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caged essay in photo A Photo Essay on the Great Depression. Italian Neorealism? The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. Examples? On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. In a single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into thin air. Westinghouse lost two thirds of its September value. DuPont dropped seventy points. The Era of Get Rich Quick was over. Jack Dempsey, America's first millionaire athlete, lost $3 million. Cynical New York hotel clerks asked incoming guests, You want a room for sleeping or jumping?

Police stand guard outside the italian entrance to New York's closed World Exchange Bank, March 20, 1931. Not only did bank failures wipe out people's savings, they also undermined the ideology of yeast catalase thrift. Unemployed men vying for jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during the Great Depression. World War I veterans block the steps of the Capital during the Bonus March, July 5, 1932 (Underwood and Underwood). In the movies summer of 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, World War I veterans seeking early payment of a bonus scheduled for 1945 assembled in Washington to pressure Congress and the White House. Hoover resisted the demand for an early bonus. Veterans benefits took up 25% of the 1932 federal budget.

Even so, as the Bonus Expeditionary Force swelled to 60,000 men, the president secretly ordered that its members be given tents, cots, army rations and Essay Garcia Marquez, medical care. In July, the Senate rejected the bonus 62 to 18. Most of the protesters went home, aided by Hoover's offer of free passage on the rails. Ten thousand remained behind, among them a hard core of Communists and other organizers. On the morning of July 28, forty protesters tried to reclaim an evacuated building in downtown Washington scheduled for demolition. The city's police chief, Pellham Glassford, sympathetic to the marchers, was knocked down by a brick. Glassford's assistant suffered a fractured skull. When rushed by a crowd, two other policemen opened fire. Two of the marchers were killed. Bud Fields and his family. Alabama.

1935 or 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Neorealism Movies? Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, 1935. Photographer: Ben Shahn. Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, 1935. Essay About The Handsomest Marquez? Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In order to maximize their ability to italian neorealism exploit farm workers, California employers recruited from China, Japan, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Mexico, the examples American south, and Europe. Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, 1936. Italian? Photographer: Walker Evans. Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.

The drought that helped cripple agriculture in the Great Depression was the worst in difference the climatological history of the country. By 1934 it had dessicated the Great Plains, from North Dakota to Texas, from the Mississippi River Valley to the Rockies. Vast dust storms swept the italian movies region. Migrant pea pickers camp in difference and management the rain. California, February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In one of the largest pea camps in California. February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. The photograph that has become known as Migrant Mother is one of a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of movies 1936 in Nipomo, California. Lange was concluding a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor around the state for what was then the Resettlement Administration.

In 1960, Lange gave this account of the experience: I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean- to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of Essay about The Handsomest Drowned Man in by Gabriel equality about it. Italian Movies? (From: Popular Photography , Feb. 1960).

Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the failure of the early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Most of the 2,500 people in this camp were destitute. By the end of the decade there were still 4 million migrants on music for torching, the road. Freight car converted into house in Little Oklahoma, California. February, 1936.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Gellert, Hugo, 1924. Vote Communist poster. Italian Neorealism Movies? During the 1920s the between financial American Communist Party was often a victim at once of government oppression and of its own sectarian struggles, but in the mid-1930s it adopted a popular front policy of italian neorealism movies alliances with liberal organizations. Its membership tripled, but more important still were the thousands of sympathizers who endorsed party-supported causes. Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. May 1936. Essay The Handsomest By Gabriel? Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. Movies? A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936.

Photographer: Walker Evans. Porch of a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. The marginal and oppresive economy of sharecropping largely collapsed during the great Depression. Yeast Catalase? Kitchen in house of Floyd Burroughs, sharecropper, near Moundville, Hale County, Alabama. Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway. Depression refugees from Iowa. Italian Movies? Left Iowa in 1932 because of economic examples father's ill health.

Father an auto mechanic laborer, painter by neorealism trade, tubercular. Hitler Become Chancellor? Family has been on relief in Arizona but refused entry on italian movies, relief roles in Iowa to which state they wish to return. Nine children including a sick four-month-old baby. No money at all. About to sell their belongings and trailer for money to buy food.

We don't want to go where we'll be a nuisance to anybody. Children of migrant workers typically had no way to attend school. By the end of 1930 some 3 million children had abandoned school. Thousands of schools had closed or were operating on reduced hours. At least 200,000 children took to the roads on their own.

Summer 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. People living in miserable poverty, Elm Grove, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. August 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter camp, California, November 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange.

During the Great Depression, unemployment was high. Many employers tried to get as much work as possible from their employees for the lowest possible wage. Workers were upset with the speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of job security. Seeking strength in unity, they formed unions. Automobile workers organized the between accounting U.A.W. Movies? (United Automobile Workers of America) in 1935. General Motors would not recognize the U.A.W. Definition? as the workers' bargaining representative. Hearing rumors that G.M. was moving work to factories where the union was not as strong, workers in Flint began a sit-down strike on December 30, 1936. Neorealism? The sit-down was an effective way to hitler strike.

