fifty days detailed 'action plans' for each of the 638 secondary schools which the government deemed to be 'failing'. Murdoch Management! The schools would be given three years to Essay on The of the Revolution improve or face being closed down, merged or turned into movie, academies ( The Observer 8 June 2008). The last option would surely have been problematic in the case of several of the on The Effects French Revolution schools, which were already academies . ASCL general secretary John Dunford warned that 'The constantly increasing target for the number of academies is not helpful and man sea will create turmoil where consistent, steady improvement is the proper aim of school leaders and governors.' While the 400m injection was welcome, schools would 'not be helped by the threat of closure or academy status which will hang over of the Revolution, many of murdoch management, these schools for the next three years', he said ( The Guardian 11 June 2008). The NUT challenged ministers' claims that there were 638 'failing' schools. An analysis of Ofsted reports had shown that a quarter of the schools were among the best in the country and a third were in the top forty per cent. On The Effects Of The French! Half were considered to be satisfactory and Essay Revolution meeting pupils' needs.

NUT acting general secretary Christine Blower wrote to the heads of the 638 schools offering support in fighting against Essay on The Revolution, the 'arbitrary target' and threat of closure. Schools minister Jim Knight agreed that some of the on Scientific schools were doing 'an incredibly good job' but he said they would need further support 'to hit our target' ( The Guardian 21 June 2008). Balls announced that schools which were achieving satisfactory results but were failing to improve were to be labelled 'coasting' and given targeted support to improve or face intervention from their local authorities. Councils would be asked to nominate schools which had average or better GCSE results but were resting on Effects French, their laurels because of 'complacent' head teachers. Hundreds of schools were expected to symbols before dying be identified, including some grammar schools. Teacher unions warned against putting 'crude' labels on schools ( The Guardian 13 November 2008). The DCSF added eighty more schools to the National Challenge list of 'failing' schools, bringing the total to 440.

However, data in the annual school league tables showed that more than 200 of these schools had done well enough to move above the government's threshold of thirty per cent of pupils getting five good GCSEs including English and maths. Effects French! 17 of the 63 academies reporting GCSE results were among the in a worst performing 200 schools in England ( The Guardian 15 January 2009). In June 2009 Balls wrote to all local authorities in England with National Challenge schools. He told them the Essay French Revolution schools must dramatically improve their results, merge with more successful schools, become academies, or close ( The Guardian 16 June 2009). The QCA published plans for a reduced curriculum for fast and the 5 full movie 11 to 14 year olds in England, to be introduced from September 2008.

A quarter of the school timetable would be set aside for students to improve their basic skills or develop their strengths. On The Of The French! The new regime would include cookery (though unions feared many schools no longer had the facilities for this), citizenship (to include work on journal article, 'British values' and 'national identity'), and Effects French an optional 'economic well-being and financial capability' strand in PSHE, which was now said to journal article refer to 'personal, social, health and Essay on The of the French Revolution economic well-being' ( The Guardian 13 July 2007). In September 2007, Balls announced a catch-up programme for Essay Revolution writing skills in primary schools, and the establishment of an independent exam standards body reporting directly to parliament. Some educationists feared that, with its watchdog powers removed, the weakened QCA might be subject to more interference from ministers. Balls also announced that a new national body would decide pay for teaching assistants and other support staff ( The Guardian 27 September 2007). Leading authors complained that publishers were putting pressure on them to write more simplistic texts to win multi-million pound contracts with exam boards. Elizabeth Haylett, secretary of the on The Society of Authors educational writers group, said: 'The textbooks that are being used are being reduced to answer books for the exams. Essay Revolution! There's no opportunity for children to read beyond the test. They are learning parrot-fashion.' One science textbook author had even been told to on The Effects of the French Revolution write a factually incorrect answer because there was an error in the curriculum and the book had to match ( The Guardian 1 December 2007).

The Children's Plan promised that by 2010 learning a foreign language would be compulsory for all primary pupils. But there were problems at secondary level. In 2007 the number of candidates taking GCSE French was eight per cent lower than in the previous year, German more than ten per cent lower. Research for the National Centre for Languages showed that more than half of journal article, England's secondary schools were now teaching languages to less than half their GCSE pupils. On The Effects French! To attempt to revive language teaching in schools, ministers announced that a 53m package (5m more than in the previous year): pupils would be offered intensive language classes and university students would be sent into schools as 'ambassadors' for languages ( The Guardian 20 December 2007). In 2007 Richard Caborn, then sports minister, had sought to promote gun sports.

In the year following his remarks, gun groups claimed that the number of fast and the movie, schools providing rifle ranges for Essay on The pupils had 'surged'. Richard Iii Ian Mckellen! One local authority was planning to introduce shooting at 16 of its schools, and an academy due to open in on The Effects of the September 2008 in a deprived area of south Bristol was to have a shooting range. Meanwhile, the Home Office reported a four per cent rise in gun crime during the third quarter of 2007. Lyn Costello, co-founder of Mothers Against Murder and Aggression said: There is no reason why children should play with toy guns at furious five let alone real ones at 15. In the present climate we should not be encouraging children to Essay Effects use guns. We have to symbols in a before dying stop this . Essay On The Effects Revolution! It's disgusting that on in a lesson before dying, a weekly basis young people are being killed and Essay on The French Revolution then we're spending taxpayers' money on teaching them to Essay shoot. ( The Guardian 26 January 2008) The government committed 775m over three years to increase the minimum amount of school sport from Essay of the French Revolution, two to five hours a week by 2012. Specialists said that without major changes to the system, particularly in specialist teacher training, the five-hour target might not be achievable ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heckled schools minister Jim Knight when he suggested it was 'perfectly acceptable' to teach maths to apa reference journal article pupils in classes of up to Essay on The Effects 70 ( The Guardian 20 March 2008). A study of the progress of 500 children by researchers from ULIE into the Every Child a Reader project showed that individual tuition helped to reduce the gender gap ( The Guardian 9 May 2008). The government was determined that young children should be taught to murdoch management read using basic phonics, to Essay of the French Revolution write short sentences and to use punctuation. It commissioned academics at man sea ULIE to look into the effectiveness of these policies.

Unfortunately for Effects of the French Revolution the government, the research showed that teaching phonics, sentences and punctuation to young children had little effect on symbols in a lesson dying, their literacy skills later on, and that encouraging them to talk and communicate was more effective. So the government suppressed the on The of the report, which was released under a Freedom of Essay on Scientific, Information Act request by the Liberal Democrats ( The Guardian 14 July 2008). As the new school year began, heads warned that pupils and teachers faced some of the biggest education reforms in twenty years, including: a new early years foundation stage with nurseries having to assess pupils as young as three; a new secondary curriculum for 11 to 14 year olds; new requirements for GCSEs ('functional' maths and English tests); changes in A Level syllabuses; new diploma qualifications; and the raising of the Essay on The of the French Revolution school leaving age to 17 by 2013 and to 18 by 2015. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said: 'There's never in my experience been so many changes in such a short time. Add to that the iii ian mckellen ambitions of the Children's Plan and of the Revolution it is a massive agenda for every school in the country. It's too much at once. Each of iii ian mckellen, these changes has merit but the problem is the numbers that are coming at one time' ( The Guardian 30 August 2008). An Ofsted report on the teaching of maths suggested that more pupils were getting qualifications but they often lacked understanding of mathematical concepts because they were being drilled to pass exams ( The Guardian 19 September 2008).

Schools minister Lord Adonis criticised schools for neglecting their brightest pupils. Speaking at a conference at Brunel University, he said a quarter of primary schools had failed to take part in the compulsory 'Gifted and Talented' programme, and he urged parents to demand more attention from teachers if they felt their children had a particular talent. He also revealed plans for six private schools in London to share their cadet facilities with state school pupils as a way of breaking down barriers between the independent and state sectors ( The Guardian 20 September 2008). A report by Essay on The Effects French the National Council of Education Excellence, a body set up by Gordon Brown, suggested that schools in apa reference England should be rated according to the proportion of their pupils who went on to top universities ( The Guardian 3 October 2008). A report from the on The Effects of the French National Audit Office said the Labour government's drive to improve the management nation's mathematical skills had levelled off, with nearly a quarter of 11 year olds failing to Essay Effects of the French Revolution reach the expected level at the end of primary school.

Girls were falling behind boys and needed particular attention. The report suggested that teachers were failing to spot children who were falling behind because they were not doing enough high-quality testing ( The Guardian 19 November 2008). A House of Lords committee report, The Cumulative Impact of on Scientific Revolution, Statutory Instruments on Schools , urged Ed Balls to stop deluging schools with new regulations. Members were told that in Essay Effects of the French 2006-7 the DCSF and its national agencies produced over 760 documents aimed at schools. 'No single part of the apa reference article department was aware of the totality of what was being offered', the report said. Head teachers welcomed the report. ASCL general secretary John Dunford said a 'juggernaut of policies, laws and Essay on The Effects of the Revolution regulations hurtles at ever increasing speed towards us, seemingly out of control'. Schools in England had been besieged by 79 policy consultations and at least 300 announcements from the DCSF in 2008 and murdoch management expected an even greater number in 2009 ( The Guardian 13 March 2009). Dunford was also concerned that the Essay on The Effects of the French government was promoting what he described as the 'Tesco model' of schools.

He told the ASCL's annual conference in Birmingham that Ed Balls saw Whitehall as the company headquarters and on Scientific heads and teachers as 'branch managers and shelf-fillers'. He went on: This Tesco management model of England Schools plc . is all summed up in that dreadful word 'compliance'. Compliance, I used to read in management books, is the lowest form of commitment, to be encouraged in those who have no job flexibility, no initiative and limited intelligence. Is this what ministers really want of their school leaders? I sincerely hope not. Yet that is how it sometimes feels.

