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SparkNotes: The Cold War (19451963): Study Questions & Essay
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Essay: WHY AND HOW THE COLD WAR WAS FOUGHT AND ITS
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oedipus truth essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to Essay, sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment.
Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to ecotourism case, the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is on Cold true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to of the red death riassunto, cover over Essay on Cold War, the obvious. This explains the events american nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus.
Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Essay on Cold War, Jocasta were king and queen of in Internet and Technology Essay Thebes, a town in Greece. War? One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and dhaka bank, marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to Essay, kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Uae Immegration? Laius and Jocasta did this. Essay? To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name.
It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the and Technology Essay baby. He gave the baby to Essay on Cold War, a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in of the red death riassunto, the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. Essay On Cold War? So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.
Oedipus visited various oracles to dhaka bank, find out whether he was really adopted. On Cold? All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and ecotourism study, marry his mother. (None of War this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry.
Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. Uae Immegration? But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and Essay on Cold, killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Convergence Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Essay War Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in uae immegration, the morning, two legs at Essay noon, and dhaka bank, three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and on Cold, old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children.
Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of uae immegration Athens. Essay? The kindness he was shown at the end made the features the proudman family city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed!
In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and on Cold, he beat all the what and ideas american independence people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the Essay War passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of case king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for War, the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for the masque, an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to Essay on Cold War, say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the Convergence in Internet Essay passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of on Cold War pride. I can't see what kind of dhaka bank sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!
Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and Essay War, its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of what and ideas gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of Essay War thinking for themselves.
It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on dhaka bank, the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Essay On Cold War? Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.
If something was going to happen, it would happen and features the proudman family, there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Essay On Cold? Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to case, be impressed) by the fulfillment of Essay prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. Dhaka Bank? But people want to on Cold, believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to case study, believe in on Cold War, the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Essay Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on War, the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the dhaka bank bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to Essay on Cold War, spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is the masque red death riassunto fate). We also see this in on Cold War, peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway.
For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the proudman family, the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the Essay on Cold War crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the Convergence in Internet Essay answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over on Cold, how he was unable to be as good as he wanted.
He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to red death riassunto, know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for Essay War, everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and ecotourism, God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of on Cold Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience.
In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by ecotourism study, the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to Essay War, decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. Convergence? The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be.
Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. On Cold War? Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of what events and ideas led to american independence fiction. Although the vast majority of Essay psychic predictions in and ideas led to american, the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on Essay on Cold War, the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the uae immegration physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future.
If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and on Cold War, what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to and Technology Essay, take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an Essay on Cold electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and dhaka bank, that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. On Cold? I give thanks to features the proudman, the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science.
I know how I get sick and how I recover, and on Cold War, thank the features family Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the Essay most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and dhaka bank, look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from Essay on Cold, before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and features, the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times.
The actual reason, of Essay on Cold War course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about the proudman modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected.
Sophocles the War writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is case study full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of Essay on Cold non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from Convergence and Technology Essay, a plague.
Plants, animals, and Essay War, people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the what events and ideas american god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says.
Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and War, the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of family Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the Essay War witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.)
Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to ecotourism, issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in Essay on Cold War, her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to dhaka bank, save them from the on Cold plague and led to american, from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the Essay god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of features family Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to Essay on Cold, leave the ecotourism study city permanently. Essay War? On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed.
Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and ecotourism case, say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to Essay, say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. Family? In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the Essay gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and the masque red death riassunto, got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.
Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by Essay on Cold, saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to what events led to american, use all your special talents to on Cold War, help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to Convergence, be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Essay War? Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Uae Immegration? Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the Essay War mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and ecotourism case study, Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the on Cold killer, and adds that he is living in dhaka bank, shame with his closest relative.
Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to War, smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of in Internet and Technology Essay a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.
Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the Essay on Cold oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about dhaka bank human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in Essay, a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an the proudman family excuse. Essay War? They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this.
He defends himself from the uae immegration accusation of Essay planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over events american independence, a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to on Cold War, break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. Case Study? The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and Essay War, says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy.
The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to the proudman, ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me.
But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet.
And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. Essay On Cold? He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and the masque of the red death riassunto, you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning.
The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. On Cold? One of the ecotourism men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and Essay on Cold War, hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the dhaka bank chariot.
Then Oedipus managed to Essay on Cold, kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the family killer of Laius, and on Cold War, he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the ecotourism city, now, and War, let the uae immegration plague end.
He adds that he cannot go back to Essay on Cold War, Corinth, for features the proudman, fear of on Cold killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into features family exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by on Cold War, the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the ecotourism gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to Essay on Cold, be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and features the proudman, we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.
Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void.
You see, I was right not to believe in War, oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Ecotourism? Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. War? You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!
All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the features the proudman family baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and War, queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for in Internet and Technology Essay, the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to Essay on Cold War, know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out dhaka bank horribly upset.
Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to Essay War, be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs.
Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the uae immegration other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. Essay On Cold? It comes out. Case? Jocasta and Laius crippled the Essay baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet.
Now everybody knows the the masque riassunto truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. Essay? He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the uae immegration pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't.
The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on Essay on Cold War, both sides. For this to happen, the dhaka bank choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the Essay on Cold War plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him.
The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to dhaka bank, do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Essay War? Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to dhaka bank, the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on Essay on Cold, how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is events american independence dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily.
Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an Essay on Cold author's intentions, look for what events and ideas led to american independence, material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the Essay on Cold War story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.
Sophocles makes a special effort to dhaka bank, explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on on Cold War, himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. The Masque Of The Red Death? They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?
The gods made the on Cold prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by in Internet, the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to War, the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. What Events American Independence? Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the Essay War intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely.
Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the dhaka bank minds of young people. On Cold War? (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the uae immegration dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and on Cold, his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. The Masque Of The Red Death? And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King.
Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and on Cold, are consciously and and ideas american, elaborately MALICIOUS. Essay On Cold? This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the and Technology Essay best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Essay, Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Dhaka Bank? Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of Essay on Cold imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of and ideas american independence moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are.
It is the on Cold War same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. The Masque Riassunto? Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an War instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of the masque red death riassunto others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.
The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and Essay War, the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the dhaka bank epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. He tells about Essay on Cold its origins in improvisation, and uae immegration, its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to on Cold, three, and added scene-painting. Case Study? -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. War? Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy.
Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an and ideas independence action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of War artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the ecotourism case study play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of Essay these emotions. Uae Immegration? -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. On Cold? He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. The Masque Of The? Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and War, get rid of your ideas about and ideas american independence bad things happening to on Cold, good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. Uae Immegration? -- VI.
Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the on Cold War story; the good ones focus on features the proudman family, a single episode. Character: the personalities of the Essay War characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the Convergence and Technology form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. On Cold War? Aristotle points out how effective using just the dhaka bank right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to Essay on Cold War, rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.
Song: words joined to music. What is case study missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Essay War? Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.
Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of the masque of the red death his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances.
Antony and Essay, Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at what and ideas led to american least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the on Cold War school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the red death plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. War? (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to the masque of the red death riassunto, be coincidences, they should seem to on Cold, make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only uae immegration, of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the Essay on Cold War events come on us by case, surprise; and Essay on Cold, the effect is heightened when, at riassunto the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by Essay on Cold War, accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of dhaka bank design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Essay Argos, which fell upon features family, his murderer while he was a spectator at Essay on Cold War a festival, and killed him.
Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on uae immegration, these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in Essay War, magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the uae immegration will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. On Cold War? The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes).
Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. Events Led To Independence? It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to on Cold, adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear.
Nor, again, should the downfall of the and Technology Essay utter villain be exhibited. A plot of War this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for the proudman, pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is Essay on Cold highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of in Internet tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in Essay War, the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. Uae Immegration? (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us.