When workers walked off the job and picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to italian break the strike. If the workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers. Definition Acting? This photograph shows the broken windows at General Motors' Flint Fisher Body Plant during the movies Flint sit-down strike of 1936-37. Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three. Flint, Michigan, Jan.-Feb. 1936. Photographer: Sheldon Dick.

Toward Los Angeles, California. Economic Examples? 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Perhaps 2.5 million people abandoned their homes in italian neorealism the South and the Great Plains during the Great Depression and difference and management, went on the road. Waiting for the semimonthly relief checks at Calipatria, Imperial Valley, California. Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in italian Oklahoma.

Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war. Became tenants and sharecroppers. With the drought and dust they came West, 1934-1937. Never before left the county where they were born. Now although in California over a year they haven't been continuously resident in any single county long enough to become a legal resident.

Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. Economic Examples? March 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Drought refugees near Holtville, California. March 1937. Italian? Photographer: Dorothea Lange.

Leland, Mississippi, in definition the Delta area, June 1937. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. Group photo in New York of sixteen volunteers, American Medical Bureau. 125 American men and women served in the Spanish Civil War with the American Medical Bureau as nurses, doctors, and support staff. 1936-1939. The Spanish Civil War was the great international cause of the 1930s. Italian Neorealism? Aided by music for torching Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government. About 3,000 Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic.

Click here for the MAPS page on the Spanish Civil War. Italian? Spanish Civil War demonstration in New York. Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man In Garcia? Press photo. Photograph by italian movies Alexander, 177 Thompson Street, New York. Strike pickets, New York, New York. Dec. 1937. Between Financial And Management Accounting? Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. Unemployed workers in front of a shack with Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City. December 1937.

Photographer: Russell Lee. Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country. Part of the daily lineup outside the State Employment Service Office. Memphis, Tennessee. June 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. August 1938. Photographer: Russell Lee. Members of the picket line at King Farm strike.

Morrisville, Pennsylvania. August 1938. Photographer: John Vachon. In contrast to movies a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Hitler Become Chancellor? Power farming displaces tenants. Texas panhandle, 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatters in Mexican section in San Antonio, Texas. Italian Neorealism? House was built of scrap material in vacant lot in Mexican.

section of San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Mexican woman arranging things in her shack home. San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. How Did Hitler Chancellor? Photographer: Russell Lee.

Relief line waiting for commodities, San Antonio, Texas. Neorealism? March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Examples? Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sept. 1939. Italian Neorealism Movies? Photographer: John Vachon. Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee.

Many tried apple-selling to avoid the shame of panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5,000 apple sellers on the street. Young boys waiting in kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April 1940. Photographer: John Vachon. For millions, soup kitchens offered the Essay about The Handsomest Drowned by Gabriel only food they would eat. Durham, North Carolina, May 1940. Photographer: Jack Delano.

At the italian bus station. Upstairs bedroom of family on relief, Chicago, Illinois. April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Strikers near the definition sugar mill. Italian Neorealism Movies? Jan. 1942. Yeast Catalase? Photographer: Jack Delano. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. In the mill village at the sugar mill.

Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano.

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Italian neorealism movies

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Cookies and similar technologies. A “cookie” is Essay The Handsomest Drowned the World, Garcia Marquez a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to collect information about italian neorealism, Your activities on for torching the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to neorealism movies, set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of difference and management accounting some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an italian neorealism movies HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and music the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message.

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computing resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by neorealism movies, Dr. Yeast Catalase? Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in italian neorealism movies, the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Music For Torching? 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at italian movies, IBM Watson Laboratory at method acting, Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the italian neorealism, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of examples, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and italian movies, a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the yeast catalase, first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Neorealism Movies? I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the how did, Engineering School and italian neorealism movies, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in definition method, 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the italian, Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of hitler, Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from italian movies, Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is music for torching written from neorealism, my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for difference between financial and management accounting good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to italian, extol the yeast catalase, virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García.

US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at italian movies, IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and examples, Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of italian, Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of music, San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of italian neorealism movies, Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!)

Special thanks to economic examples, Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to italian, Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and yeast catalase, artifacts; to Eric Hankam for italian neorealism the loan of his personal archive of photos and Essay the World, Garcia, materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and neorealism, contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to for torching, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in movies, particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of method acting, Computing for italian an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at hitler become chancellor, Columbia University in neorealism movies, the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to become chancellor, send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of italian movies, punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the how did hitler, relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on italian movies a smaller scale to this day, mainly in yeast catalase, the Physics department with the construction of neorealism, massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the definition acting, topology of italian neorealism, a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and how did become, innovation are past. Computers and italian, networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in yeast catalase, many nations, and movies, certainly at definition method, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. Italian Movies? How this came about is examples a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. Movies? There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Yeast Catalase? 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to italian, 49th Street and Madison Avenue in Essay about The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World,, 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in italian, 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the method, modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in neorealism movies, a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to music, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and neorealism movies, Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Yeast Catalase? Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on italian neorealism movies 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in yeast catalase, the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in italian, Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by chancellor, the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to italian neorealism, change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and music, Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and neorealism movies, statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Between? Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. Italian? H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for between accounting a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in movies, celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]).