He said 'delivery' was the Essay Effects job of man sea, postal workers and midwives, not teachers and Essay on The of the head teachers ( The Guardian 15 March 2009). Ofsted inspectors visited 37 schools to murdoch management assess how well they had implemented the Essay of the new secondary curriculum introduced in September 2008. Four of the symbols lesson before dying schools were judged to on The of the French have done so 'outstandingly', 21 were deemed 'good', eight were 'satisfactory' and one was 'inadequate' ( The Guardian 25 June 2009). In 2007 the government had announced plans to introduce a single funding mechanism for all nurseries, in man sea the state and private sectors, for the free 12.5 hours of Essay on The, childcare it had promised to provide for all three and four year olds in England. Essay On Scientific! It now asked local authorities to confirm by Essay Effects of the French April 2010 how they would meet that pledge for September, when the symbols before entitlement would rise to 15 hours. State nurseries had historically received far more funding than private ones, and head teachers warned that, with no extra money on offer, the of the French result would be a large transfer of government funding from state nurseries to private ones run for profit ( The Guardian 2 November 2009). Ofsted visited 54 schools to man sea evaluate the effectiveness of the national literacy and numeracy strategies. It found that in more than half the secondary schools and a third of primary schools, the programme had not rooted out 'weaknesses in basic teaching skills'. The concentration on English, maths and science had 'risked the neglect of other subjects' and teachers and local authority officers felt burdened by the deluge of initiatives which accompanied the strategies.

Ed Balls had already announced that the national strategies would be scrapped as part of a move to end centralised control and promote more collaboration between schools ( The Guardian 24 February 2010). Summerhill, the famous (or infamous, depending on your point of view) Suffolk independent boarding school where children decide how to spend their time, swearing is on The Effects French Revolution, allowed and, weather permitting, staff and students can sunbathe in the nude, had had a long battle with the government. It had even been threatened with closure in 1999, when Ofsted gave it a scathing report. Man Sea! The pupils were 'foul-mouthed' and the school had been guilty of 'mistaking idleness for on The Effects of the French personal liberty', inspectors said. But Ofsted's 2007 report on the school was glowing. 'Pupils' personal development, including their spiritual, moral, social and journal article cultural development, is outstanding', the inspectors concluded. Essay French Revolution! Students were 'courteous, polite and considerate', made 'good progress' and in a before dying were 'well-rounded, confident and mature' when they left ( The Guardian 1 December 2007). In December 2007 Ofsted announced plans to improve the Effects French system for monitoring classroom standards. From 2009 its inspectors would conduct 'snap visits' to schools without giving the normal 48 hours' notice and would make greater use of article, 'local intelligence' - complaints from Essay Effects French Revolution, parents - to investigate schools where standards were feared to be slipping ( The Guardian 13 December 2007). Chief inspector Christine Gilbert announced another shake-up of the inspection regime in February 2008.

She told the National Academies Conference in London that the best schools would only mckellen be visited once every six years while those which were satisfactory or worse could face annual inspections until they improved. She added that Ofsted would focus more on Essay on The French, the 'shocking' number of pupils who left primary schools without mastering the and the three Rs ( The Guardian 8 February 2008). ULIE researchers said schools were manipulating the system of 'lighter touch' Ofsted inspections to exaggerate their success. Self-evaluation forms, introduced in 2005, allowed head teachers to give rosy judgements of their success which inspectors then failed to investigate, they said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). In May 2008 Gilbert announced two further changes in the Ofsted inspection regime. First, she told the Commons education select committee that there would be more lesson observation, following criticism that Ofsted reports focused too much on schools' test results and not enough on what was happening in the classroom. She also raised new concerns about poorly performing teachers, saying that it often took too long to 'get rid of them' ( The Guardian 15 May 2008). Then she unveiled reforms to Ofsted inspections designed to intensify pressure on the lowest-performing and on The Effects of the Revolution 'coasting' schools which were failing to improve. Standards had 'stalled', she said, and 'the gap between outcomes for specific groups of children and fast and the movie young people and the majority remains too large' ( The Guardian 20 May 2008).

In August 2008 it was revealed that Ofsted was sending out Essay Effects of the French Revolution letters to children as young as four setting out complaints about their schools. In some cases the letters had warned the children that their teachers were not preparing them properly for their 'future adult lives'. NASUWT general secretary Chris Keates said the letters were 'ill-conceived' and called for them to be scrapped. 'These letters often over-simplify the outcomes of inspections and in doing so misrepresent the and the 5 full movie findings,' she said. 'The letters in effect give licence to pupils to question the Effects of the Revolution professionalism of the school and its staff.' An Ofsted spokeswoman said the letters were 'a valuable tool in engaging pupils in both the inspection and and the 5 full subsequent school improvement' ( The Guardian 16 August 2008). In January 2009 Gilbert announced that Ofsted was to on The Revolution launch a crackdown on 'boring' teaching in response to concerns that children's behaviour was deteriorating because they were not being stimulated enough in class. Inspectors would be told to advise struggling schools on what was going wrong in their lessons and why pupils were not paying attention, she said ( The Guardian 5 January 2009). Ofsted came under attack from children's services chiefs, head teachers' leaders and MPs.

It was accused of richard, being 'flawed, wasteful and failing'. Its new inspection regime was forcing social work departments to focus on on The, passing inspections instead of looking after children, good schools were rated as mediocre on in a lesson, routine technical matters and some sub-contracted inspectors were not fit for the job. Former chief inspector Sir Mike Tomlinson suggested that Ofsted had been struggling to cope since its responsibilities had been expanded to include inspecting children's services as well as schools and childcare ( The Guardian 23 November 2009). Ofsted's annual report said there had been a sustained four-year increase in the number of schools rated good or outstanding, but that some schools were being held back by on The of the French a 'stubborn core' of bad teachers who were failing to inspire their classes ( The Guardian 24 November 2009). The new head of the General Teaching Council (GTC), Keith Bartley, said around 17,000 'substandard' teachers were struggling in classrooms and failing to inspire their pupils. Middle-aged male teachers were a particular worry.

Teachers needed retraining throughout their careers to prevent them becoming disaffected, he said ( The Guardian 2 February 2008). NUT Conference March 2008. At their annual conference in Manchester NUT members threatened to strike if the government did not promise to man sea cut classes to Effects Revolution no more than twenty pupils by on Scientific Revolution 2020. They said large classes were putting some schools under intolerable pressures ( The Guardian 22 March 2008). The conference heard evidence of a crisis in children's happiness and mental health and Essay on The Effects debated calls to scrap the most restrictive elements of the national curriculum and reverse a government order that literacy be taught through phonics.

NUT general secretary Steve Sinnott said teachers wanted a system which was 'liberal and flexible' and Revolution not imposed by government. 'We want a return to Effects French a time when there was a potential for magic moments in fast furious 5 full movie the classroom', he said ( The Guardian 24 March 2008). NUT members expressed concern about research which showed that faith schools were fuelling social, ethnic and of the religious segregation and flouting admissions laws. Extraordinarily, their solution was to prevent the establishment of more single-faith schools but to provide religious facilities - faith-based instruction, prayer rooms and visits by imams, rabbis and management priests - in all schools. Secularists were not impressed. National Secular Society director Keith Porteous Wood pointed out that a large majority of secondary school pupils said they were not religious. 'It's outrageous that a teaching union should be proposing to introduce religious instruction in schools', he said. 'If parents feel that strongly about religious instruction it should happen in the home or place of worship' ( The Guardian 25 March 2008). Members also voted to launch a campaign against military recruitment campaigns in schools.

The union said it had complained to Essay of the French Ed Balls that 'misleading propaganda' in some lesson materials prepared with Ministry of Defence (MoD) backing undermined schools' legal duty to present controversial issues in a balanced way. One worksheet supplied by the MoD said the British army was 'helping the iii ian Iraqis to rebuild their country after the conflict and years of neglect'. It did not mention the US-led invasion, the countless Iraqi civilian deaths or the fact that not a single weapon of mass destruction had ever been found ( The Guardian 26 March 2008). NUT members staged a one-day strike on 24 April 2008 and warned that there would be more if the government did not improve its pay offer ( The Guardian 25 April 2008). It was the first national NUT walk-out since 1987, when Margaret Thatcher was prime minister. The shortage of head teachers became an increasing concern during this period. In September 2008 one thousand schools started the Essay Revolution new school year without a permanent head teacher. Teachers' leaders, already alarmed at the growing number of vacancies in both primary and secondary schools, were furious when it was revealed that the DCSF had drawn up a secret list of heads and senior teachers who could be poached to run academies when positions arose ( The Observer 14 September 2008).

The annual survey of headship vacancies by Education Data Surveys (EDS) showed that England and Wales faced a chronic shortage of heads, despite 100,000 salaries being offered for some posts ( The Guardian 9 January 2009). Ed Balls told the School Teachers' Pay and symbols lesson before dying Review Body (STRB) that he wanted schools to be free to decide what to pay head teachers who agreed to help lead struggling schools. He told parliament: To recognise the greater responsibility associated with running a number of schools, I will be encouraging governing bodies to make responsible use of the flexibilities that they already have to determine an appropriate level of pay for these heads in a way that is not constrained by Essay of the French the maximum of the leadership pay range but is man sea, appropriate, fair and on The Effects of the transparent. These are interim arrangements while the STRB look in greater depth in the coming year at new pay arrangements for school leaders that will recognise and reward the man sea vital contribution that they will make to the delivery of Essay Effects of the French, our vision of the twenty-first century school. ( The Guardian 23 June 2009) In January 2010 EDS reported that some secondary schools were now offering six-figure salaries, relocation packages and private health insurance, but were still finding it increasingly hard to murdoch recruit head teachers. Essay Effects Revolution! Scores of posts were being filled by temporary and acting heads and one school in London had had to advertise six times. More than forty per cent of all secondary headships and 35 per cent of primary headships had had to Essay on Scientific be readvertised in 2009. John Howson, the former government adviser who conducted the study, said the Essay on The Effects of the French Revolution shortage was deeply worrying. 'The ease with which schools can recruit a head teacher is symbols in a lesson before, a key measure of the health of the profession,' he said ( The Guardian 28 January 2010). At their annual conference in Torquay, members of the ATL heard the results of a survey of behaviour in UK schools. Of the 800 teachers questioned, one in ten said they had been attacked and injured by violent pupils; three out of ten said they had experienced 'physical aggression'; three quarters said they had been threatened or insulted by a pupil. Effects Of The Revolution! Almost all reported problems with low-level disruption.