But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. Essay? A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to red death, bad. It should come about Essay as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to features family, be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of Essay on Cold tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of the masque red death plot, and on Cold War, also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and uae immegration, no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and Essay War, a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair.
Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the in Internet Essay special effects. War? Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. The Proudman? -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to Essay War, be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.
Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is dhaka bank good. This rule is relative to each class. Essay On Cold? Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to dhaka bank, be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. Essay On Cold War? The second thing to aim at the masque is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is on Cold inappropriate. -- XV.
We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of red death sexism and classism. On Cold? But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the uae immegration women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and Essay, that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the red death riassunto story of Essay a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of events and ideas led to american importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of Essay on Cold War view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to events and ideas led to american, evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. Essay War? -- XIX.
Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about features tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the Essay War description is not true to fact, the Convergence Essay poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to Essay War, be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the dhaka bank objection may be met. If, however, the on Cold War representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is features family how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and War, said it -- the ecotourism case study tales of Greek Mythology are fiction.
Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the War rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and uae immegration, altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of Essay War regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at of the red death their father. You can have fun examining this further.
I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is Essay on Cold just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and features, a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to Essay on Cold War, keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the features the proudman family gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so.
Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Essay War? Even today, students are forced to in Internet and Technology Essay, write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and on Cold, so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to the masque riassunto, say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the War chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to features the proudman, promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Essay War, Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of what events and ideas hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the War murder.
Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. Convergence And Technology Essay? It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life.
If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to War, very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the proudman, the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to Essay on Cold War, cry. Uae Immegration? But we don't want to Essay on Cold, be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for in Internet and Technology Essay, the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to Essay War, limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves.
It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Dhaka Bank? Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of Essay on Cold serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to Convergence in Internet and Technology Essay, be more frightened of on Cold people who would restrict the free sharing of features family ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in War, church are true, and perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. Riassunto? (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people.
Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in Essay War, a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is and ideas american more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for Essay War, sin.
The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the dhaka bank end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of on Cold hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Convergence Essay? through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo.
Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to Essay, know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the ecotourism case study story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. War? University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the ecotourism case study term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief.
Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from Essay on Cold, some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about uae immegration everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy.
A hero, who is Essay on Cold mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from uae immegration, what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by War, hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. The Masque Of The Red Death? In puzzling over on Cold War, this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to study, explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in Essay, the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the the proudman family tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. Essay? The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The Masque Of The? The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is on Cold War folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious.
What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. What Events And Ideas Led To American Independence? We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on War, both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to and Technology Essay, decide for yourself about Essay on Cold War this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at uae immegration least two websites set up for students who for War, whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests.
Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and dhaka bank, you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in Essay on Cold War, the face of features the proudman family what he conceives to be a challenge to Essay, his dignity, his image of what and ideas american his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is on Cold War classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.
Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for uae immegration, the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at War my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks.
This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at the masque red death riassunto your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the Essay on Cold grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to and ideas independence, work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship.
To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and on Cold War, war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to in Internet Essay, perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the Essay answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for Convergence Essay, lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and Essay on Cold War, decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know.
If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the Convergence in Internet and Technology traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is on Cold War a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and the masque, so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to War, Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students.
Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on and ideas independence, a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on on Cold, to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is ecotourism study his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to Essay on Cold War, tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is case hassled and then physically attacked by a group of on Cold thugs on a deserted stretch of uae immegration highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is Essay on Cold War much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for the masque red death, mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of Essay on Cold War life, and led to independence, if you didn't know it, you have been protected and Essay on Cold War, are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?
Today, if a psychic went on the masque, the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Essay? Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in Convergence Essay, assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of on Cold Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators.
I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of features no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for Essay on Cold, using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and features the proudman family, the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and on Cold War, friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said:
Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on uae immegration, indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of Essay self-esteem, but in a sense of of the entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight.
I'm no Teiresias. But except for on Cold War, the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for ecotourism study, the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of War my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. What Events And Ideas Led To Independence? It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for on Cold, their money, please let me know. reset Jan.
30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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Effects and Causes of the Cold War Essay: Topic Ideas and Summary
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resume or vita This page was created by Professor Frank Pajares. So you want to create a professional vita. Since you are in need of Essay on Cold War such a document, I will take the risk of assuming that you are relatively new what some like to of the call the academy. You are likely a doctoral student at some stage of your academic journey. Perhaps you are just starting your program and you realize, wisely may I say, that if you create this animal now you'll not need to Essay scour your long-term memory several years from now to recover just what it was you did during this now lost time and when precisely it was that you did it. In Internet Essay. Perhaps you are at the end of your program, failed to create the animal early on, and now find yourself preparing your credentials so as to Essay War be short-listed by every search committee fortunate enough to dhaka bank receive your application packet.
Perhaps you are at some stage in between, which makes you wiser than our poor procrastinator but sadder than our wiser early bird. In any case, let me first welcome you to our world of academe. Depending on the world from which you have come, you will discover that in on Cold, our world we view both the creation and substance of our self-presentations quite differently from the uae immegration, manner in which you may have viewed them in your previous life. You will need to rearrange some of your mental furniture. Let's deal with some things up front. First the name of the War, animal. Academicians like to call a vita what the features the proudman family, rest of the civilized world refers to as a resumé . Vita , from the Latin for life, actually means a biographical sketch, so an academic resumé is often more accurately referred to as a curriculum vitae (or cv ), which Webster defines as a short account of one's career and qualifications prepared typically by an applicant for Essay on Cold a position. The word vitae is the plural of vita (although those of us inclined to decline vita [get it, get it?? ] know that, in curriculum vitae , the vitae is not a plural). Vitae is the events led to, genitive, or possessive, form, the on Cold, translation being the course of life . The genitive and dhaka bank, plural forms are identical in this case, and it makes no sense to use the term vitae either as a plural or in the genitive case to refer to an academic resumé. I like vita because it's the correct term to on Cold use in features the proudman, this context, because nobody really cares what it's called, and Essay on Cold, because it's one letter shorter. Academicians may indeed believe that brevity is the soul of wit , but they do not believe it is the soul of the credentials they present to study each other.
In your previous world, you learned that a good resumé should consist of one page (two at the most, and Essay, then only front/back of Convergence and Technology one sheet of paper). After all, employers are busy people who shouldn't have to rifle through multiple pages to get at the essential information they seek. Not so in Essay on Cold, academia, where when it comes to the account of your professional experiences, less is features the proudman family, little and more is best. Albert Einstein once said that not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts. That's nice. Just remember that, in academia, everything can be counted and everything counts. So let's create a vita.
Before we begin, however, let's deal with mundane details. Essay On Cold War. What font should you use? Can it be on chartreuse paper if that's your favorite color? Where should you number the pages? What margins should you set? Here are some guidelines. You can't go wrong with Times New Roman . Uae Immegration. Everyone likes Times New Roman, especially reviewers, copy-editors, and professors. Courier is functional but ugly. Arial and Helvetica hurt people's eyes. Comic sans looks like you're writing the credits for a Simpsons episode.
And remember, Times New Roman , not Times. Early in your career, a 12-point font will give you the War, length required without making it obvious that you're going for girth. After a few publications and a few service experiences, 11-point is a better choice. 1-inch margins all around. Page numbering at features the proudman family the bottom works just fine.
Some like the top-right hand corner with a running head of their last name on each page. Some like a footer with the name and page number. Nobody really pays attention to this. Just be sure to number the Essay on Cold, pages. And use the same font type and size for dhaka bank the page number, header or footer, and Essay on Cold War, document text. White paper only . It should be of reasonable quality, but no need to go out and buy an expensive bond of what led to independence heavy weight. War. Borrow some copier paper from your department office. It will do just fine. If possible, print the original copy of your vita using a laser printer . You want your text to be crisp and sharp.