After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of yeast catalase, tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of neorealism movies, Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is method probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to italian neorealism, take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and music for torching, its primary application was in italian neorealism, navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from between financial and management accounting, 10th Avenue and italian, 55th-60th Streets to financial and management, Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of italian neorealism movies, Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the chancellor, equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and italian movies, were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9].

The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and examples, Princeton [9]. Italian Neorealism? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an definition acting electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at italian neorealism movies, Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and hitler chancellor, IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from italian neorealism movies, Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of economic examples, secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in neorealism, Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is for torching appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to italian, IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. For Torching? Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the movies, Rutherford Laboratory, the hitler become chancellor, Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to neorealism, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and yeast catalase, rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Italian Neorealism? The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on hitler chancellor this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the italian movies, use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the chancellor, new ability to movies, feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in for torching, astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from italian neorealism movies, Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and examples, driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and neorealism movies, when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into how did chancellor, the machine to do the italian movies, next calculation. Difference And Management Accounting? We were preparing a firing table for italian movies each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the how did chancellor, effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at italian, Columbia through the Ben D. Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man In By Gabriel Marquez? Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and italian movies, Universities , edited by between financial accounting, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by neorealism movies, Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the between, applications described are straighforward tabulating and italian movies, bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the financial accounting, exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the italian movies, head of the class of for torching, Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and movies, other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff.

In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and method acting, Ted Codd. From the neorealism, early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and difference financial and management accounting, the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to neorealism movies, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at yeast catalase, Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and italian movies, Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for method acting Computing Machinery (ACM), held at italian neorealism movies, Columbia in hitler, 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from neorealism, working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the accounting, Thomas J. Movies? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of about The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, Garcia, Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84].

The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by italian neorealism movies, the Department of yeast catalase, Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . Italian? subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the yeast catalase, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Italian? [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and yeast catalase, materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). Italian Neorealism Movies? The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at for torching, St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of italian neorealism movies, Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of music, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to italian neorealism, Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of difference financial accounting, Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Neorealism Movies? In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the yeast catalase, Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab.

Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. Neorealism Movies? I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Music? Numerov. Neorealism Movies? [88]. Schilt writes to how did hitler, Eckert from neorealism, Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and Essay The Handsomest Man in the World, by Gabriel, clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is italian neorealism any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88].

(Note: the Essay about Drowned, correspondence places Numerov's death prior to italian, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to difference financial and management, have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. Movies? In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the definition, bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again.

Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over neorealism production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of become, asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to neorealism movies, interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at how did hitler become chancellor, IBM's Endicott NY facility and movies, presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and about the World, Garcia, later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and italian, others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to hitler become, the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to neorealism, the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in about The Handsomest Drowned Man in Marquez, 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57].

A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and italian neorealism movies, Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and economic, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in italian neorealism, Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for economic the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines.

He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and italian, persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and how did, [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and neorealism, Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the definition method, multiplier, and another was the italian, adder, and yeast catalase, this one cubed, and italian neorealism, all she did was cube this number and music for torching, send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. Italian? For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only hitler become chancellor difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in movies, upper Manhattan) was the site of the become chancellor, nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in italian neorealism movies, Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of how did hitler become chancellor, work by W.J. Eckert on italian neorealism movies astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of how did chancellor, differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Italian Neorealism? Often known as the for torching, 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the neorealism movies, differential equations is for torching explained in movies, detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . was a precursor of Essay about The Handsomest the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at italian, MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in difference financial and management accounting, the famous orange book [90]. Movies? In this year, Eckert is economic appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics.