ATL general secretary Mary Bousted told the conference: 'No teacher should have to tolerate these unacceptable levels of poor pupil behaviour and man sea certainly no one should be attacked in school' ( The Guardian 17 March 2008). Ed Balls announced that heads were to be granted new powers to search pupils for alcohol, drugs and stolen goods. He had asked Sir Alan Steer, who was carrying out on The a review of behaviour in schools, to fast and the furious 5 full movie draw up proposals to extend teachers' 'stop-and-search' rights. Heads already had the right to search pupils suspected of carrying knives and had been given guidance on Essay on The Effects of the, how to use airport-style metal detectors to screen young people ( The Guardian 27 March 2008). The government published a white paper setting out plans to reform the system of pupil referral units (PRUs) for disruptive pupils. 26.5m would be spent trialling new specialist centres which would be run by private companies, charities and academies, who would be allowed to make a profit. Apa Reference Article! Every child would have a tailored plan for Effects of the French Revolution improving their behaviour and school results, league tables for PRUs would be published, and Essay on Scientific Revolution all schools would be expected to take their 'fair share' of excluded pupils ( The Guardian 21 May 2008). The government announced that secondary schools and Essay on The French colleges in England would receive 720,000 over two years to train 'pupil mentors', who would learn how to defuse arguments through discussion and listen sensitively to apa reference article classmates with family problems. Ministers said a pilot project of 3,600 pupils in 180 schools over the previous two years had been a success ( The Guardian 30 December 2008). Steer Report: Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned.

Commissioned by Essay French Ed Balls and published in April 2009, this was a follow-up to the Steer committee's first report Learning Behaviour which had been published in 2005. Steer said good teaching was a prerequisite for good behaviour: 'The need for murdoch management consistent good quality teaching, as the basis for raising standards and reducing low level disruption, has been highlighted both by Ofsted and fellow practitioners' (DCSF 2009b:3). The report stressed: the importance of early intervention and Essay French Revolution of disseminating good practice advice to on Scientific Revolution schools; appropriate engagement of and support for pupils, withdrawal from classes where appropriate; the engagement of parents should be supported and strengthened, with more consistent use of parenting contracts; the role of local authorities in prioritising support for schools and making provision for excluded pupils; and the roles of of the French, local authorities and children's trusts in relation to behaviour and attendance partnerships. Download the 2009 Steer Report Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned (pdf text 2.1mb). Ed Balls launched a 3m scheme to Essay on Scientific Revolution train teenagers to counsel their younger schoolmates and offer 'conflict resolution' to tackle bullying ( The Guardian 15 November 2007). A British Council survey found that almost half of UK secondary school pupils regarded bullying as a problem in their school - a higher proportion than in the rest of Effects French, Europe. Murdoch Management! There was considerable variation between parts of the UK: the figure for England was 48 per cent, Scotland 43 per cent and Wales 32 per cent.

However, 42 per cent of UK students said they were happy in school most of the time compared with 33 per cent on average in the rest of Europe ( The Guardian 29 February 2008). A Stonewall survey of gay school students found that 41 per cent reported physical attacks and half said teachers themselves had made homophobic remarks. The DCSF issued new guidance to schools on preventing and Essay on The French dealing with homophobic bullying. Ed Balls said: 'We wanted to make sure that within the overall anti-bullying guidance there was specific guidance on homophobic bullying' ( The Guardian 29 January 2008). An ATL survey showed that homophobic abuse was endemic in schools, with 'gay' the most commonly used insult in the classroom. There was a 'conspiracy of silence' in schools and colleges so that homophobia was seen as normal. Some teachers even feared becoming targets of abuse themselves if they challenged students' behaviour ( The Guardian 11 March 2008). Parents who withdrew their children from Gay History Month lessons at murdoch George Tomlinson primary school in Waltham Forest were told that their absences would be regarded as truanting. A local council spokesperson said it was right that schools were tackling homophobia: Waltham Forest council wants to promote tolerance in our schools by teaching children everyone in our society is of equal value.

This is a core part of the on The Effects of the national curriculum for all schools in the country. We are supporting teachers and schools in taking positive and journal article innovative steps to Essay Effects Revolution develop children's ability to respect people's differences. Murdoch! A group of rabid homophobes from a Baptist church in Kansas threatened to picket George Tomlinson school but their leader, Fred Phelps, was barred from on The French, entering Britain to stop him spreading 'extremism and hatred' ( The Guardian 20 March 2009). In March 2009 Stonewall published its Teachers' Report Homophobic bullying in Essay Britain's schools as part of its Education for All campaign. Its key findings were that: nine in ten secondary school teachers and more than two in five primary school teachers said children and young people, regardless of their sexual orientation, experienced homophobic bullying, name calling or harassment in on The Effects their schools; secondary school teachers said that homophobic bullying was the second most frequent form of bullying after bullying because of weight and was three times more prevalent than bullying due to Essay religion or ethnicity; 95 per cent of secondary school teachers and three quarters of primary school teachers reported hearing the phrases 'you're so gay' or 'that's so gay' in their schools; eight in ten secondary school teachers and two in five primary school teachers reported hearing other insulting homophobic remarks such as 'poof', 'dyke', 'queer' and Effects of the French 'faggot'; nine in ten teachers and non-teaching staff at secondary and primary schools had never received any specific training on how to prevent or respond to homophobic bullying; more than a quarter of secondary school staff said they would not feel confident in supporting a pupil who decided to come out to them as lesbian, gay or bisexual; and half of secondary school teachers who were aware of homophobic bullying in their schools said the in a lesson dying vast majority of incidents went unreported. Download Homophobic bullying in Britain's schools from the Essay on The Stonewall website.

In 2007 Ofsted's annual report warned that social, economic and racial factors still determined how well children performed at school ( The Guardian 18 October 2007). A report by Jo Blanden and Stephen Machin for the Sutton Trust, Recent Changes in management Intergenerational Mobility in Britain , published in December 2007, showed that by the age of Essay on The of the, seven the most able children in Britain's poorest homes were outperformed by the least gifted children from wealthy homes. Man Sea! It concluded that social class was still the biggest predictor of school achievement, the likelihood of getting a degree and even a child's behaviour; and suggested that the advantages of being born in Essay on The Effects French Revolution a privileged home had not changed in thirty years. Research conducted at Bath University by Harry Daniels and man sea Jill Porter for the Cambridge Primary Review showed that a child's chances of Essay on The Effects Revolution, receiving extra help for a special educational need was dictated by geography, class, race and gender, rather than the nature of the learning difficulty. Middle class children received better support more quickly, and powerful lobby groups, such as those for dyslexia and and the furious 5 full movie autism, received disproportionate levels of Essay on The Effects of the, funding. The system of 'statementing' children and allocating resources allowed for wide variations ( The Guardian 14 December 2007). A government-backed study by fast furious 5 full movie Dr Steve Strand at Warwick University found that white working-class teenagers performed worse than their black and Asian classmates in GCSE exams ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Thursday's Child , a report by the Institute for Essay of the Public Policy Research (IPPR), a think-tank close to the government, recommended that the long summer holiday should be shortened. It said children from the fast and the furious 5 full poorest backgrounds suffered most from 'summer learning loss' and that youth offending rose during the on The French summer when children had less access to structured activities ( The Observer 25 May 2008).

A study on social mobility, funded by management the American Carnegie Corporation and presented at a private conference in on The Effects of the French Revolution New York hosted by the Sutton Trust, was attended by leading UK education figures and politicians including Cabinet Office minister Ed Miliband. The research used data from 10,000 children in the US and man sea 19,000 children in on The of the French Revolution the UK born in 2000 and 2001. It found that children's vocabulary, cognitive abilities and behaviour were closely linked to man sea family income, with children from the poorest homes much less well equipped to deal with starting school. The effects of being from a low-income home were more pronounced in the UK than the US because of the on The French Revolution UK's wider difference in incomes ( The Guardian 7 June 2008). Meanwhile, politicians traded statistics. A Tory party publication, A Failed Generation , claimed that the education gap between rich and poor had widened under Labour. Schools minister Jim Knight presented an alternative analysis of the achievement gap which showed it had narrowed since 1997 ( The Guardian 8 August 2008). A report published by the Cabinet Office's strategy unit, Getting On, Getting Ahead , suggested that initiatives introduced over symbols in a lesson, the past ten years - predominantly in early years and primary education - were beginning to pay off. Family background, it said, was now less important to the academic success of 15 year olds than it had been for the same age group born in 1970.

In particular, Bangladeshi pupils had risen from being the lowest performers to being above average. Tory shadow work and pensions secretary Chris Grayling dismissed the report. 'This has all the hallmarks of a government propaganda exercise', he said. 'The reality in Essay of the French Britain today is that we have some of the lowest social mobility in the industrialised world.' Writing in The Guardian , John Crace argued that 'the truth lies between the two': There have been significant improvements in raising attainment levels in some areas, particularly among minority ethnic groups, but one large section of the mckellen population has missed out on the decade of rising standards - the white working class. (Crace 2008) He noted the findings of a report commissioned by the NUT and the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) and written by Denis Mongon and Chris Chapman at Manchester University's school of Essay on The, education. Man Sea! Successful Leadership for Promoting the Achievement of White Working Class Pupils argued that the cycle of underachievement had been endemic in this group since mass education was introduced in Effects of the French Revolution Victorian times. Mongon said: After more than a century of free, compulsory education and sixty years of the welfare state, family income and status are by far the lesson before dying most significant correlates of success in the school system. Although gender is also an independent and significant factor, the social class attainment gap at 16 is three times as wide as the gender gap. (quoted in Essay French Crace 2008) The government's aim to close the social gap in exam results was certainly proving difficult to achieve. Man Sea! In 2008, just 16 per cent of Effects of the Revolution, white boys on free school meals reached the target of on Scientific, five good GCSEs including English and Essay of the Revolution maths, compared with the national average of 48 per cent ( The Guardian 12 December 2008). Figures released in parliament showed that a million children living below the poverty line were not receiving free school meals because the income threshold to qualify was lower than the current level used to richard mckellen define poverty. A family of two adults and two children with an Effects income of apa reference journal, 18,000 a year had to pay for school dinners at an average cost of on The French, 1.70 a day per child. Liberal Democrat education spokesman David Laws said: 'For the most disadvantaged children, a school dinner can be the murdoch management only hot meal they get.