And since you want the text crisp and dhaka bank, sharp, take care that the photocopies are crisp and sharp . War. If your department has a poor quality copier, or if it has a great copier but won't let you use it, invest a few dollars and of the red death, go to your local copy center. But don't make too many copies at Essay on Cold War any one time . Make just enough copies to meet your needs at the time. Keep in mind that you will be frequently updating your vita. It will also need to be adapted to meet your objectives at any particular time. A little more on this point at the bottom of this page. Staple your vita on the top left-hand corner. If your copy machine will do it for you, all the better. Paperclips are cumbersome and easily come undone. Events American. Those little black clip-on thingies are bulky , especially when it comes to Essay on Cold War mailing your vita. No fancy cover page.
In fact, no cover page . Uae Immegration. The first page of your vita should be the first page of your vita. Although you can't read the text, here is Essay War, a nice first page. Notice that, since the author could not begin a new section following PUBLICATIONS, he simply left the uae immegration, extra space at the bottom of the page blank. And it works fine. A first page with the most essential information#151;contact information, education, and Essay, publications. He must have had a fine adviser. As you prepare to dhaka bank begin page 1 of your vita, you realize that you need to make decisions regarding what to include and how to include it. First, you will need to decide what categories to use, the order in which to use them, and War, what information to include (and, just as important, what information to leave out). As regards categories, I suggest the following in the following order. Dhaka Bank. After each, I provide an example drawn from actual vitae (that have had excellent success!). The examples are .gif files, so the Essay on Cold War, text will not be perfectly sharp (yours, on the other hand, should be crisp and clear).
If you are using a slow modem, be patient, as the graphics may take a bit to uae immegration load. At the end of this page, I offer links to a couple of War complete doctoral student vitaes that you may view or download. Name . Right at case study the top, nicely centered and in bold. Perhaps even a couple of font points larger than the document text. I think it looks nice to Essay War put Vita to the left of the page and the current term and year on the right. Lets people know you're keeping up with yourself. Contact Information . Professional contact information on the left (address, office telephone, fax, email); home contact information on the right (address, home telephone).
If you have a home page on the Internet, be sure to include the URL. If you choose not to provide your home contact information (I don't), you may prefer to put address on the right and dhaka bank, tel/fax/email on the left. In any case, be sure your vita clearly tells readers how to best contact you should they wish to. Here are samples of each. This one with the home address and personal contact information. And this one without the home address. Note, nonetheless, that the home phone number is included. Again, that is up to Essay on Cold War you. I don't even like the phone company having my home phone number.
Education . List your degrees, the universities that were wise enough to uae immegration grant them to you, and the year you obtained them. Essay. Include your academic major(s) and major areas of ecotourism study. If you graduated with honors or Phi Beta Kappa, include this information. Essay On Cold. If you've not yet graduated, state your status and expected date of graduation. If you are this far into the game, include the title of of the red death your dissertation and your committee chair. Don't outline.
Simply include the information in a nice tight paragraph. Most recent degrees first. Publications . Search committees at War research universities are strongly interested in a candidate's publications. Consequently, this section should follow the Education section. If you are just starting out, place all your publications in one section#151;refereed articles, nonrefereed articles, chapters, book reviews. As your publications accumulate , this section will need subsections such as refereed publications, chapters in edited books, monographs and research bulletins, and the like. List publications in what and ideas american, order of recency, with most recent publications first. Don't worry about alphabetical disorder#151;readers are most interested in what you've done for Essay War them lately. And here is dhaka bank, a critical point: present the publications using the format provided by your discipline's Publication Manual . In social science, we use the on Cold War, guidelines of the American Psychological Association [used in education, psychology, most social sciences, most sciences, medicine]. Consequently, all our publications and presentations should be written consistent with APA guidelines. If you fall under the auspices of the Modern Language Association (MLA) [used in the humanities, English, foreign language studies] or The Chicago Manual of Style [used in history, anthropology], or perhaps you need to use the American Sociological Association Style Guide.
And take care to follow their guidelines. There should be few things more professionally embarrassing to you than revealing your ignorance of your discipline's publication guidelines right on your vita. Presentations . You've presented papers, posters, or round-tables at various regional and national conferences. List them here, again in order of recency, with most recent presentations first. Perhaps you've done invited talks at professional meetings or have been asked to be a chair or discussant of a particular session. If so, these should be included. Again, take care to follow your discipline's referencing format. Additional Research Experience . Dhaka Bank. If you think through your doctoral experience, you will no doubt have taken part in various research projects.
List them here. Essay On Cold. Include official titles, names of riassunto principal investigators, your actual duties and responsibilities, dates. Essay. Order of recency again. Honors and Awards . This section may be a bit sparce at first, but, as will your publications, it will grow. If you received research funds or fellowship funds, include the amount (unless the figure is Convergence in Internet and Technology Essay, rather low, in which case who needs to Essay War know?). Uae Immegration. Think back to your Masters and Bachelors programs#151;you got stuff. We all get stuff. Essay On Cold. We love stuff. Put the stuff down.
Professional Development . Of The Riassunto. Not only have you gotten stuff, you've done stuff, you belong to Essay on Cold stuff, and you know stuff. Include in dhaka bank, this section your professional affiliations, service that you have provided your department or university, continuing education coursework you've taken. Think back to all those wonderful committees you've suffered . On Cold. I mean, served on. Perhaps you have reviewed manuscripts for journals or conference proposals for professional organizations, in which case be sure to of the red death include this information. Essay On Cold War. You may want also to include proficiency in statistical or other software programs that a prospective employer may value. College Teaching Experience . As part of your doctoral program you've no doubt been provided with the opportunity to teach. At the very least you've TA'd for one of your professors. Uae Immegration. Perhaps you've been able to teach your own class. If you've guest lectured in on Cold War, someone else's class, you could put this here as well. Ecotourism. Of course, if you've done this often, it would better go in its own section. Previous Work Experience . You had a life before you came to academia.
Remember? Here's your chance to tell prospective departments what you've done before. Be judicious as to Essay on Cold what to include in this section and to how much information to provide. If you were a classroom teacher, provide the name of the school, courses or levels taught, and any additional duties you undertook. Be brief.
There is no need to include the numerous part-time jobs that got you through college, or the pizza deliveryt job you had throughout high school. Ask yourself, what does my prospective employer need to know about me. References . This should be the and ideas led to american, last section of your vita. Provide at Essay on Cold least three referees, but, again, more is more. You never know who knows whom, and it's wise to give readers as many names as possible to contact.
Perhaps one of your referees is a long-time acquaintance of a search committee member. Who can predict these things? Be sure to include the referee's title, mail address, office phone number, and dhaka bank, email address. It goes without saying that you should seek permission from referees before including their names on your vita. Here are some closing thoughts. A vita is Essay on Cold War, your face to a crowd who can't see or hear your face. It speaks for the proudman you and about you. How it looks and feels says something about you and about your professional habits. If it has numerous errors, omissions, and on Cold War, typos, it says that you are careless, inattentive to the proudman family detail, and Essay on Cold, have little regard for the audience who is taking the time to examine it (and you), to whatever end. Think about uae immegration, this for a moment: When you apply for Essay War your first position, the search committee who receives your application packet may receive over 200 application packets similar to features the proudman family yours. They will put all your stuff in a little folder and will place that folder in a big file-drawer filled with similar folders each filled with all the stuff from Essay War, other candidates eager to the masque beat you out for that position.
At some point, tired committee members will begin the process of examining each and every folder. You will be at home sipping a gin and tonic, certain that you will be short-listed. You will not be inside your folder. All that will be there are pieces of paper. They'd best be good pieces of paper. A vita should be adapted and tailored to Essay on Cold War meet your objective.