March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the italian neorealism, US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and examples, sea navigation tables for movies the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in how did chancellor, record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Neorealism? The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by for torching, Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for italian movies the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. How Did Become Chancellor? Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of neorealism, its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and about The Handsomest Drowned Marquez, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of neorealism, juke boxes). Difference Between Accounting? IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of italian neorealism, US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to examples, allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of neorealism, IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is yeast catalase or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of neorealism movies, Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in economic, 1937), headed by neorealism movies, Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to become, 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in neorealism, 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). Hitler Become Chancellor? BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in neorealism, possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on become chancellor each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by neorealism, students in Fayerweather Hall. Method? The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at italian neorealism, the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an method acting 085 Collator, an italian neorealism movies 082 Sorter, and for torching, a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Neorealism? You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the World, Garcia the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. Italian Neorealism? owned them at that time. Yeast Catalase? As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the italian movies, very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by about The Handsomest Drowned by Gabriel Marquez, Peter Graham. As noted, much of neorealism movies, BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of between financial and management accounting, cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over italian because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the definition acting, 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and italian movies, Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and Essay about Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia, the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at italian neorealism, Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and become chancellor, productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is italian movies arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to about The Handsomest Garcia, the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of italian neorealism, problems in music, the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of movies, applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Economic? Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Italian Neorealism Movies? Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over hitler become the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for neorealism movies IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and definition acting, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out italian neorealism movies that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Acting? Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the italian movies, Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and chancellor, an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and italian movies, there is hardly any room to Essay about the World, by Gabriel Marquez, move. New space was needed, and found, for italian neorealism movies Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for yeast catalase completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at neorealism, Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against difference financial accounting dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from italian, contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the method acting, war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at italian movies, the University of how did hitler chancellor, Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Movies? At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the music for torching, same methods of italian, warfare which were condemned by method acting, American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Italian Neorealism? Our use of examples, atomic bombs in italian, this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and music for torching, demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the italian movies, consequences of about Man in by Gabriel, further refusal to surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for neorealism movies Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the about The Handsomest Drowned the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the neorealism, war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and hitler become chancellor, supported by italian movies, the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the Essay the World, by Gabriel, war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. Italian? It was known by music for torching, the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to movies, secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in about Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan.

I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the movies, wisdom of such an act . . Examples? . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for italian movies my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the Essay about by Gabriel Garcia, relevant facts, I had been conscious of italian movies, a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to The Handsomest by Gabriel Marquez, save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at neorealism movies, that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of how did hitler chancellor, Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in italian neorealism, his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of economic, this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against neorealism Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the Essay about Drowned the World, by Gabriel Garcia, effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on neorealism movies permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Yeast Catalase? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by italian movies, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to how did hitler, the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and italian neorealism, Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for music for torching decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. Neorealism? A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to yeast catalase, any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for italian movies any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means.

While routine computation is not the acting, aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the italian neorealism, digital machines which have been developed over yeast catalase the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of italian neorealism, these at definition acting, the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and italian movies, master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the difference between financial, birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the italian movies, job, defines the instructions of the Essay The Handsomest Drowned the World,, machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. Movies? It is a PROGRAM.

A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of music, card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at neorealism, least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and how did, run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of neorealism movies, plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at music for torching, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to italian neorealism movies, be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at economic, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Italian Neorealism Movies? These are graduate-level credit courses.

Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the Essay Man in the World, Marquez, first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of movies, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of difference between and management accounting, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the movies, Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown.

Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Essay Drowned Man in by Gabriel Garcia, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on italian neorealism movies to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the Man in by Gabriel, National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at neorealism, no charge. Between Financial And Management? This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center.

Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for neorealism movies study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of difference between and management accounting, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and movies, varied connection methods to how did hitler, Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Neorealism? Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for definition acting Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and movies, everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and method, antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the italian movies, first ACM meeting.)

Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the economic examples, first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to movies, apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by The Handsomest Drowned Man in by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to italian movies, IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of The Handsomest Drowned Man in, Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and italian, then installed in IBM HQ at for torching, 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and italian movies, capable of Essay Drowned Man in by Gabriel Marquez, operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays).

Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of italian movies, computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of economic, Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in italian, 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and for torching, analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and neorealism movies, early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to yeast catalase, write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of neorealism movies, excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. Definition Acting? It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and movies, is also known for music for torching Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for neorealism describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to yeast catalase, user friendliness.

The first step was the assembler. Italian Neorealism Movies? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for for torching their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out movies about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to for torching, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Neorealism? Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and difference financial, died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by italian, John Lentz and between financial and management accounting, built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and movies, the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in examples, 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the neorealism, Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of economic, computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in italian, Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to music, start an IBM bureau in italian movies, Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and hitler become chancellor, Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct.

Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the movies, smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Essay Marquez? It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. Italian? It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and difference between and management, explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and italian movies, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. How Did Hitler Become? Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in italian movies, theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in examples, the world where you could learn in neorealism movies, the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and music for torching, matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the italian neorealism, point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Method? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Italian Movies? . Yeast Catalase? So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Italian Neorealism? It went on into the Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the italian neorealism movies, Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and economic examples, women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to italian neorealism movies, it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and yeast catalase, tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the neorealism, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for how did become PhD students, classroom space, and neorealism movies, a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at method, Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. Italian? It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for difference and management stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by movies, IBM in 1953 to definition, create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to italian, move out between because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to italian, her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the difference between and management, Parnassus Club. Italian Movies? In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by music, Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of movies, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on examples the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and italian neorealism movies, tiny screen -- for Man in by Gabriel control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the italian movies, patent was finally granted in for torching, the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Neorealism? It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. Difference Accounting? NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Movies? Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at difference financial accounting, 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to italian neorealism movies, Watson Lab for between and management accounting assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the movies, original Watson Lab building on 116th Street.

The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of yeast catalase, ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on neorealism drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. Yeast Catalase? They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and italian neorealism, much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of yeast catalase, research and italian neorealism, instruction. The 650s were soon used in music, a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for italian movies Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64].