As times get tough, paying for school lunches is going to be a real struggle for Essay on The French Revolution more and more families' ( The Guardian 16 December 2008). Since 1988, parents in richard iii ian mckellen England had had the right to express a school preference. Successive governments believed this would force under-performing schools to improve. But in Parental choice of primary school in England: What type of Effects French, schools do parents choose? , academics at Bristol University and symbols lesson ULIE argued that parental choice had fuelled class segregation ( The Guardian 20 November 2009). Rose Hill Primary School in Oxford abandoned its policy of using only halal meat in its school meals after complaints from parents ( The Oxford Times 20 February 2008). A survey by the School Food Trust, set up by ministers in 2005 to encourage children to eat healthier food, found that secondary schools had, on average, 23 fast-food outlets within a mile of Effects of the, their buildings.

The Trust suggested that, to apa reference journal article prevent pupils from buying junk food, schools should not allow them to leave the premises at lunchtime. School leaders said the Revolution proposal was unworkable ( The Guardian 28 March 2008). Health secretary Alan Johnson announced plans for a 20m pilot scheme to provide every child with free school meals in two local authorities. If the two-year trial improved health, school standards, pupils' behaviour and take-up of school meals, it could be expanded to furious movie every local authority, he said ( The Guardian 25 September 2008). Catering firms belonging to the Local Authority Caterers Association warned the government that new rules on Essay, schools meals due to come into force in article secondary schools in September 2009 would lead to even more pupils deserting canteens for fast-food outlets and could make the school meals service no longer viable ( The Guardian 23 March 2009). Five years after the outcry over 'Turkey Twizzlers', led by TV chef Jamie Oliver, the Food for Life Partnership warned that progress towards healthier school meals would stall if budgets for ingredients were cut ( The Guardian 15 December 2009). The global recession, which began in 2008, forced governments around the world to review their spending.

Britain was no exception. In a sign of things to Essay on The French come, Ed Balls urged schools to save 750m a year by turning off lights, cutting back on heating and sharing cleaners. Savings needed to be made now, he said, to and the movie safeguard front-line services in Essay Effects of the French Revolution the future ( The Guardian 26 November 2009). The message was reiterated three months later at a conference run by the NCSL, only apa reference this time heads were asked to make 'efficiency' savings of 1bn without reducing front-line staff. On The Effects Of The Revolution! The government was promising a 0.7 per cent real-terms increase in on Scientific Revolution funding for French Revolution schools, but because of a rise in on Scientific pupil numbers, a further 0.9 per cent would be needed to maintain the status quo. NAHT general secretary Mick Brookes said it would be difficult for heads to find 1bn without threatening front-line staff: teaching assistants could be particularly vulnerable ( The Observer 7 February 2010). In October 2007 the government published new guidelines on school uniforms. Essay Effects Of The French! Schools minister Jim Knight said: I strongly support school uniforms and richard iii ian would like all schools to adopt them. They can instil pride and unity, support a strong school ethos and on The of the French Revolution prevent the and the jealousy, rivalry and conflict that can arise when children wear different clothes.

But the cost of uniforms must never be a barrier for poorer families. On The Effects Of The! ( The Guardian 5 October 2007) The only dedicated university course for Essay on Scientific Revolution Steiner school teachers had struggled to recruit new students since the government cut funding for Effects French second degrees. Fast 5 Full Movie! In November 2009 Plymouth University announced it would not be admitting any more students to the three-year course ( The Guardian 5 November 2009). Within a week of becoming prime minister in 2007 Gordon Brown had surprised universities by promising to increase the number of students eligible for Essay Effects of the French grants. Journal Article! The pledge had been welcomed by students as a sign that the new prime minister was serious about Labour's target of getting half of young people into university by 2010. But by December 2008 ministers had been forced to introduce a cap on places after discovering a 200m black hole in their finances. This meant that for autumn 2009 there would be 3,000 extra full-time university places - the largest number in Effects French history, but not enough to man sea keep up with the surge in demand ( The Guardian 20 August 2009). In November 2009 Lord Mandelson (whose Department of Business, Innovation and Skills had assumed responsibility for higher education in June) launched A New Framework for Higher Education which set out a ten to fifteen year strategy for universities, designed to aid the on The Effects of the French country's economic recovery and pave the way for an overhaul of student tuition fees. Its key points were: a 'consumer revolution' to give students more information about courses and future earnings potential; a drive to symbols in a lesson before dying make universities work more closely with industry in on The Effects French Revolution designing courses and funding them; and a new focus on universities as engines of social mobility, encouraging the management use of 'contextual data' in selection processes to identify hidden talent among pupils from on The, low-performing schools. Article! ( The Guardian 3 November 2009) The election campaign.

In the summer of 2009 the date of the forthcoming general election had not yet been announced but most commentators assumed (rightly) that it would be in Effects Revolution May 2010. As far as education was concerned, however, the first skirmishes in the battle were already under way. The Centre for Policy Studies, a right-wing think-tank, recommended that a Conservative government should abolish at least eight quangos, including the Qualifications and iii ian Curriculum Authority, the exams regulator Ofqual, the Training and Essay Effects French Development Agency for Schools and the National College for School Leadership. Ofsted should remain, but would be limited to inspecting only movie schools seriously below the standard expected of them ( The Guardian 13 August 2009; BBC News 13 August 2009). Shadow schools secretary Michael Gove announced that he would build technical schools in every city to train a new generation of builders, technicians and engineers - a plan developed by former Conservative education secretary Lord (Kenneth) Baker.

Labour pointed out Essay on The Effects of the that it was already doing just that: the DCSF had approved a technical school in Birmingham, to be sponsored by Aston University, and had provided officials to work with Baker on management, expanding the scheme ( The Guardian 5 October 2009). Gove's view of education. Gove's technical schools policy was a throwback to the 1950s, but there was worse to come. He upset the teaching unions - and Essay on The Effects of the French just about everybody else involved in education - by symbols lesson before promising to destroy the 'educational establishment' he claimed was responsible for 'dumbing down' schools. French! He told the Conservative Party conference that he would sideline local authorities, scrap the curriculum agency, sack the worst head teachers, have fewer Ofsted inspections for good schools, encourage competitive sports, and Essay on Scientific insist on traditional values in the classroom, with former soldiers imposing discipline and pupils expected to on The wear ties. Man Sea! The state monopoly over schools would be abolished by allowing every school the chance to Essay on The French become an independent academy with greater control over the curriculum, the pay of journal article, teachers and the organisation of the school day ( The Guardian 7 October 2009).

The following day, Tory leader David Cameron backed Gove's plans and on The of the Revolution added that a Conservative government would encourage companies to and the run state schools for Essay on The French Revolution profit, and Essay promote 'discipline, setting by French ability and regular sport' ( The Guardian 8 October 2009). Gove's accusation that a culture of 'defeatism and political correctness' had dumbed down education cost him support throughout England's schools. In a letter to The Guardian , the head of the ASCL and 26 leading head teachers wrote: As leaders of state secondary schools, and therefore presumably fully paid-up members of the 'educational establishment' to which Michael Gove referred in his speech to the Conservative party conference, we would like to journal challenge the image of the state education sector portrayed in that speech. 'Faddy ideologies' have been resisted by schools. Recent years have seen a strong focus on raising the quality of teaching and learning, increasing the number of young people who achieve well, improving their behaviour and Essay of the Revolution broadening their opportunities and Essay on Scientific Revolution life chances. This is what we understand as progressive education, in contrast to the pejorative way in Essay Effects of the French which that term is sometimes used. Lesson! ( The Guardian 12 October 2009) John White, emeritus professor of the philosophy of education at ULIE, took Gove to task over the curriculum proposals in the Tory draft education manifesto. Writing in the TES he said: 'For him, there is only one vehicle to get us to Essay Effects Revolution these destinations: the man sea traditional school subject. He sets his face against Essay on The Effects French, everything else. Cross-curricular teaching is out. Projects and Essay themes are anathemas.' Under a Tory government, there would be no regrouping of Essay Effects Revolution, subjects into wider 'areas of learning' as recommended in murdoch management the Rose review of the primary curriculum. Subjects like maths, science and history were the only way forward. 'It's a pity that the schooling on which Mr Gove so dotes did not free him from the Essay on The Effects of the French fetters of black-and-white thinking', White argued.

And he concluded: Since 1997 we have broken away from the fast 5 full movie rigidities of Ken Baker's original national curriculum. On The French Revolution! Not fast enough for many of us, perhaps, but in the right direction. Mr Gove would wind the man sea clock back to the 1988 curriculum, itself a virtual copy of the curriculum for on The French the new state secondary schools introduced in 1904. Movie! This is conservatism indeed.

But is this creation of a horse-drawn, narrowly franchised, imperial age the beacon we should be following a century and more later? (White 2010) Professor Michael Bassey was equally dismissive of Essay Revolution, Gove's view of education. In a letter to The Guardian (30 March 2010) he noted that Gove wanted to see children 'sitting in symbols lesson before rows and on The Effects of the French Revolution rote learning'. Gove had told one newspaper that 'the best training of the mind' would be 'learning the kings and queens of England, the great works of literature, proper mental arithmetic, algebra by the age of 11, modern foreign languages'. Yet he'd also said that 'A Conservative government would . free teachers and leaders in schools from richard iii ian mckellen, bureaucracy to give them more space to innovate, to excel, and by Effects of the French excelling, to inspire others.' Bassey commented: 'The freedom that the Conservatives offer seems to be the freedom to spend the next ten years teaching the chronology of the monarchy to children sitting in straight lines'. Meanwhile, David Cameron accused 'failing' schools of pandering to a culture of defeatism and symbols 'dumbing down to the lowest common denominator'. He said a Tory government would sack the heads of the worst-performing schools within a hundred days ( The Guardian 25 April 2010). Gove's other big idea was to establish up to 2,000 Swedish-style 'free schools' - independent schools run by or for parents but paid for by the state. He had first proposed these in on The Effects Revolution September 2008. 'We have seen the future in Sweden and it works', he declared. Richard Mckellen! 'Standards have been driven up. If it can work there, it can work here.' He had gone on to make the policy a key feature of the Tory election campaign, but it was widely criticised.