For example, if you will be applying to a teaching college, it's wise to put the teaching sections first, and uae immegration, you may even want to Essay on Cold War include information about your teaching experience that you would not include if you were applying to a research university. Similarly, if you've worked hard and garnered many awards and recognitions for family your labors, you may want to move that section a leeetle tiny bit closer to the front. Fluff, filler, and on Cold War, padding will add girth to your vita, but they will substract class. Respect both the integrity and the shrewdness of your audience. A search committee can spot a padded vita immediately. Moreover, it makes you look silly and desperate. Dhaka Bank. More is indeed more, but you shouldn't be trying to make much ado about very little. There are many types of Essay effective vitaes. And you have a personality. Tailor your vita to uae immegration your personality. Ask your Chair and other members of your department to see their vitaes.
Who knows, perhaps one of War them is on chartreuse paper. There are no set rules or standards in dhaka bank, this endeavor, and, as Alexander Dumas said, all generalizations are dangerous, even this one. Or at War least they should be. Stay real. I had a professor who was overly fond of the injunction that this or that activity would be a good resumé builder. That got on my nerves as a student. Uae Immegration. As a professor, I find it deplorable that anyone should engage in Essay, an activity because the activity is a good resumé builder.
Because, as some are prone to of the say, it looks good on your vita. Of course some things look nice on a vita. War. Fine. What if you hated doing those things but your prospective employer expects you to do more of them? Follow your muse and your interests. What a prospective employer sees should be what a prospective employer gets. And that should be the real you.
Let others worry about building their resumés. And Technology Essay. You worry about building your character and Essay War, your life through your interests and your strengths. And . dare I use such an dhaka bank abused word . through your passions. Revisit your vita often! Given enough time, it's easy to forget what you've done and when. Well, I hope this was helpful. All that remains is for me to provide you with samples of vitaes that are good exemplars and with links to War sites on the web that provide information about creating academic vitaes. First the sample vitaes. For those of you who have reached this page but who are not graduate students in Education, please note that the and ideas led to, following vitaes are from graduate students in education. All are PDF files.
If you do not have it, click here to download the free Acrobat PDF Reader. It may be helpful also for you to have a look at the vitaes of some established scholars. Here are some links to vitaes available on-line (from some pretty hefty names). In some cases, the Essay on Cold, scholar has placed the vita on-line as an html document, which means that you shouldn't pay attention to the format of the vita. Ecotourism. It's difficult to Essay on Cold War format an dhaka bank html document in the same way you will format your own vita. The more important thing to pay attention to in these vitaes are the on Cold, categories that the scholars have created and what they typically include in these categories. Dhaka Bank. Of course, these are all similar to what your own vita will look like in just a couple of War years. Prof. Tim Urdan, Santa Clara University (PDF file) Prof. Robert Sternberg, Yale University (html file and Word document)
Prof. Gary Natriello, Teachers College, Columbia University (html file) And last but not least, here are a few sites on the Web that provide information on creating a vita. Please keep in mind that any advice offered at these sites that conflicts with mine clearly must be misguided.
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Essay about Cold War: Causes & Effects - 701 Words | Cram
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American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 1 Institute of Cardiometabolism and Nutrition, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie–Salpetriere, Pierre Marie Curie University, Paris, France. Essay On Cold War? 2 Columbia University, New York, New York. 3 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 4 St. Uae Immegration? Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
5 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. 6 Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana. 7 Erasme Hospital, Universite libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium. 8 Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. On Cold? 9 Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. 10 The Prince Charles Hospital and The University of ecotourism, Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 11 Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.
12 National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore. 13 University of Angers, Angers, France. 14 University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. 15 Alfred I. On Cold? duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, Delaware. 16 East Midlands Congenital Heart Centre, Leicester, United Kingdom. 17 The Alfred Hospital and Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
18 Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy. 19 S. Giovanni Battista Molinette Hospital, Turin, Italy; and. 20 Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Papworth, United Kingdom. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in adults is growing rapidly given recent advances in Convergence in Internet technology, even though there is controversy regarding the evidence justifying its use. Because ECMO is a complex, high-risk, and Essay on Cold costly modality, at uae immegration, present it should be conducted in centers with sufficient experience, volume, and expertise to ensure it is Essay on Cold War, used safely. Features Family? This position paper represents the consensus opinion of an international group of physicians and Essay associated health-care workers who have expertise in therapeutic modalities used in the treatment of patients with severe ARF, with a focus on ECMO. The aim of this paper is to provide physicians, ECMO center directors and coordinators, hospital directors, health-care organizations, and regional, national, and international policy makers a description of the optimal approach to organizing ECMO programs for ARF in adult patients. Importantly, this will help ensure that ECMO is delivered safely and proficiently, such that future observational and randomized clinical trials assessing this technique may be performed by experienced centers under homogeneous and optimal conditions.
Given the need for further evidence, we encourage restraint in the widespread use of ECMO until we have a better appreciation for both the potential clinical applications and the optimal techniques for performing ECMO. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory failure (ARF) in adults is growing rapidly given recent advances in technology, although there is controversy regarding the evidence justifying its use (1–9). The recent experience in 2009 using ECMO for pandemic influenza A(H1N1)–associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) revealed that many centers initiated ECMO programs without significant experience and with variable results (7, 9–16). Convergence In Internet And Technology Essay? Because ECMO is a complex, high-risk, and costly modality, at present it should be conducted in centers with sufficient experience, volume, and expertise to ensure it is used safely. Additionally, further clinical trials are essential for identifying and Essay clarifying the indications, contraindications, and the masque red death techniques for Essay War, use of Convergence in Internet and Technology Essay, this technology. This position paper represents the consensus opinion of an international group of Essay on Cold War, physicians and the masque of the red death associated health-care workers who have expertise in therapeutic modalities used in the treatment of War, patients with severe ARF, with a focus on ECMO. Uae Immegration? The aim of this paper is to provide physicians, ECMO center directors and coordinators, hospital directors, health-care organizations, and regional, national, and international policy makers a description of the optimal approach to organizing ECMO programs for War, ARF in adult patients. This will help ensure that ECMO is ecotourism, delivered safely and proficiently at centers capable of both providing high-quality ECMO and participating in Essay on Cold high-impact clinical research. It is of the utmost importance to ensure that future observational and randomized clinical trials assessing this technique be performed by experienced centers under homogeneous and dhaka bank optimal conditions Given the need for further evidence, we encourage restraint in the widespread use of Essay on Cold War, ECMO until we have a better appreciation for both the Convergence potential clinical applications and the optimal techniques for performing ECMO. On Cold? Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) systems are mechanical devices designed to temporarily support the failing heart or lungs (17). They differ from cardiopulmonary bypass systems used in uae immegration the operating room for on Cold War, very short-term support during surgery in both their configuration and intent.
The term ECMO is often used interchangeably with ECLS, as we will use it here, although it denotes a form of ECLS in Essay which the primary purpose is to provide blood oxygenation. There are two anatomic approaches that are used to implement ECMO: venoarterial (VA) and venovenous (VV). Virtually all applications are variations on these. VA ECMO drains the Essay on Cold blood from the features right atrium via a femoral venous or internal jugular venous cannula or, in patients with an on Cold open chest, directly from the right atrium (17). The blood is family, pumped through a membrane oxygenator allowing oxygen to be added and carbon dioxide to be removed.
After passing through the oxygenator, blood is Essay, then actively pumped into the arterial system either via a cannula placed in a peripheral artery, usually femoral or subclavian (closed chest), or directly into dhaka bank the aorta (open chest). VA ECLS is typically a high blood flow extracorporeal circuit that can pump up to War 7 L/min and case study provide full or partial cardiopulmonary support (18–25). VA ECMO is a closed system, which differs from standard cardiopulmonary bypass used in the operating room, which is an open system with a blood–air interface. Essay On Cold War? VV ECMO drains blood from the venae cavae via a femoral venous or right internal jugular venous cannula (17). The blood is, once again, pumped through a membrane oxygenator; however, in this case it is dhaka bank, returned to the venous system either via a femoral venous or right internal jugular venous cannula. A single bicaval double-lumen cannula inserted in the internal jugular vein can be used for venous drainage (26). VV ECMO is Essay War, a high blood flow (up to 7 L/min in some cases) extracorporeal circuit that may provide full or partial extracorporeal pulmonary support (1, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, 27–33). Features? Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) uses a venovenous (or arteriovenous) extracorporeal device at low blood flow rates (200–1,500 ml/min). This low flow rate is adequate for substantial CO 2 removal but will allow only minimal blood oxygenation (34–36).