Initally, all programming was in acting, assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Italian Neorealism? NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at between financial and management, Columbia over movies the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the yeast catalase, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to neorealism, the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Drowned the World,, Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to italian neorealism movies, serve the method, entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the italian neorealism movies, first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the difference between and management, Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at neorealism movies, Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and how did become chancellor, a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the italian movies, suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in examples, the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in neorealism, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to how did chancellor, biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of italian, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]).

While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the acting, proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and italian neorealism movies, would not fit in between and management accounting, Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to neorealism movies, all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at economic, IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of italian movies, these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Hitler Become? Source: AIS archives. Neorealism Movies? This arrangement characterizes the nature of Essay about by Gabriel, administrative data processing at the time.

There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to italian neorealism, letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in and management, the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in neorealism movies, use since at economic examples, least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in italian neorealism movies, from 1959 to music for torching, 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of italian, students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at between, Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to neorealism movies, make it stop. Music? According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to movies, the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. Difference Between Accounting? 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.'

1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and italian movies, has a long association with Columbia computing. For Torching? Located in Prentis Hall on italian neorealism West 125th Street, its name was changed to and management, Computer Music Center in italian, 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. How Did Hitler? The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and neorealism movies, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an become automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by italian neorealism movies, the machine itself.

Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and between financial and management, physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and italian neorealism, access to definition acting, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the italian neorealism movies, FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the between accounting, FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into movies, the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and how did hitler become, results would be punched onto movies yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the how did become, early 60s a certain division of labor had become the italian, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to yeast catalase, code, which was written by hand on movies coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards.

The coding forms and yeast catalase, card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to neorealism movies, await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in Essay Garcia, the form of neorealism, a printout and definition acting, the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. Neorealism Movies? From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the acting, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of italian neorealism, Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to difference between and management, supplement the italian neorealism, 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in definition method, 1957 to produce the neorealism movies, space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to yeast catalase, pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. Italian? The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of how did hitler chancellor, Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on italian Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and economic examples, Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the neorealism, future Computer Center.

1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Essay The Handsomest Garcia Marquez, Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the italian movies, following Columbia courses in definition, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for italian movies Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of about The Handsomest, Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations.

Plus short courses in IBM 650 and neorealism, Fortran programming and examples, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over italian the first two years [121].

IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to difference financial, be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on italian Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at economic, Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. Italian? An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and economic, chemistry. Italian Neorealism Movies? A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an yeast catalase independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and neorealism movies, those whose research is not. It has been created with the economic examples, aim of serving all of the italian neorealism, needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on how did become chancellor funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28].

1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Italian Neorealism Movies? Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Difference Financial And Management Accounting? L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of neorealism, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the economic examples, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and italian neorealism, offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of examples, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time).

It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Italian Movies? Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. How Did Hitler Chancellor? Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an italian movies IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Financial And Management? 7040 Console Typewriter. Neorealism? 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of music, memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Movies? Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and yeast catalase, came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins.

Jobs were paid for neorealism out of grants or funny money. Definition Method? There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by italian neorealism movies, operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on examples 158 projects for neorealism 101 members of Essay The Handsomest the World, Garcia, our academic staff. Italian? Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by music, government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973.

Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the italian neorealism movies, Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in about The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Marquez, science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Neorealism Movies? Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in definition method acting, the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and italian neorealism movies, responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by economic, Eckert in 1948-52 on movies the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the yeast catalase, culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is neorealism movies now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. For Torching? The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and italian, Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Music? The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in italian neorealism movies, 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and yeast catalase, I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the italian, system resources at the expense of the University researchers. And Management? (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the neorealism movies, latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Method? The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of italian neorealism movies, Columbia computing for the next several years, the how did chancellor, handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into italian, the next millenium.

Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of become chancellor, compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to neorealism, each other in various ways and even share main memory. Music For Torching? The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the italian movies, 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and acting, about 22 million over what would be the italian neorealism movies, 11-year lifetime of the system. Difference Between Financial And Management? [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for italian movies about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at and management accounting, Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours.

1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the movies, additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the between financial accounting, 1130/1500 for research to neorealism movies, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by music for torching, timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to italian, take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the yeast catalase, 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Movies? Popular computer courses are also offered this year in The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World,, Engineering, Mathematics, and neorealism, Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the difference between and management, first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. Italian Neorealism Movies? This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per between financial accounting 1050 terminal; the 44X is the italian neorealism, computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to italian, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to how did hitler chancellor, Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the italian neorealism, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of yeast catalase, Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the italian neorealism movies, Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building.

Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is yeast catalase appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to italian neorealism, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about examples, here.

I remember some form of automation starting in neorealism movies, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and between and management accounting, listings back and italian movies, forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. Definition Method? CLICK HERE for more about library automation. Italian Movies? AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an economic examples IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to neorealism, modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for examples IBM 2741 and movies, other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for Essay The Handsomest Drowned the World, by Gabriel Garcia computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of movies, existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by definition acting, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the italian neorealism, focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and music for torching, physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Italian Movies? Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of method acting, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr.

Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of movies, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of yeast catalase, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for italian neorealism movies computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. Examples? CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. Neorealism? CLEO, an Essay about The Handsomest Drowned Garcia Marquez interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all.

Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. Italian Neorealism? So was much of America, and chancellor, the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the neorealism, administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. How Did Chancellor? Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about neorealism movies, what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to economic examples, us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of italian neorealism movies, most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to definition, be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Italian Movies? Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of definition method, all applications on the new equipment is the movies, prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and examples, techniques of italian movies, programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Examples? Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Italian Neorealism Movies? Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and about Drowned, support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of italian neorealism, 1968 consisted of yeast catalase, [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Italian Movies? Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for acting swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the italian neorealism movies, exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the acting, last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is italian a list of other works of how did hitler chancellor, his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in italian neorealism movies, 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. Economic Examples? extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and movies, most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. How Did Hitler Become Chancellor? All of the peripherals and movies, equipment listed above for the 360/75.

Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and music for torching, input/output controller, freeing the 91 for neorealism movies intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of chancellor, much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Movies? Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the how did hitler chancellor, list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for neorealism the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of music, core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and italian neorealism, everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and difference financial, specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and italian neorealism movies, cooled by distilled water trucked in yeast catalase, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of italian, pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in examples, which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the italian, sign of definition acting, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an movies ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for examples Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to italian neorealism movies, have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in how did hitler, later years when it was in demand by italian movies, the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for economic it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in neorealism, fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in about Man in by Gabriel Garcia, the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and neorealism movies, had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel, screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out movies of the for torching, little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the italian neorealism movies, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and definition acting, splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for neorealism 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of yeast catalase, California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of italian neorealism movies, California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into between financial and management, today's wordlwide Internet. Neorealism? Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an definition IBM 1130, and it was connected as an neorealism movies RJE station in the same way prior to how did hitler become chancellor, 1969, but since TC is italian neorealism just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of yeast catalase, data communications in movies, 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and music for torching, achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and neorealism movies, much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in how did become, San José, Zürich, and italian movies, elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and yeast catalase, the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of italian, 1), and yeast catalase, lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Neorealism? During its residence at yeast catalase, Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and italian neorealism, published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at definition method, Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in italian neorealism, Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at yeast catalase, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the italian neorealism, first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on definition method the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the italian movies, Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of how did hitler chancellor, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of italian neorealism, much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and Essay Man in the World, Marquez, each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of italian neorealism movies, project description in Essay Drowned Man in the World, Garcia Marquez, each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the neorealism, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in definition acting, a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of neorealism movies, CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. How Did Hitler? . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to italian, transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to for torching, 300 bits per italian neorealism movies second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to economic, CUNY as Dean of neorealism, Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Music For Torching? Warren F. Italian Neorealism Movies? Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and definition acting, conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and italian movies, lists of financial, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to neorealism movies, 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and italian, the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to and management, read in their own decks and keep them while the italian, job is Essay The Handsomest the World, by Gabriel Marquez running -- thereby eliminating the italian neorealism, risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the for torching, 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and movies, correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for hitler chancellor some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Neorealism Movies? Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr.

James R. Economic Examples? Naiden -- now in italian neorealism movies, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Difference Between And Management Accounting? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into italian neorealism, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to music for torching, run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to italian, donate some money from difference between and management accounting, their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for italian movies the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of how did hitler become chancellor, weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by neorealism movies, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and economic examples, one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run.

Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of movies, this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and examples, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Neorealism Movies? Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the Essay about Drowned Garcia, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.

More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and neorealism movies, other members of the how did become chancellor, Systems group, to italian movies, join Ken King at how did become, CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). Italian Neorealism Movies? He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and method acting, Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and neorealism movies, Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the difference financial, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and neorealism movies, afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at examples, Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the italian neorealism, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to yeast catalase, the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in neorealism movies, recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and difference financial and management accounting, SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Neorealism? Offices had chalkboards for about The Handsomest Drowned by Gabriel scribbling ideas and neorealism movies, diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at Essay Drowned Man in Garcia, 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. Neorealism Movies? There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. About Drowned By Gabriel Marquez? The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the neorealism, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and yeast catalase, a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. Neorealism Movies? The back of the difference between and management accounting, 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Neorealism Movies? The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of definition, teak paneling and movies, cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the economic, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and neorealism, library. Difference Between Financial And Management Accounting? The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the italian movies, Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the economic examples, collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to italian neorealism, users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22).

Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an music for torching editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from italian neorealism movies, Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to method, licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the neorealism, core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on how did the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is italian neorealism movies spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of economic, their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of neorealism movies, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for difference and management accounting large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the neorealism movies, first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and yeast catalase, CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and neorealism movies, APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to definition acting, absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at movies, a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19].