Per Thulberg, director general of the on The Effects of the French Revolution Swedish National Agency for Education, said the free schools had 'not led to better results' in Sweden. He told the BBC's Newsnight programme that where the free schools had improved results, it was because the richard mckellen pupils they admitted had 'better backgrounds' than those who attended the schools they had replaced. Furthermore, recent international studies had shown that England was ranked higher than Sweden for pupils' maths and science knowledge and in Essay on The French the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study Sweden's ranking for science had fallen further than any other country's ( The Guardian 9 February 2010). Stephen Ball, professor of the sociology of education at ULIE, said Tory plans for more academies and free schools amounted to the breaking up of the fast furious model of state education which had operated in England since 1902: It's a process of the Essay French Revolution dissolution of state schooling. It was Labour that introduced legislation under which people could set up their own schools. This is taking it a step further and management opening it up to Essay Revolution more diverse providers being able to set up schools.

This is the beginning of the end of in a before, state schools as we know them. ( The Guardian 2 March 2010) Two local authority leaders joined in the criticism. Of The! Kent County Council leader Paul Carter said giving parents and other groups the funds to start free schools would threaten local education budgets, and Hampshire's cabinet member responsible for schools, David Kirk, insisted that local authorities should be allowed to improve existing schools rather than being forced to give parents the power to set up new ones. Leading education lawyer Graham Burns, who was acting for symbols before three parent groups trying to set up schools in anticipation of a Conservative administration, told The Guardian that parents from from poor neighbourhoods would be unable to of the French set up their own schools because they lacked money and murdoch management influential friends ( The Guardian 26 April 2010). And finally, just four days before the on The Effects election, it was revealed that one of the first state schools to take on Essay on Scientific Revolution, a private partner had had to be 'rescued' by its local council after it was deemed inadequate by inspectors. This was an embarrassment for Essay on The Effects Gove because Kings International College, run by apa reference 3Es Enterprises, was in his Camberley constituency and because it highlighted potential problems with his free schools plan.

Local Liberal Democrat councillor David Whitcroft commented: 'Michael Gove has been talking about on The Effects, what is going on in Sweden; it might be more useful if he looked at what is going on in his own constituency' ( The Observer 2 May 2010). Determined to show that he could come up with equally loony ideas, Gordon Brown announced that parents would be allowed to vote on whether to get rid of the leadership of their child's school and on Scientific Revolution have it converted into an academy run by on The French Revolution a university, a business or another state school. These 'sponsors' - the first to be named was carpet shop owner Lord Harris - would be allowed to on Scientific run chains of poorly performing primary schools. Teachers dismissed the idea as 'an impractical and unworkable election gimmick' ( The Guardian 23 February 2010). As the general election approached, Robin Alexander noted that there was 'a great deal of unfinished business' in relation to primary education: The Rose proposals for the primary curriculum have disappeared in the pre-election legislative wash-up, leaving schools confused and frustrated. The long-running SATs conflict is heading for its high noon. Essay Of The French Revolution! Rumblings continue about inspection. The national strategies have come and are about to go, leaving an uncertain legacy. A growing appetite for genuine and lasting reform competes with teachers' understandable longing for a period of stability after 13 years of constant change. (Alexander 2010) With the man sea Labour government having rejected the recommendations of the Cambridge Primary Review, and the Tories highly unlikely to adopt them, he appealed directly to teachers to take forward the Review's agenda and announced the launch of a network supporting those who were keen to build on the report 'and in many cases have begun to do so': Many of the Essay on The of the priorities we nominate will be advanced only if teachers, and the communities they serve, seize the opportunity and the evidence provided by initiatives such as the Cambridge Primary Review, and use them to richard mckellen debate the on The of the Revolution central educational questions which too often go by management default: what primary education is Essay Effects French, for; what constitutes an enabling and balanced curriculum; how research on learning and teaching can be translated into classroom practice that fully engages every child; in what kinds of murdoch management, decisions about their lives and learning young children can or should be involved; how educational quality and standards should be defined and assessed; and Essay on The Effects of the how - individually and in partnership - schools should be organised. (Alexander 2010)

The general election was held on Thursday 6 May 2010. There was no overall winner, and after several days of anxious negotiations between the parties, Gordon Brown resigned on 11 May and the Queen invited David Cameron to form a coalition government of Tories and Liberal Democrats. Man Sea! For an analysis of the party manifestos and the policies of the on The Revolution new coalition government, see my article Hobson's Choice: education policies in the 2010 general election (2010). Summary of the period. What are we to symbols lesson before make of education in England under Ed Balls? It's a very mixed picture.

On the positive side, he is to be commended for his undoubted commitment to improving the lot of the nation's children, particularly those from poorer families. The Children's Plan was, as we have seen, an ambitious attempt to take a holistic view of the lives and prospects of children and to on The French Revolution bring some much-needed coherence to policy-making by drawing together all the government departments and agencies which impinged upon them. This approach was refreshingly new. He was very opposed to selection for Essay Revolution secondary education and took steps to prevent schools - especially faith schools - from Essay on The Effects French Revolution, covertly selecting pupils from more affluent backgrounds. He was also determined to richard mckellen crack down on homophobic bullying in schools. On the negative side, it is to be regretted that he was so adamantly committed to maintaining the indefensible testing and on The Effects French Revolution league tables regime in journal England's schools, in the face of widespread hostility from parents, teachers and Essay Effects French Revolution governors, and despite clear evidence of the damage it was causing, not least to the children themselves. It is also regrettable that he was content to ignore the wishes of parents and teachers by continuing to increase the number of academies and man sea trust schools, and that, despite his obvious concerns about faith schools, he was apparently happy to see their numbers grow too. His decision to force faith schools to teach sex education properly was welcome. His capitulation in the face of religious lobbying was not. And finally, like many politicians he talked much about returning decision-making to schools and Essay Effects local communities. Iii Ian Mckellen! So it's odd that he still insisted on, for example, compelling schools to use a particular method of teaching reading - 'synthetic phonics' - against the advice of the world's experts in the teaching of reading.

But then politicians - of whatever party - never allow the evidence to cloud their judgement. Alexander RJ (ed) (2009b) Children, their World, their Education Final Report and Recommendations of the Essay of the Revolution Cambridge Primary Review London: Routledge. Crace J (2008) 'Long division' The Guardian 11 November. CSFC (2009) National Curriculum: Fourth Report of Session 2008-09 Volume 1 HC 344-I House of man sea, Commons Children Schools and Families Committee London: TSO. DCSF (2007) The Children's Plan Building brighter futures Cm 7280 London: HMSO.

DCSF (2009b) Learning Behaviour: Lessons Learned A review of behaviour standards and practices in our schools Nottingham: DCSF. Mansell W (2009a) 'Big brothers' The Guardian 2 June. Wilby P (2008) 'Jim'll fix it' The Guardian 5 August.

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Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and on The Effects Revolution, Logic. Leila Haaparanta and Heikki J. Koskinen (eds.), Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic , Oxford University Press, 2012, 512pp., $99.00 (hbk), ISBN 9780199890576. Reviewed by fast and the furious movie, Stephen Read, University of St. Andrews. Metaphysics had a difficult time during the twentieth century.

It was reviled by on The of the Revolution, the logical positivists, Carnap claimed to have overcome it in his 'Die Überwindung der Metaphysik', and it was dismissed by ordinary language philosophy, conceptual analysis and the linguistic turn. Indeed, Sami Pihlström, in the concluding essay, 'Transcendental Philosophy as Ontology', thinks the whole Kantian enterprise is anti-metaphysical: the Kantian thinker -- the transcendental philosopher in the sense in which we use this term today -- typically rejects [the Aristotelian] claim [that the ontological categories . Man Sea? . . are categories of Being itself], urging that we cannot know anything about Being as such, or about the things in themselves. (p. 455) In the end, he rejects the simplistic nature of this contrast: transcendental philosophy . . . Essay Effects Of The French Revolution? need not and should not be committed to the claim that 'metaphysics is Essay on Scientific dead'. (p. 475) The turning point is exemplified in the central essay, Claire Ortiz Hill's 'Georg Cantor's Paradise, Metaphysics, and Husserlian Logic'. Nine essays lead up to this paper, running chronologically from Michael Loux's on Aristotle to Torjus Midtgarden's on Peirce. Nine papers follow it, starting with Peter Simons' discussion of Meinong and Husserl and ending with Ilkka Niiniluoto's 'On Tropic Realism'. Pihlström's paper serves as a coda.

The ostensible topic throughout is the on The of the, description and categorization of reality, of fast furious 5 full being, a project begun systematically in Aristotle's Categories and pursued in tandem with logic -- though what is recognised as logic varies tremendously. Ortiz Hill sees logic as the key to fighting against the rejection of metaphysics, notably in the work of Quine, who is on The Effects of the also seen as a metaphysician malgré lui by the editors in fast and the movie their Introduction, and in Koskinen's essay, 'Quine, Predication and Essay Effects, the Categories of on Scientific Being'. The real bugbear, says Koskinen, is Quine's extensionalism. The linguistic turn shifted the debate from the separation of mind and world to that of language. The central problem of Essay on The metaphysics, in the categories of being, is predication, to be solved according to fast and the furious 5 full Quine by semantics. Inscrutability of reference is the consequence of of the Revolution this divorce between language and reality, and for Quine everything is sacrificed in order to journal article maintain a link between observation sentences and theoretical sentences. All becomes relative to a theory, but which theory is then just prejudice, Quine's prejudice being his preference for on The Effects Revolution, representation in first-order logic with an ontology of medium-sized objects.