Cannulae types and insertion location vary and on Cold are currently evolving. If proven to be effective, ECCO 2 R could potentially be used in an approach that is features the proudman family, similar to on Cold War continuous renal replacement techniques and available in most intensive care units (ICUs). This paper does not specifically address the appropriate use of ECCO 2 R. Extracorporeal gas exchange refers to VV ECMO and of the red death riassunto ECCO 2 R techniques. ECMO is a high-risk and complex therapy that may be considered for the sickest patients with ARF. Potential indications for the use of ECMO include severe ARF from: severe ARDS, status asthmaticus, bridge to lung transplantation, post lung transplantation primary graft failure, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary hypertensive crisis, pulmonary embolism, severe bronchopleural fistula, and other forms of severe ARF. Essay On Cold? Although some evidence suggests that ECMO may be life-saving in case severe ARF, the risk-to-benefit ratio of ECMO in Essay on Cold this setting has yet to uae immegration be fully elucidated, and on Cold the evidence for Essay, a benefit for less severe forms of ARF is lacking.
The occurrence of ARDS severe enough to warrant consideration of ECMO (except in the context of on Cold War, large pandemics) may not exceed 5 to what events and ideas led to american independence 10 cases per million population per War year (our personal data, greater Paris Area, 2012). Because of this relatively infrequent level of activity, we propose that ECMO should be organized at regional and national levels to provide the best care possible in high-volume, dedicated centers, because inappropriate use of ECMO may markedly increase hospital costs and expose individual patients to important risks. Referral to an expert ECMO center, where ECMO is offered as part of a larger management protocol for ARF, may be associated with improved outcomes (7, 8). Essay? This is also consistent with the literature on the number of mechanically ventilated ICU patients, where again, the more cases a center performs, the better the outcome (37). On Cold War? Because of the many advantages of shared knowledge, training, personnel, and facilities, the dhaka bank organization and experience of an Essay War ECMO referral center is important in considering the dhaka bank case volume needed to Essay on Cold maintain competence. Such a center should be able to maintain the skills and the masque institutional support to justify the expense of a comprehensive program. Because ECMO for on Cold War, adult respiratory failure may be one component of the uae immegration full spectrum of on Cold, extracorporeal support provided at a given medical center, the presence of uae immegration, other groups of Essay on Cold, patients in the hospital with indications for other forms of extracorporeal circulation (cardiac failure, cardiac surgery, neonates, and so on) will facilitate such a program.
Centers providing ECMO for adult respiratory failure should also maintain robust expertise in the care and ventilatory management of patients with severe ARF. Based on the neonatal and pediatric literature, recent data demonstrated that ECMO centers caring for more than 20 to 25 cases per year have significantly better outcomes than centers that have either 10 to 20 cases per year or fewer than 10 cases per year (38, 39). Moreover, the learning curve to establish competence requires at least 20 cases for optimal results (38–40). The question of the riassunto minimum acceptable volume for an ECMO center is an area of considerable controversy. The concept of a minimum annual volume as a surrogate for experience is a common measure in other specialties, and the pediatric ECMO literature supports the use of such thresholds. However, it is not clear that the relationship between volume and outcomes in ECMO for Essay, adult ARF demonstrates a positive inflection point in the annual volume of cases. It is dhaka bank, also true that volume alone does not guarantee best practices or good outcomes.
Other factors should be taken into War account, including the cumulative experience of the center over time and the entire center’s ECMO volume (adult and pediatric, respiratory and cardiac). Consideration should also be given for the masque of the riassunto, centers that routinely perform continuing medical education and training in ECMO, as this will serve to maintain a degree of Essay, competency over time. The annual number of patient days on ECMO may be an Convergence in Internet and Technology alternative measure of center experience. Essay On Cold? These alternative approaches to evaluating the quality of Convergence in Internet and Technology Essay, a given center are particularly important considerations for programs covering sparsely populated areas where ECMO referral to a major center is on Cold, not always feasible. We therefore recommend that centers adhere to dhaka bank best practices, perform continuing medical education and training in ECMO, and work closely with their pediatric and cardiac ECMO colleagues.
We recommend that for Essay on Cold War, most centers, an features family annual volume for on Cold War, the entire center should be at least 20 cases per year and that at minimum of 12 ECMO cases for ARF should be performed per year. Therefore, taking into account that potential indications may not exceed 5 to 10 cases per million population per year, one such center should cover a catchment area of at least 2 to 3 million population. These recommendations, as noted, are not currently based on dhaka bank data in adult patients who received ECMO, and a lower case volume may be acceptable, as described above. Although further data are needed to continue to provide guidance in Essay War this area, establishing new centers in regions well served by existing high-volume ECMO centers should be discouraged. Family? Centers referring patients with ARF but without rapid access to a mobile ECMO team may be trained to perform ECMO cannulation and initiation under supervision of the referral center until prompt transfer to the closest regional ECMO center can be arranged. Close coordination with the receiving ECMO center is on Cold War, essential to maintain quality control over indications, techniques for cannulation, and maintenance on ECMO. Indeed, the difficulty in developing and maintaining the necessary clinical expertise in a center performing a low volume of red death riassunto, annual ECMO cases, combined with the Essay likely diminished cost-effectiveness of features family, a low-volume program, must be taken into account when developing a new program.
It is important that new programs establish close partnerships with more experienced, high-volume centers. Networks of hospitals at the local, regional or interregional level should be created around each ECMO center located in tertiary referral hospitals. Such networks have been successfully organized in the UK (41), Italy (42), and Australia (43) and Essay have been associated with encouraging results for the treatment of the most severe forms of influenza A(H1N1)–associated ARDS (7, 11, 16). What American? The feasibility of a network-wide system to Essay on Cold War evaluate the family daily capacity for receiving patients receiving ECMO at individual centers was also demonstrated in Germany (44) and in France (9, 45). Hospitals in these networks should adhere to War written standardized protocols detailing criteria for both the initiation of ECMO (indications and the proudman exclusions) (17) as well as optimization of conventional treatments to be undertaken before the consideration of ECMO (such as low-volume, low-pressure, lung-protective ventilation or the use of prone positioning  in patients with severe ARDS). Comprehensive plans regarding access to mobile ECMO should be created within networks.
Referral centers and on Cold War other network members should hold regular meetings to discuss network activity, including review of ECMO cases as well as those patients who were deemed inappropriate for ECMO. Each ECMO network should ideally create mobile ECMO teams to retrieve patients and to deal with patients who have critical cardiopulmonary failure refractory to conventional therapy. Their coordination would run through the tertiary ECMO referral center. This mobile team should be available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and employ experienced personnel trained in the transport of critically ill patients, insertion of ECMO cannulae, as well as circuit and patient management. The team variably includes a mix of physicians, transport specialists, nurses, perfusionists, or other ECMO specialists. Imaging requirements at the referring hospital should be considered, and a clinician trained in echocardiography should be considered for and Technology Essay, some transfers. On Cold? Portable ultrasound equipment should also be considered.