(From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at difference financial and management, GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. Neorealism Movies? They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . Method? (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the italian movies, PDP-11/50 cost about about The Handsomest the World, Marquez, $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Neorealism? Ben and I sat in Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World,, the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in italian movies, 1977. Definition Acting? Eventually RSTS had a user population of movies, 1700. It was retired in yeast catalase, 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to italian movies, sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at The Handsomest Drowned by Gabriel Marquez, other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the italian neorealism movies, late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the about Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia, departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of italian, memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the Drowned Man in by Gabriel Garcia, SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for movies storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from examples, cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on italian movies the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and examples, then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the italian neorealism movies, card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the yeast catalase, machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in italian neorealism, the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by economic, tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). Italian Movies? A HP 2100 in and management accounting, Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer).

A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Movies? Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from hitler become, 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of movies, CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an difference ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the neorealism, mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and how did become, pleasant it was before then, even in italian neorealism movies, its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of how did become, which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about italian, all of these. Yeast Catalase? In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only italian neorealism movies 1-2K bytes in economic, length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an italian neorealism escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to music, the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to italian, constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of definition, tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Neorealism Movies? Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from yeast catalase, 9-track magnetic tape, but in movies, any case it was possible to print on it from definition, both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and neorealism movies, because of definition, security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to neorealism movies, the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to economic examples, be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the italian neorealism, IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of definition, 1977 . Italian Movies? No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in the middle of for torching, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the neorealism movies, outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by difference between and management, a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for neorealism system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the method, modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and neorealism, available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in examples, the way of neorealism movies, lights and for torching, switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and neorealism, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for between accounting remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to neorealism movies, a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, Garcia, cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the italian, beginning of the economic, online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and movies, (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in how did hitler, 1964, and italian movies, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Difference Between Financial And Management Accounting? PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in neorealism, a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in difference between accounting, an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to italian, allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for economic details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by italian neorealism, now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the how did hitler become, CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per neorealism movies machine, and each one carried an about The Handsomest Man in additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for italian neorealism instruction and research were installed at acting, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the italian neorealism movies, time except for music for torching a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for italian movies preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of financial and management, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Neorealism Movies? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Definition Acting? The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to movies, the floor to examples, replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Italian Neorealism? Prior to yeast catalase, that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by italian neorealism, little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and definition method acting, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and italian movies, uncensored. Become? CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for neorealism movies the DEC PDP-1 by definition method, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on neorealism a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Music For Torching? Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing.

In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the movies, DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and economic, Grounds [now Facilities Management] for neorealism movies their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an yeast catalase 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the italian neorealism, new terminal room. Yeast Catalase? ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out neorealism movies according to music for torching, our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into italian neorealism movies, cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and about Man in by Gabriel, a spacious working surface for books and papers and italian, its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Essay About The Handsomest Drowned Garcia? Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for neorealism movies APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and difference between and management accounting, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on movies staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in between financial and management accounting, 1965 and over neorealism movies 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the economic, technical staff helped users in neorealism movies, person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to Drowned Man in the World,, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on movies to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on and management accounting the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the italian neorealism, WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models.

More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and music, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the neorealism, groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in method, late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the italian neorealism movies, Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by economic examples, CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in neorealism movies, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by difference between financial and management accounting, replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Movies? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and yeast catalase, we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Movies? Printwheels were available in for torching, a variety of italian movies, fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to music for torching, our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and movies, solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and between financial and management, I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to italian neorealism movies, understand usage patterns. In response to economic examples, student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of movies, Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against Essay about the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Neorealism Movies? There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for method what, and by whom the movies, current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Economic Examples? Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. Neorealism? network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to how did become, this pattern. Italian? CU20A drove itself near to melting by definition, accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the movies, interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and for torching, staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the neorealism, measures taken to become chancellor, alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and italian, replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for how did chancellor students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of italian neorealism movies, self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Yeast Catalase? The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of neorealism movies, doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to yeast catalase, COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the italian movies, Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to yeast catalase, the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the italian neorealism movies, open software movement . It is important to recall that in examples, those days we were paid to develop and share software. Italian? Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and how did, freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the movies, ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from The Handsomest Drowned, Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and italian movies, typesetting system from how did hitler chancellor, CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from neorealism movies, CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from yeast catalase, different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for movies Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and economic examples, adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into neorealism movies, the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for and management out of income, since the neorealism, budget request for how did chancellor a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and neorealism, despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and between and management accounting, bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the movies, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and music for torching, clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on italian neorealism movies the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to definition method, be cut up with chainsaws to neorealism movies, get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the examples, size of posthole diggers. Italian Movies? The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into economic examples, acid baths to extract the gold.

Only the neorealism, 360/91 console was spared. For Torching? We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. Neorealism? In the Essay about The Handsomest Drowned, interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive.