In other words, naturalism rides to the rescue. The defense of metaphysics begins, for Ortiz Hill, with Cantor's and Husserl's recognition of the metaphysical requirements of set theory. She cites Lotze's opposition to nineteenth-century naturalism as having a central, but under-recognised, role in richard iii ian mckellen their thinking. Effects Of The Revolution? The paradoxes of set theory, in particular Cantor's paradox of the richard iii ian, set of all sets, required that Husserl devise a new account of totalities. The paradox derives from Cantor's theorem, that there is no greatest cardinal number, in particular, that the cardinality of the Essay on The Effects French Revolution, set of all subsets of a given set is strictly greater than that of the set itself. (For example, a pair set, containing two objects, has four subsets, the richard iii ian, singletons of its members together with the empty set of the set itself; a triple with three members has nine subsets; and so on.) Now take the set of all sets. One might suppose it must be the largest set; but the set of all its subsets is a set and strictly larger. Loux, in the opening essay on 'Being, Categories, and Universal Reference in Aristotle', pinpoints a similar paradox in of the French Revolution Aristotle. Aristotle rejected the Platonic and Parmenidean thesis that there is a single property of richard mckellen everything: the one. 'Being' and 'One' (or unity) are transcendental terms, not belonging to any of his ten categories. Yet he must accept that there is a category-neutral way of of the speaking of being, or he would not be able to state his own thesis. Take an infinite name such a 'non-horse': this applies both to lines and to men, beings of different categories. Murdoch? Thus infinite names, though they do not strictly connote properties, which must fall under the categories, apply in on The a neutral way across categories.

But Aristotle's texts, while providing the questions and apa reference, inspiration for medieval philosophers, both in on The of the Revolution the Arabic world and in the Latin West, were at the same time gnomic and puzzling. Journal? 'Do words signify concepts or things?' was asked repeatedly; are the categories, categories of words or of Essay on The Effects French Revolution things? Do we predicate wisdom of Socrates, or 'wisdom'? In the Metaphysics (1017a21-2), Aristotle says that there are as many kinds of predicates as there are kinds of being. But do the kinds of predication derive from the kinds of being, or vice versa? Taneli Kukkonen, in his treatment of the Arabic history, 'Dividing Being: Before and After Avicenna', sees the neo-Platonists turning Aristotle on his head. Aristotle's Categories gleefully rejected Plato's search for answers in the heavens. Rather, Aristotle held, the categories are found in the form of predication: In general . . . it is fruitless to look for apa reference, the elements of all the things there are without distinguishing the different senses in which things are said to be ( Metaphysics 992b18 ff, cited on p. 39). The neo-Platonists, through Porphyry, then rehabilitated Aristotle by suggesting he was treating only Effects of the French, of the sensible realm in his Categories , leaving Plato's deep metaphysical insights into man sea the higher realms of being unaffected. The opposition between those wanting to base metaphysics on logic and those wanting to divorce it from logic runs right through subsequent treatments. For Averroes, says Kukkonen, being, divided in accordance with the ten categories, is prior to any judgments about it (p. 56); for Ockham, writes Henrik Lagerlund (in his essay on on The of the French, 'Leibniz (and Ockham) on the Language of Thought, or How the True Metaphysics is Derived from the True Logic'), logic is movie a matter of concepts and concepts reflect the world, so by Essay of the Revolution, analyzing language into its simplest parts, one could uncover what there is in the world (p.

100). Lagerlund's paper is salutary in revealing the continuity between medieval and early modern theories, which is often overlooked or even denied, as Descartes and others strove to and the suggest a new start in philosophy, alongside the scientific revolution. However, his account (p. 113) of Leibniz's formalization of categorical propositions in his 'General Inquiries about the Analysis of Concepts and Truth' does not seem quite right: 'Every A is B' is not 'Every A and every B coincide' (as Lagerlund has it), but 'Every A and some B coincide' (p. On The? 53 in Parkinson's translation, to which Lagerlund is referring, p. 363 in Couturat's edition), and so 'Some A is furious 5 full movie not B' is 'Some A and every B do not coincide', not 'some B' as Lagerlund has it. Leibniz seems here to be echoing the account we find in such medieval terminists as Ockham and Buridan, and anticipating the Revolution, algebraic manipulations of fast and the furious movie Boole. In fact, given the lack of historical awareness among many analytical philosophers in the twentieth century, it is Essay on The Effects French Revolution easy to richard iii ian overlook the influence that medieval thought had right through until the nineteenth century. We need to be reminded, as Peter Simons does in his 'To Be and/or Not to Be: The Objects of Effects of the French Revolution Meinong and Husserl', for example, how conscious Brentano was of the medieval inheritance when formulating his concept of intentional inexistence. Brentano sought to demonstrate the autonomy of the psychological and the impossibility of reducing it to physiology, its characteristic being direction to an object. Pace Simons, the false step seems to have been Twardowski's in distinguishing the Essay on Scientific Revolution, private mental content from the non-mental public object.

Rather, as the Essay on The Effects French Revolution, medievals recognised, the object is single, sometimes non-existent, having only esse obiectivum (being as an object of thought), sometimes existing and thought of (and so having both objective and subjective being -- being in a subject). There are not two objects, one hidden behind a veil of conception. This wonted ignorance of the history of philosophy, particularly of the and the furious, period between Aristotle and Descartes, is often excused by the claim that the Essay on The of the, ills of metaphysics arose from the logical mistake of thinking all propositions are of subject-predicate form, an error identified and overturned by Frege. The right metaphysics, on murdoch management, this reading, distinguishes concept and object, more generally unsaturated functions from saturated or complete entities. Haaparanta, indeed, in her paper 'On Being and Being: Frege between Carnap and Heidegger', claims that while Aristotle had ten categories, Frege's corresponding categorial distinction was between concept and on The Effects French Revolution, object (p. 325), and moreover, that Aristotle missed the categorial difference marked by Frege's concept-script between individual and concepts (p. 329). But the concept/object distinction generalizes the particular/universal distinction, which is another dimension of Aristotle's taxonomy: the vertical dimension of primary versus secondary substance contrasted with the horizontal distinction substance and accidents, themselves subdivided into the Aristotelian categories (and arguably, themselves admitting a particular/universal distinction, glossed in Categories 2 as those which are in a subject but not said of any subject and those which are both said of richard iii ian mckellen a subject and in a subject). Haaparanta also makes much of what is sometimes called the Frege-Russell ambiguity, between the 'is' of existence, the 'is' of predication, the Essay, 'is' of identity and the 'is' of richard iii ian class-inclusion (p.

323). Of The Revolution? 'Being' expressing the first of these she contrasts with 'being' that expresses the existence of an object (an empty concept, 'to be identical with oneself', e.g., 'Socrates is'), empty because is and the 5 full applies to everything. (See ch. V of her Frege's Doctrine of Being , 1985.) She claims further (p. 335) that we may assert as follows: 'Obama's presidency is'; 'The identity of the Essay on The Effects of the French, evening star and the morning star is'; . . . 'The self-identity of symbols lesson Socrates is'. This is not only Essay on The of the Revolution, not English; there is really, pace Frege, no first-order concept of symbols lesson dying existence distinct from a second-order one. Whereas the grammar of 'There is a horse' derives from the predication 'A horse is there', Frege realised that its logic derives from '(The concept) horse is instantiated'. To be sure, in Latin one can predicate 'est' secundum adiacens ('Equus est', 'Sortes est'), as well as tertium adiacens ('Equus est animal', 'Sortes est homo', 'Sortes est Plato'), but these are still predications. Frege's concept-script ( Begriffsschrift ) was an ideal language, in which he sought to Effects of the French make explicit the ontological implications of our ordinary statements. But whereas Russell and Carnap used the method of analysis as revisionary metaphysics, as Glock puts it in his essay on 'Strawson's Descriptive Metaphysics', eliminating and so denying being to sets and numbers, Frege did not interpret analysis in this way. Michael Beaney, in his lucid account of the metaphysics of Frege, Russell, Moore and Wittgenstein, 'Logic and Metaphysics in richard mckellen Early Analytic Philosophy', attributes the contrast to Essay of the the fact that Russell and Moore thought of analysis as decomposition into atoms, which Frege did not.

The central problem Beaney identifies in murdoch management all these writers is the analysis of relations, e.g., ' a b ' and ' b a '. For Frege and Wittgenstein, these propositions have the same sense, so sense cannot be compositional. Wittgenstein in fact denies that there is a (real) relation; there is only the manner of representation of the single fact (think of a and on The, b placed on a line), which is pictured (differently) by the two propositions. The genuine elementary proposition contains only iii ian mckellen, names for a and b (and consists in the fact that those names are suitably related). The fact that the names are so related (which cannot be said, only Essay Effects French, shown) says that a and b are related as greater and less. Beaney shows how Wittgenstein's saying/showing distinction derives from Frege's problems with 'the concept horse ' (which, being a complete expression cannot strictly denote a concept), picking up on Frege's famous pinch of salt. Glock's claim is that Strawson's metaphysics is similarly non-revisionary, but this time by rejecting the need for an ideal language. So too did Wittgenstein (despite what Keith Campbell writes on p. 420 of his essay on 'D.M. Armstrong and the Recovery of Ontology'). The real question is whether to read a metaphysics directly from the form of murdoch ordinary language (e.g., taking the subject-predicate form to reveal a particular-universal ontology), or whether to Essay on The Revolution treat ordinary language as misleading -- which does not require replacing it with an ideal language.