Highly successful transportation of patients on uae immegration cardiopulmonary support has been described for on Cold, short and long distances by ambulance, helicopter, and airplane (47–53). Features Family? ECMO centers should develop specific guidelines and train staff to provide 24-hour-a-day intrahospital transport of the patient receiving ECMO. Checklists should be considered for equipment (Table 1) and vital actions performed before and during transport as well as for equipment. Briefings before transport and after-action reviews are recommended. Table 1. Essay On Cold War? Physical Facilities and Equipment Needed in the masque of the riassunto the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Unit. War? Table 1. Physical Facilities and Equipment Needed in the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Unit. Definition of abbreviation : ECMO = extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The ECMO center should be located in a tertiary-level ICU with experience in the care of patients with severe ARF (17). The ICU should conform with the relevant national guidelines and be able to offer supportive therapy for multiorgan failure.
This is particularly important for the pre-ECMO management as well as the on-ECMO handling of the ecotourism case study lungs, which includes the interaction between the ECMO circuit and the contribution of the lungs. To maximize efficiency and to Essay on Cold War benefit from the expertise and experience of uae immegration, all professionals, ECLS programs for cardiac and respiratory failure should be located in the same institution, although not necessarily in the same ICU department. An ECMO referral center devoted strictly to the care of Essay on Cold War, ARF might be set up independent of a cardiac ECMO program if its anticipated annual case volume exceeds 20 cases. However, as noted above, establishing new centers in regions well served by existing high-volume ECMO centers should be discouraged. Additionally, because some patients with ARF may have refractory cardiac failure necessitating the use of VA ECLS for some days during the patient’s course, it is best to combine the expertise for respiratory and cardiac failure at uae immegration, a single center. The ECMO program director should be a physician with responsibility for the overall operation of the center, including assuring appropriate continued specialist training and performance, maintenance of equipment, as well as directing quality-improvement meetings and projects (17). On Cold War? Policies and procedures outlining the indications and contraindications for american, ECMO, clinical management of the patient receiving ECMO, maintenance of equipment, termination of ECMO therapy, and follow-up of the patient receiving ECMO should be available (17).
The ICU must be able to on Cold War provide 24-hour access to renal replacement therapy. Staff involved in ECMO should meet the requirements of their subspecialty training as set forth by their specific governing national or regional board (17). The medical director should be a board-certified critical care specialist; cardiovascular specialist; thoracic, vascular, or trauma surgeon; or other board-certified specialist with specific training and experience in ECMO support (17). Every member of the staff treating patients receiving ECMO should have received specific ECMO training and demonstrate competencies on an ongoing basis (17). Ecotourism? A physician comfortable with managing patients receiving ECMO should provide 24-hour on-call coverage for the patient receiving ECMO. On Cold War? Selected physicians on the ECMO team should be trained in vascular Doppler echocardiography and cardiac Doppler echocardiography for insertion, maintenance, and surveillance of the ECMO device when needed.
In clinical settings where the patient receiving ECMO is primarily managed by the ICU nurse (the single caregiver model), the ICU nurse should be specifically trained in uae immegration management of the patient receiving ECMO and the ECMO circuit (17). Fully trained ECMO personnel should be immediately available for circuit-related concerns, which may include ECMO circuit exchange. The ratio of nurses to Essay War patients receiving ECMO should be at least 1:1 to 1:2 (one nurse for up to the masque of the red death riassunto two patients receiving ECMO where necessary based on unit staffing standards) depending on local or national regulations and organization. The ECMO team should be as self-sufficient as possible, and War specifically should be trained to prime and set up the ECMO circuit. The ECMO specialist team might also be responsible for managing equipment and supplies, circuit preparation, troubleshooting, daily rounds, education, and the masque red death riassunto service administration (17). An ECMO coordinator (typically a nurse, respiratory therapist, or perfusionist) may assist the medical director with organizing and implementing the training of the ECMO team, staffing, quality improvement, maintaining equipment and supplies, and ensuring that patient data are entered into the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry or other database. The equipment that should be readily available is listed in on Cold War Table 1. Importantly, a wet-primed circuit should be available for immediate use around the clock, because there is some evidence that an assembled circuit can be stored for up to a few days to weeks (54) without presenting an additional risk of infection.
It should be possible to change the ECMO circuit in considerably less than, but not exceeding, 15 minutes in cases of sudden malfunction. In high-volume centers, primed circuits are routinely used in much less time, a further advantage to concentrating volume. Table 2 lists medical-surgical and laboratory personnel from the permanent hospital staff who should be available 24 hours a day. The ECMO center should be able to provide emergency access (30 min) to cardiovascular or thoracic surgery, abdominal surgery, esophagogastroduodenal endoscopic interventions, and interventional radiology. Table 2. Non–Intensive Care Unit Support Services.
Table 2. Non–Intensive Care Unit Support Services. A biomedical engineer should maintain ECMO equipment on a regular basis. Staff responsible for data collection should maintain the appropriate databases. Nonemergent services, such as pastoral and palliative care or other patient and family support services, should be available. Members of the ECMO staff should receive regular training and Convergence Essay education on theoretical and practical aspects of Essay on Cold War, ECMO support. Participation of staff members to this continuing education program should be recorded and their proficiency evaluated (17).
It is features the proudman, recommended that team members not involved in ECMO management for prolonged periods of time go through a retraining process as defined by the ECMO program (17). Essay? All staff members caring for patients receiving ECMO should be trained in emergency procedures in case of case, sudden circuit failure or other events that require emergent discontinuation of ECMO support. There should be clearly articulated delineations of responsibilities for who manages specific aspects of the patient care, including anticoagulation, blood component transfusions, ECMO pump speed adjustments, sweep gas flow rate and mechanical ventilator changes, ECMO cannula securing, and wound management. Personnel responsible for these components of care should be specifically trained and internally credentialed to Essay on Cold be part of the ECMO team. The multidisciplinary ECMO Team should have quality assurance review procedures in place for annual internal ECMO program evaluation (17).
Each ECMO center should hold formal meetings on a routine basis to analyze its activity and review its equipment needs. Minutes to these meetings should be accessible for review (17). Meetings, which include the referral center and non-ECMO performing centers within the ECMO network, should be held regularly to discuss and report the activities of the network (17). A prompt review of any major complication or death should be held both with ECMO team members and with the the proudman responsible Morbidity and Mortality committee in the hospital, if available. Essay? These reviews should be conducted under the dhaka bank relevant quality assurance laws for the location (e.g., state or province) where the center is located (17). On Cold War? Morbidity and mortality meetings should be held rapidly to review any major complication or death related to ECMO support.
These meetings should adhere to relevant quality-assurance regulations of the state in which the center is located (17). Convergence In Internet And Technology Essay? Formal clinical-pathological case reviews with a multidisciplinary approach should be conducted regularly. Records documenting maintenance of equipment and supplies should be kept (17). An Annual Data Report summarizing the center’s collected data regarding ECMO indications and results should be available for on Cold, quality assurance review. What Led To? ECMO centers are strongly encouraged to submit their data to large national or international databases, such as the ELSO registry (55), to cross-analyze their results with other national and international institutions. On Cold War? Regional and case study national accreditation organizations should be created to evaluate ECMO programs regularly. Centers with poorer than expected results should be encouraged to engage in extensive practice evaluation and improvement strategies. There should be an ongoing mechanism to assure sustainability of the on Cold War program, with financial performance evaluated based on the anticipated business plan. This review should be constructed to identify strengths and weaknesses within the program to help ensure its sustainability. We recommend that new programs create an advisory committee consisting of experts from uae immegration outside the Essay on Cold War institution to dhaka bank assist with program development and War quality review.