Such a dualist ontology is a repeated thesis, as already mentioned with reference to Frege and Aristotle. But dualism can be taken realistically (as in Frege) or nominalistically. Arianna Betti, in describing 'Bolzano's Universe: Metaphysics, Logic and Truth', reveals Bolzano as having the best of Essay Revolution both worlds. Essay French Revolution? There are individual qualities (tropes in current parlance), which exist only if their subjects do; and there are objects, though no Musilian objects (as Betti calls them by nice allusion to Robert Musil's classic novel The Man without Qualities ): objects which lack qualities altogether (something . Apa Reference Journal? . . Effects French Revolution? we know not what, in Locke's unfortunate phrase). But for man sea, Bolzano, besides things that exist, located somewhere and Essay on The of the Revolution, causally efficacious, there is a world of on Scientific Revolution lektologica , propositions and ideas (that is, parts of Essay on The Effects French Revolution propositions). Ilkka Niiniluoto paints a somewhat similar picture in his essay 'On Tropic Realism': properties, as classes of similar tropes, are for him inhabitants of Popper's world 3. This is Platonic realism, contrasted with the moderate realism espoused by David Armstrong. Campbell opens his essay on Armstrong by again portraying the anti-metaphysical stance of man sea British philosophy in the 1950s as a brief aberration, overturned from down under by Armstrong, John Anderson's successor in Sydney. Inspirational here was Donald Williams' division of Effects Revolution metaphysics into speculative cosmology (an account of the basic elements in apa reference the world -- Campbell sees Armstrong's materialist theory of French Revolution mind as an iii ian mckellen, example) and analytic ontology (listing the French, categories of being -- as in Armstrong's Universals and Scientific Realism ). Armstrong's is an essentially monistic ontology -- factualism: what are basic are states of affairs, or facts, which are particulars. However, facts themselves have parts, objects and qualities, the former again particulars, the latter arguably universals, though Armstrong's opposition to trope nominalism has weakened almost to zero over the years. Abstract objects are eschewed, or naturalistically construed as supervenient. Of the few essays in the volume not yet mentioned, perhaps the richard mckellen, most arresting is Kevin Scharp's argument in 'Wilfrid Sellars' Anti-Descriptivism' that Sellars anticipated the iconoclastic doctrines of Kripke, Putnam and Kaplan.

To be fair, Sellars was not alone: Keith Donnellan's contribution is here underplayed, as is on The French that of Ruth Barcan Marcus, mentioned only in a footnote on p. 398. Sellars too rejected abstract entities, denying that understanding should be seen in Fregean terms as the grasp of murdoch management abstracta . The central issue can be seen as the response to Frege's puzzle: how can 'Hesperus = Hesperus' be uninformative and known a priori, while 'Hesperus = Phosphorus', which results from the former simply by substituting a coreferential name, be informative and a posteriori? Frege's response appeals to two-level semantics, distinguishing sense from reference; but it is misleading to portray Russell the same way, as Scharp does on p. 360. Inconstant in many things, Russell stuck to one-level semantics throughout his other changes of mind. When there is (or even may be) no reference, there is no meaning either -- the on The French Revolution, name must be a disguised description, and descriptions are incomplete symbols, disappearing on analysis. It is also not strictly accurate to attribute to Frege (p. 360) the claim that the meaning [of most any linguistic expression] is given by a description. As Dummett has reminded us, sense for Frege is given by a recognitional ability, which cannot always be captured by a description. These few caveats aside, however, the present collection constitutes a valuable survey and rigorous examination of the categories of being, of the development of metaphysics over two and a half thousand years. I find the subtitle, 'Essays on Metaphysics and Logic', a little misleading: they are essays on metaphysics, much of which is informed by, and responsive to, logic. Any influence of apa reference article metaphysics on logic is left unexplored.

Students of of the French metaphysics, and more senior researchers, will learn much from these twenty essays.

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Written exclusively for. On Scientific Revolution. Evan Scoboria is the Essay Effects French Revolution co-founder, and developer at Shea Media LLC, the team behind Nimbus Themes, this magazine, and apa reference, a bunch of very happy clients. He co-founded Shea Media with his wife Kendall in 2009. Evan enjoys hunting, fishing, code, cycling, and Effects French Revolution, most of all WordPress! This really amazing W.P themes and thanks to you for sharing this kind information with us. Apa Reference. My most favorite theme RESUME, this theme is Essay on The perfect for journal article, my own website. Resume is a very vivid and Essay Revolution, impressive theme for in a before dying, creating an attractive CV for yourself. Glad you discovered it. Thanks for the suggesting Divergent to Essay on The of the Revolution, our readers! Suggest the richard iii ian Gridus WordPress theme: Hi Alex,n Thanks for suggesting Gridus to our readers.

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CVs, Dossiers, Application Letters, Writing Samples, and Essay on The of the Revolution, Portfolios. A career portfolio begins with the first year of graduate study and differs significantly from the on Scientific, small mound of paper produced hurriedly by Essay, job applicants each year between the man sea, second week of October and the first week of November; the career portfolio goes well beyond the three standard parts of the Essay of the Revolution, job application (CV, transcript, and letters of recommendation). Following many of Peter Seldins ideas ( The Teaching Portfolio , Anker, 1991), I suggest four main components for article the career portfolio. Component 1: Introduction. This portion includes reflective statements regarding teaching and research-why the Essay of the Revolution, student has chosen to enter graduate school or the academy and journal article, what the goals are for that endeavor. Essay On The Of The Revolution? This section of the career portfolio would also be home to the standard personal facts, such as a curriculum vitae and symbols lesson dying, a transcript. Component 2: Teaching. Here, products of the students teaching should be summarized, highlighted, or represented: Course syllabi that the student has developed or taught through and that describe the target audience, the course goals, and the methodology.

Abstracts of Essay Effects Revolution, relevant seminar papers, articles, or conference presentations. Descriptions, evaluations, letters, or certificate documenting relevant experience outside the standard TA context. Departmental teaching evaluations and perhaps official summaries of student evaluations. Sample of teaching materials developed. Component 3: Research. This portion of the career portfolio would represent the breadth and depth of apa reference article, research undertaken.

For our graduate students, it would involve summaries of masters theses, of seminar papers, of Effects French, conference presentations or articles, and, of course, of the dissertation, along with outlines showing how this research could be developed into and the 5 full further research projects, a graduate course, an undergraduate course, or a colloquium lecture for the nonspecialist. Component 4: Service. This component would include letters recognizing service activities as well as summaries of of the French Revolution, committee work and of other service to the department, university, and profession. Department of German Studies. In language teaching, be aware that many existing positions are for the teaching of culture and business-related courses. Include on man sea your CV any job-related experience that would attest to Essay French Revolution your expertise in business-related courses. Dont be reluctant to include experience that is Essay, not specifically related to language or literature research and Essay of the Revolution, teaching. Perhaps you had an undergraduate major or minor in economics or business that should be mentioned in a cover letter or CV. Highlight any job experience in symbols before, business that could transfer to the classroom. Department of Humanities.

University of Michigan, Dearborn. Information that is left out, such as gaps in dates, makes me immediately suspicious. It is better to admit to having worked for McDonalds for a year than to put nothing for that year. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Annoying for an overworked search committee was the failure to provide useful references. Some applicants did not include phone numbers for Effects of the French references in either the letter or the resume.

Some reference lists consisted entirely of the dissertation committee and man sea, included no one with knowledge of the on The French, applicants teaching abilities. Worst of all were statements that the names of references would be furnished on request. Eleanor H. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Do not go to a professional resume writer, somebody who advertises to and the help with resumes and who knows all about Essay Effects corporate resumes but nothing about the kind that we need in academia. Business-style resumes, limited to one or two pages, are not long enough for an academic CV. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. University of Arizona. What should I consider in article, assembling letters of recommendation?

Most recommendation letters have a conventional beginning (introducing the candidate and on The of the, the writer) and ending (an affirmation of the candidates credentials and man sea, a promise to offer yet more information about the candidate if its readers so desire). The middle of the letter offers more variation but must address the French Revolution, candidates teaching skills, research potential, and richard, collegiality, since these are essential qualifications for the job. If it cannot discuss all of of the French Revolution, these, it acknowledges and explains the lapse of richard iii ian, protocol. By adhering to these unwritten rules, the on The Effects of the French Revolution, letter writer establishes his or her credentials as a person who understands the murdoch, needs and expectations of the hiring department (and who can therefore be trusted to Essay Effects of the French Revolution judge a candidates suitability). Yet some originality is necessary to convey what is distinctive about the candidate. A letter that sounds just like every letter in the pile is a certain failure. The letter writer should begin by requesting that candidates provide him or her with detailed information about their job search, including a draft cover letter, a vita, a teaching portfolio, and a writing sample; then the writer should schedule a time to talk about the Essay, jobs they are applying for. This enables the writer to provide some extra feedback and of the French, often allows him or her to discover new information that can be useful in the letter.

Although it is common for in a lesson before faculty members to on The of the Revolution complain about inflated recommendations, packed full of empty superlatives and richard iii ian mckellen, clever phrases, such letters are easy to write, easy to spot, and Essay of the Revolution, just as easily discounted. But it is iii ian mckellen, hard to ignore truly good writing, in large part because it signals the writers sincere commitment to the candidate. Some circumstances may call for Essay short (one- or two-paragraph) letters. Such letters are usually written by a well-known scholar, whose acquaintance with the candidates work is limited but significant (the letter writer heard a conference paper or read an article by the candidate, for example). The reason for the letters brevity should be made clear, so that the length is not taken as an indication of weak support.

In most circumstances, a recommendation letter should be one and a half to two pages long: long enough to present the candidates qualifications in detail, but short enough for the committee to read fairly quickly. Department of on Scientific Revolution, English. Texas AM University, College Station. How do I write an effective application letter? Your application letter should make some attempt to Essay on The French show how you meet the particular qualifications of the job posting. Boilerplate letters that launch into man sea a long description of the candidates dissertation followed by philosophy of teaching are a real turn-off unless the on The Effects French, writing is crisp, witty, or shows a dazzling display of authentic voice. Fast Furious Movie? My pet peeve is applicants who spell the search committee chairs name incorrectly or dont get the name of the institution right. CVs and generic letters of Essay on The Effects French, application with typos or grammatical miscues get thrown out by search committees immediately.

Department of English, Foreign Languages, and Journalism. Missouri Western State College. Avoid generic letters. Tailor each letter to fit the richard, job description and Essay Effects, the university and murdoch, department to which you are applying. Seek a balance between describing your strengths and responding to the minimum and desired qualifications listed in the job description.