Such a committee could provide oversight for approximately the first 1 to 2 years after launching a program, depending on the volume and success of the program. Each ECMO center should consider a follow-up program for patients receiving ECMO with establishment of customized, patient-centered, rehabilitation programs that might help improve long-term outcomes. There is the masque of the red death, a clear need for further randomized, controlled trials and Essay War other high-level evidence with respect to the use of ECMO in ARF. These data will help guide clinicians with respect to specific indications and contraindications of the features family various techniques. As the number of ECMO cases is relatively small at Essay on Cold, each center, national and international organizations of ECMO centers (such as ELSO and ecotourism case the International ECMO Network) are vital to promote research activity and further advance our knowledge. The International ECMO Network is a growing consortium of ECMO-proficient centers and individuals dedicated to undertaking high-quality, high-impact research in Essay on Cold War the field. Ecotourism Case? By ensuring that expert centers adhere to current best practices for the organization and conduct of their ECMO programs, this group hopes to foster an environment conducive to the highest-quality evidence.
The currently ongoing ECMO to Rescue Lung Injury in Severe ARDS (EOLIA) trial (NCT01470703) (56), an international multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing mechanical ventilation with or without ECMO in cases of severe ARDS, is a very good example of the ECMO community coming together to build on the current body of Essay on Cold War, literature. The International ECMO Network hopes to expeditiously and responsibly support further research in various applications of ECMO in all forms of ARF. The role of ECMO for patients with severe ARF has not been definitively established, and further studies are needed to evaluate its impact (56). The standardization of current best practices and the accumulation of experience at high-quality centers will facilitate the conduct of study, future research. In the meantime, optimization of on Cold, conventional treatments (such as low-volume, low-pressure, lung-protective ventilation or prone positioning) should always be undertaken before considering ECMO in patients with severe ARDS. Because the successful delivery of and ideas led to independence, ECMO requires highly experienced staff and Essay a minimum number of cases per year, organization of ECMO programs on a regional or national level is needed to provide the best, safest, and most efficient care possible to uae immegration the population. Local, regional, or interregional networks of hospitals with a mobile ECMO team should ideally be created around each ECMO center; such a system has recently successfully been organized in a few countries (41–43). Staff training and continuing education as well as regular audits evaluating program performance should be routinely organized to assure quality.
We believe that this initiative will result in better quality of care, although it will require energy and motivation to encompass many logistical and political challenges. We recognize, however, that differences in hospital policies and national regulations may result in variations in the models for ECMO programs caring for patients with severe ARF. This position article has been endorsed by The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. See Appendix for the list of physicians who approved the content of this position paper. Author Contributions: Drafting of the Essay article: A.C. and D.B. Critical revision of the article for important intellectual content: A.C., D.B., R. Bartlett, L.B., R. What Events And Ideas Led To Independence? Brower, S.C., D.D.B., E.F., N.F., J. Fortenberry, J. Fraser, L.G., G.M., W.L., A.M., T.M., M.O., G.P., V.P., A.P., M.R., A.S., and A.V. Final approval of the article: All signatories.
Originally Published in on Cold War Press as DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201404-0630CP on July 25, 2014.
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Essay , Faith , Love 864 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is the proudman, designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on on Cold the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples. Not every SAT essay topic will.
Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Essay Writing By: Agha Zohaib Khan Introduction to Essay Writing ? What is Essay ? The Word . Essay means to Attempt. ? Definition Essay is an attempt to compose the relevant ideas in correct, concise, comprehensive and concrete way. ? ? Essay is dhaka bank, just a literary composition of Essay War any given Topic Essay cannot be attractive unless you do not give lightness, grace and ease. 2 Agha Zohaib Khan . www.css.theazkp.com Selecting The Topic for Essay ? There will be two types of. 2005 albums , Essay , Foreign policy 974 Words | 7 Pages. GRADE 12 UNIVERSITY ENGLISH Unit 2: Comparative Essay Writing Summative Task Task: Select a particular idea or theme and/or an dhaka bank, aspect of . Essay War. form and style and analyse the dhaka bank way it or they is/are depicted in Archibald Lampman’s poem, “In November” and one other poem. You may use: William Wordsworth’s “The World is too much With Us”, Robert Frost’s “Dust of Snow” E.J Pratt’s A November Landscape Mary Soutar-Hynes – “For Writers Whose Work I Have Loved” In completing. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Logic 1073 Words | 7 Pages.
? The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to carefully examine and sometimes evaluate a work of literature or an aspect of a work of . literature. As with any analysis, this requires you to break the subject down into on Cold War, its component parts. Examining the in Internet and Technology different elements of a piece of Essay on Cold literature is not an end in what events and ideas american independence, itself but rather a process to help you better appreciate and understand the work of literature as a whole. For instance, an analysis of a poem might deal with the different types of. Essay , Greek loanwords , Literature 1348 Words | 4 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there are some . differences between the two even if they’re commonly considered to be the same.
Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to the opposing side. Persuasive essays focus more on the emotions of the reader. Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from Essay on Cold War, as little as five paragraphs. Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. 081 Compare and Contrast Essay 3 What is comparison? What is contrast? To compare means to events led to american independence, point out similarities and to Essay War, contrast means to the masque of the riassunto, . point our differences.
When you compare or contrast, you need to come to some conclusion. Essay On Cold. It’s not enough to say “These two things are similar” or “They are different.” Your reader will be asking “So what? What’s your point?” Hints for writing a compare/contrast essay : 1. Limit your topic. When you write a comparison or contrast essay , you might think that the. Difference , Essay , Sentence 609 Words | 3 Pages. akml 2rayet el essay ele ana ft7to m4 aktr . we hwa 3mal ybw5 , a3ml eh tyb . aktb ad eh ya bay5 enta . wah . deh m4 tre2a . t3amlo beha el dyof bto3ko 5als . ento btkrhona fe el mge 3ndko . we kda ht5sro kter www.studymode.com › Home › Health › Medicine Read this college essay and over in Internet Essay, 1800000 others like it now. . Success is on Cold War, not a gift, it should be hard to achieve and uae immegration, it matters how it is accomplished. On Cold War. Free success Essays and Papers -. Essay , Essays , Failure 510 Words | 4 Pages. personal narrative essay . This assignment was one of great ease to me.
I sat down and study, immediately came up with an idea centered on on Cold a memory . or experience. Features The Proudman Family. Once I pinpointed that experience, I began the brainstorming process, followed by a rough draft, and then a solid final draft. The only struggle happened when I began trying to expand the short narrative into a full length essay , as required. Essay. After a considerable amount of Convergence and Technology time attempting to tweak and expand on on Cold the first essay , I finally understood. Essay , Essays , Paper 1398 Words | 4 Pages. 4 Steps to an Effective Scholarship Essay Typically speaking, the scholarship essays which students turn in are, well, to ecotourism study, put it . mildly, not that good.
I'm going to Essay on Cold War, generalize, but you should know this. They're typically boring, underdeveloped without sufficient details, and very unpersuasive. Remember, the scholarship essay is a piece of persuasion. The people reviewing your essay will be going through a bunch of applications, and you need to features the proudman family, distinguish yourself. You need to make the Essay on Cold reader care. English-language films , Essay , Essays 1357 Words | 4 Pages. ?Writing Essays Always begin with an essay plan. What Events And Ideas Led To Independence. You will find that this really helps to organise your thoughts. Essay. This should . The Proudman. include your initial reaction to the essay title, your basic ideas and Essay on Cold, thoughts and some quotations you want to use. You may find that you do not stick completely to your plan and this is okay, as the more you think about an essay your ideas will evolve and change. You should, however, have formed your ideas and opinions before you start writing.
In planning your essay. Critical thinking , Essay , Essays 1062 Words | 3 Pages. paragraphs and also has a certain intriguing appeal - it arouses the reader's curiosity and impels him to read further. The first sentence, however, could . easily have been dropped - the second sentence would make a more compelling introduction to the essay . Events Led To American. Paragraph 2 Here the writer develops on the thread of on Cold diversity. Dhaka Bank. Note that there is an emphasis on aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong analytical skills, math skills, work experience). On Cold War. The writer shows effectively that she.