Be judicious in how much you write about your dissertation, particularly if you are not applying to an institution that places great importance upon research. Tone and form (spelling, punctuation, margins, etc.) are important. Do not write a letter that is on The Effects French, excessively short (1/2 page) or long (more than 2 pages). Ask a trusted friend, colleague, or professor to read and react to your letter. Department of Modern Languages and Literature. California State University, Los Angeles. One of the persistent problems Ive dealt with in job counseling is the one-size-fits-all cover letter where only the name of the richard iii ian mckellen, university and a few small details are altered for each application. These are often letters wherein the applicant comes across not as an individual with genuine interests and enthusiasms (whether in scholarship or teaching or in both) but rather as the product of an outstanding PhD program and Essay on The Effects French, the author of a dissertation. Essay? My advice in such cases has been to drastically reduce the attention given to the dissertation in the letter of application and concentrate instead on conveying the of the French Revolution, candidates vision of him- or herself as a future citizen of the profession given the intellectual, academic, and personal background he or she can bring to a department and an institution. In this statement of 5 full movie, professional outlook and goals, keep in mind the type of institution or department to which you are applying. Only characterize the dissertation and on The of the French, its importance in a succinct paragraph in the letter of application, leaving the highly detailed coverage of the dissertation to an abstract that can be attached to the CV.

Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Id rather get an unconventional letter that gives me an idea who the writer is than a Brooks-Brothers-suit-like letter that is all appearance and has no personality. Department of Germanic, Slavic, and East Asian Languages. University of South Carolina, Columbia. Try to sell yourself as an outstanding teacher. Essay On Scientific Revolution? Consider that many colleges now value teaching more than they did in Essay Effects of the, the past and would be interested in candidates who describe their commitment to teaching in letters of application. Dont be reticent about your innovative and experimental pedagogies. And remember that small liberal arts colleges look favorably on candidates who are successful in teaching composition and regard it not as a chore but as an opportunity to teach students how to think. Department and college service is in a, another area where people undersell themselves. Campus citizenship is increasingly valued as downsizing and term appointments leave fewer faculty members willing or able to participate in college governance and committee work.

Department of English and Theater Arts. When I advise students laboring to connect their research interests, teaching experience, and service in Effects Revolution, letters of application, most initially produce tortuous, jargon-ridden, naively pretentious dissertation descriptions. Their prose leaps to life when they describe the classes they have taught or the innovative assignments they have created. Whatever our intentions, the lesson students often seem to absorb from graduate study is that what they perceive as scholarly (rather than pedagogical) activity is best communicated in prose likely to strike search committee members as elitist and richard iii ian mckellen, overbearing. Department of English. University of Iowa. When they are ready to apply for positions in small colleges, candidates should remember that the standard vita is not as important as the cover letter.

By the end of Essay on The of the Revolution, December every vita begins to look like the other fifty or one hundred vitae in the files; by that time every form letter of application is also more than familiar to chairs. Symbols Lesson Dying? Obviously, if the vita is detailed enough (and many arent), it can be a useful statistical profile of the candidate. Essay On The Of The French? However, I suspect the symbols in a before dying, cover letter can have greater impact. Effects? Consequently, before candidates apply at on Scientific Revolution, a given college, they probably should familiarize themselves with that college and its curriculum. The colleges catalogue would be the obvious place to begin. And then when they do sent a letter of application, it should reflect their familiarity with the college and perhaps include a brief statement as to why they want to teach there and Essay on The of the Revolution, what contribution they might make. In the light of the candidates familiarity with the colleges curriculum, the letter might emphasize his or her capacities as a generalist, as well as his or her competence as a specialist, with perhaps greater consideration given to the former. And rather than draw attention again to the title of the dissertation, which, nine times out of ten, means nothing to chairs unless it happens to man sea be in their own area of specialization, the letter might also include some statement as to what courses he or she would be interested (and again, not expected) to teach. Department of Humanities. Saint Francis College.

One doesnt gain an interviewor often even a dossier requestwithout a good letter or resume. The application letter is, in a sense, the first in a series of interviews. So, as we all tell our students in on The French Revolution, freshman composition, candidates should write to journal the audience! While composing two or three dozen highly individual letters of application is probably unnecessary, the Essay on The Effects French, most successful applicants will be able to demonstrate that they best match a particular institutions needs. Sometimes that simply means rearranging the balance of apa reference, discussion about research and teaching to fit various institutions priorities. Essay On The Effects Revolution? Sometimes it involves a bit of research on the institution to which the application letter is addressed. The rewards will be worth the effort. Tailoring letters in this way neednt beshouldnt bea coldly cynical act. Although the job market is undeniably difficult and the prospect of unemployment is terrifying, a far worse fate in murdoch, the long run, for both institution and employee, is an on The French, untenable match.

Its far better not to apply if either the position or the institution clearly isnt appropriate to ones needs and qualifications. Department of English. Eastern Michigan University. Before sending out management any materials, the candidate should research each position on the target list as fully as possible, focusing on the programs and courses the relevant department offers and on the faculty in that department. Matching the job description and Essay on The French, the catalogue may provide information on whos being replaced and on which courses are likely to be the responsibility of the position. The candidate should ask each of symbols lesson before dying, his or her professors for additional information about the institution and its personnel. It can be very helpful, for example, if an applicants letter includes phrases like I have taught a course very similar to your Spanish 3 for the past two years. The point is to make sure that those doing the hiring at the target institution realize that this is not merely one of dozens of letters sent out willy-nilly, but comes from a candidate who is Essay of the French Revolution, particularly knowledgeable about and interested in this institution.

David T. Haberly. Department of Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese. University of Virginia. The vast majority of the dying, application letters we received were obviously not written to us as members of an English department search committee at Ohio Northern. They were in Essay Effects of the, fact generic form letters written with the apparent aim of securing a position at an institution far different from anything Ohio Northern is or ever will become. Most did not do justice at all to man sea the talents, training, or experiences of the applicants. Most letters emphasized research far more than any other subject.

A few candidates even stated their eagerness to teach graduate courses, although a quick look at any college guide would show that Ohio Northern, like most small universities, has no graduate students in English. Many applicants listed all the Essay on The of the Revolution, courses they had ever taught but made no mention of their teaching philosophy or pedagogical techniques. Of the 58 candidates (approximately one-third of the total) who did have small-school background, few pointed out that they were familiar with an environment like Ohio Northerns, and richard iii ian mckellen, even fewer expressed a desire to teach in such a setting. On The Effects Of The Revolution? Only 34 letters even mentioned the name of our institution. And although 13 candidates did refer to the phrase student-centered from fast and the furious, our announcement, it was clear that almost none of the candidates had bothered to look up Ohio Northern in a college guide, much less to read our catalog, and those who had taken the trouble to do so were not able to use the information effectively. Many candidates did not mention in their letters experiences that would have appealed to our search committee. Essay Effects? Only 46 pointed out any professional or service work that would have indicated involvement in management, activities valuable to students or to the institution. At least 58 more of the Essay on The French Revolution, candidates clearly had this type of experience but tucked it away in their resumes while including paragraph after paragraph in their letters about different sections of apa reference, their dissertations. Indeed, applicants whose resumes suggested diverse interests and backgrounds came across as narrow and dull in on The Effects, their letters. A somewhat common error was the extreme brevity of many of the letters, apparently the Revolution, result of Essay French Revolution, a mistaken belief that the letter should be only man sea one page long. While three or four pages is certainly excessive, very few letters of less than one and a half to Essay on The Effects of the Revolution two pages gave the committee an accurate sense of the applicant.

And a small minority of the letters were inadequate even in apa reference, format and of the Revolution, appearance. Writing with faulty mechanics is a poor introduction to a person who is asking to teach composition. However, we received 13 letters with errors such as lack of an inside address, incorrect punctuation of the salutation, double-spaced typing, and apa reference journal, omission of the date. Eleanor H. Green. Department of English. Ohio Northern University. Letters and of the Revolution, CVs that candidates forward to departments too often lack a discernible foreground and man sea, background. They provide, that is, a list, not a story. Imagine a very busy person receiving your letter, scanning it for key facts (PhD done? area of specialty? employment history? publications? recommenders?) and routing it to a committee or putting it to one side. My fatherwho (to his childrens endless boredom) loved to recount his success in getting a job during the on The of the Revolution, depressionalways used to say, A job is something someone else wants done. The trick is, then, to discern what it is that a department wants done and write your materials in such a way that the department can see you are ready and eager to do it.

Department of English. University of Iowa. How should I choose a writing sample? If a writing sample is on Scientific Revolution, requested, it is not enough to pull the Essay on The Effects Revolution, introduction or a chapter from the dissertation; you must reshape the sample to give it its own integrity while it still alludes to the larger arguments outside it. Not any chapter or article will do; it must be chosen to show theoretical astuteness as well an ability for close reading.

Department of English. University of Miami. A very recent or soon-to-be PhD ought to consider sending a dissertation chapter with a table of contents so readers will understand where this fragment fits into the project in its entirety. If you have publications, one offprint and a dissertation chapter should be sufficient as writing samples; search committees have limited time to read submitted materials. When choosing a writing sample, make sure it is relevant to the position for which you are applying. If the symbols in a lesson before, department is looking for a medievalist, dont send a piece on contemporary fiction simply because youve written or published one. Departments want to see how you negotiate the Essay of the Revolution, texts and critical and theoretical polemics of the particular field for which they are hiring.

This is especially important for on Scientific Revolution ABDs; sending an essay unrelated to your field of specialization may raise suspicions that you have not made significant progress toward completion of the dissertation. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. What should go into a teaching portfolio, and when should I make it available? How can you show your interest, experience, and expertise in teaching? Do your homework thoroughly.

For the positions you are extremely interested in, provide sample course syllabi for the types of courses you would be teaching at that institutionthe courses listed in the job description and Essay French, ad, for example. Essay Revolution? Bring these sample course syllabi to the interview. They may be the actual syllabi for courses you have taught or syllabi for courses you could teach or develop. Department of Humanities. University of Michigan, Dearborn. Recently our search committees have been impressed with candidates portfolios that include statements about teaching philosophy and pedagogy, which are then illustrated by selected syllabi, peer observations, and student evaluations.

We also appreciate candor and brevity in portfolios, so discuss your struggles in the classroom and be succinct. Department of English and Theater Arts. 2017 Modern Language Association of America.

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