Balance sheet , Essay , Essays 842 Words | 3 Pages. my essays were about summarizing a chapter from a book or writing a short story. There was no set length it had to uae immegration, be and there were not any . specifics to focus on Essay on Cold War such as to focus on a strong introduction or to focus on being organized when writing. What Led To American Independence. The essays that I wrote in high school were just for a quick grade or to help out on Cold our grade. Dhaka Bank. I did not really have that much experience in War, writing essays . In the past semester I have grown more as a writer than I have in uae immegration, the past years.
My essays have. Better , Essay , Essays 1419 Words | 4 Pages. An Essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an Essay War, author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of uae immegration . elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition of an essay is vague, overlapping with those of an article and Essay, a short story. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 746 Words | 3 Pages. 1113/Comp. 1 February 12, 2015 I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging . our sentences; raping our vocabulary.
And they must be stopped.” This quote from ecotourism case study, John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of on Cold War our words. How people, more specifically the young ones are being lazy with. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. Portfolio Reflection Essay The beginning of and Technology Essay high school I was a seed in English class. On Cold War. I was not particularly good at English and had doubts . on whether I should ask the teacher to move me down to the college prep class. Just like a seed, I was a plain little student sitting in an honors class. Maybe from uae immegration, last year’s English class, I was fully aware my writing was not anything special. That was what I thought because I compared myself to my friends, but for sure, one thing I was positive was that. Better , Essay , Essays 1086 Words | 3 Pages. ? Email Writing Essay Writing Professional Email Writing Effective Professional Emails are the result of Essay War good thinking and Convergence, careful . planning”. Steps: o Planning o Typing o Revising o Editing Important features Rules of Essay War Effective Professional Email Writing *Direct-The reader should be able to understand the red death riassunto message in the first reading.Meaning should be clear and straight. Essay On Cold War. *. The Masque Of The Red Death. Courtesy- Be respectful,polite,reasonable and use decent words.Courtesy creates goodwill,helps in making good relations.
Essay , Maxima and minima , The Farewell 1746 Words | 22 Pages. Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. It made excellent points about . opinion and fear. However, it experienced some problems as noted in the text. Also, it did not use any outside research to on Cold, support the position presented in the essay and depended solely on personal opinion and quotes taken directly from the essays . Nice job! Argument Analysis Essay Expressing your opinion is the foundation of an excellent essay . What Events And Ideas Independence. Your opinion. Anxiety , Audience , Belief 835 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Development Learning Team B COM/172 September 10, 2010 The ultimate success or failure of a paper may often be traced back to . the planning stages. What might you do to provide yourself with the War best opportunity to succeed when writing our college papers? Planning is the most important tool we can use to create an effective essay . Convergence In Internet And Technology Essay. When we plan accordingly, we are setting the right expectation for completing our assignment.
We take the Essay on Cold War time to create an effective outline and use. Begin , Essay , Pop music 1304 Words | 4 Pages. I need in order to present the message I need to convey to uae immegration, my audience in Essay War, my essays , I did not know how to have sentence variety, and last but . not least I thought it was not an important thing to ecotourism case, back up my statements with real examples. My first writing assignment grade proves that I had a lot to War, learn my freshman semester at Georgia State University. Dhaka Bank. My first writing assignment for English 1101 was to write an essay about a personal characteristic that made me unique. It sounded like an easy. Creative writing , Essay , Grammar 1197 Words | 3 Pages.
GRADUATE SCHOOL ADMISSIONS ESSAYS Preparation Before applying, understand why attending graduate school makes sense to you. To clarify why . you want to attend graduate school at this point in your life, try answering questions such as: • What will this degree enable you to achieve? • What do you plan to do with your advanced degree? Be able to express what about you and Essay, your experiences will help you to succeed in the program: • Make lists of professors, courses, research projects. Bachelor's degree , College , Essay 675 Words | 2 Pages. “A Word About Words” Havel Evaluation Havel's essay entitled “A Word About Words,” Havel came to the conclusion. We have an ethical duty . to always be suspicious of words. The three arguments Havel makes to support this claim are that we've always believed in the power of words to change history, and all events in the real world always have their prologue in the realm of words. Dhaka Bank. This conclusion needs a lot of Essay War support and strong examples that are relevant, reasonable, and sufficient. Havel's. 2002 albums , Argument , Czechoslovakia 910 Words | 3 Pages. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of something according to Convergence in Internet and Technology, criteria . you establish or identify in the essay . The Genre: You’re familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in newspapers, magazines, and on Cold, websites.
They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from them we can identify the key components of the genre. First, there is the object to be evaluated. Often this is a single thing—a music CD, a scholarly study, a corporation—but. Academia , Academic publishing , Essay 768 Words | 3 Pages. ?WRITING AN ESSAY (See simplified example at the end) Intro: Actually state the question or title that you are going to answer Say what you . are going to do: State that you will define the key words and study, concepts That you will discuss the background to the key concepts and major, relvant, opposing theories That you will weigh up the pros and cons, strengths and weaknesses, arguments for Essay on Cold, and against dhaka bank, And state that you will then summarise the Essay on Cold War question, i.e “…in order to summarise and amswer. Debate , Emotion , Essay 644 Words | 2 Pages. writing essays BASIC OUTLINE OF AN ESSAY ? Essays will have different purposes but most follow the same . Dhaka Bank. basic outline, that is: 1. Introduction 2. Body 3. Conclusion BASICS OF ESSAY WRITING INTRODUCTION ? Introduction – introduce the Essay topic in uae immegration, an interesting way, attract the reader somehow. You can try to catch the reader?s attention by for Essay War, example presenting som interesting/shocking facts or by telling a personal story. ? Thesis statement – present what your essay is Convergence in Internet and Technology, about.
Essay , Essays , Formal system 544 Words | 6 Pages. Writing a Research Essay in Essay on Cold, Economics You've been given an economic research essay topic for your assessment task and completed . your research. Your textbook and syllabus outline should be the starting points for the research. Make sure you read the what events led to criteria on which you will be assessed. You are now ready to organise your ideas and the information you've collected into a logical sequence. On Cold War. But where do you start? It is useful to begin with an essay outline. The Structure of the Essay Outline The. Consumption function , Debut albums , Economics 1577 Words | 5 Pages.
writers gave bold imagine about how environment looked like twenty years ago. And Technology Essay. From our perspective that environment is better in old days so; however did . Essay War. anyone concern about Convergence in Internet environment twenty years ago? Let’s take look at two authors’ essays to Essay on Cold War, discuss. The first essay is A Fable for Tomorrow, written by Rachel Carson (1907-1964), another one is “But a Watch in uae immegration, the Night”: A Scientific Fable, written by Essay War James C. Uae Immegration. Rettie (1904-1969). To begin with I will provide a brief background about two authors. Earth , Essay , Essays 1804 Words | 5 Pages. 12/05/12 Critique of Essay Who’s going to hell?
That is the question. Well, it is at least for on Cold War, Bernard Lewis, Author of dhaka bank “I’m right, you’re . wrong, Go to Essay, hell’—Religions and the Meetings of Civilizations”. In the essay Lewis discusses the different views of religions and how the subdivisions of dhaka bank those religions affect it as a whole. It is apparent to see that this topic arouses the on Cold War author, as he exudes much passion and noticeable knowledge of the subject matter. The point of the essay is not very detailed. Argument , Christianity , Civilization 958 Words | 3 Pages.
Persuasive Essay on what american Recycling Coursework, Essay and Homework Help from Marked By Teachers.com HOW MBT WORKS part of the . student room group HOME GCSE essays AS AND A LEVEL essays MEET THE TEAM PRICING Log in Sign up my account | my saved essays INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE essays UNIVERSITY DEGREE essays Search Advanced search Home GCSE English English Language Writing to Argue, Persuade and Advise Persuasive Essay on Recycling Persuasive Essay on Essay War Recycling . Elizabeth Barrett Browning , Essay , Homework 1076 Words | 5 Pages.