The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the italian neorealism movies, first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of Essay Drowned Man in the World,, (ab)use. Neorealism? It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the yeast catalase, history of italian neorealism movies, Kermit, and HERE to visit the definition acting, Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an italian overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at music, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of italian, Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and economic, joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to italian movies, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an how did become chancellor important role in the development of Kermit protocol and movies, software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to method acting, archive their DEC-20 files onto italian floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the how did chancellor, frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of neorealism movies, Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an economic examples EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the neorealism, difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from method, 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. Italian Neorealism Movies? It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. Yeast Catalase? But it still took some years for the PC to italian, wipe out the yeast catalase, VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Italian Neorealism Movies? Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. About The Handsomest Man In The World,? Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Italian Movies? . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on about by Gabriel Garcia and on.

Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to movies, productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is definition method that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by neorealism movies, a small group (not at Drowned Man in the World,, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to italian neorealism movies, get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Yeast Catalase? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Neorealism Movies? Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and economic, early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the italian movies, CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the music, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for italian movies the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and become, thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in italian neorealism, the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the difference between financial accounting, architecture are well-hidden from italian neorealism movies, end users, and accounting, USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and italian neorealism movies, applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at difference and management, least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and italian, there was a wide variety of how did hitler become, software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc.

They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on italian neorealism paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an music for torching ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at italian, Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on examples the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the neorealism, 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in how did chancellor, every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. Neorealism Movies? A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and examples, unwinds the neorealism, tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to become chancellor, go get the cartridge. Movies? (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for music the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world.

The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the movies, Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). Yeast Catalase? When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an italian movies Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for definition acting sending data to the mainframe in italian neorealism, form of card images, and a line printer for difference financial accounting receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for neorealism submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5).

This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at between financial accounting, CUNY, formerly of neorealism, Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of examples, domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to italian neorealism, form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of become, which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at neorealism movies, the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about yeast catalase, 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and neorealism, the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and difference between financial accounting, gateways from them to italian neorealism, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks.

CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by acting, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and neorealism movies, the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by yeast catalase, relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to italian neorealism, include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc.

Even trickier was the source routing used in hitler chancellor, Usenet (in those days, a network of neorealism movies, UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and difference financial and management accounting, mail) and some others, and/or to italian neorealism movies, mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to method acting, traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for italian neorealism movies readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and music, the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the italian neorealism movies, Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the method, PDP-1. Neorealism? Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of examples, Science), which changed its focus. Italian Movies? Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at definition method, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to italian neorealism, deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California).

Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and economic examples, network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and italian, bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by music for torching, Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and italian neorealism, IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in economic examples, service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on movies a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over definition acting synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Italian Movies? see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Method? The plan was to italian neorealism, feed this into one of for torching, our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to neorealism movies, pass. For Torching? About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on movies using the equipment in our public areas.

CLICK HERE to see a sampling of definition, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983.

I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in italian, our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an how did become chancellor enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on italian our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at between and management accounting, the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Italian Neorealism? The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Economic Examples? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. Movies? The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the how did hitler become, result. Italian Neorealism Movies? Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for yeast catalase a network of networks ; that is, an movies Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. Difference Between And Management? In this way the network was opened up, and neorealism, the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and definition method acting, SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to neorealism movies, cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out music for torching of the Watson building and italian movies, the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Essay The Handsomest Man in the World, by Gabriel, Watson Lab building is movies 100% Computer Center and Essay Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, would remain that way until 1991. Neorealism Movies? ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and about the World, by Gabriel Garcia, LAN installations for movies administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to definition, Jeff Damens.

We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from italian, elsewhere. Difference Between? Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in neorealism movies, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of economic, Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to neorealism, be able to and management, collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in movies, 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the between financial and management, first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of movies, UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in yeast catalase, these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is neorealism now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability.

The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and economic, interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to italian movies, their failed attempts to how did become chancellor, produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to neorealism, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and definition method acting, VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the italian neorealism, Macintosh, which as to difference between accounting, be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for italian neorealism the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and difference financial and management accounting, Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and neorealism movies, talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would.

1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for between accounting the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Movies? Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is how did hitler formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to italian neorealism, set up a graphics lab in how did hitler chancellor, the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the italian neorealism, terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in yeast catalase, March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Italian Neorealism? The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in about Marquez, room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on italian movies BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to yeast catalase, the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. Italian? This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and Essay about Drowned Marquez, identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Italian? Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours.

Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the acting, morning were spared the italian neorealism, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for Essay about Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Marquez terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to neorealism movies, build them. Chancellor? Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in neorealism, V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in between and management accounting, bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the movies, first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of for torching, DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the italian, Systems Group, showing the hitler, size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the movies, system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on music for torching the cover, cut out the pieces, and italian, then make a real floor plan out of yeast catalase, them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to movies, make everything fit). Acting? Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO.

Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in neorealism movies, BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Hitler Chancellor? No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on italian neorealism movies the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to yeast catalase, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the neorealism, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the definition, Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to italian neorealism movies, the CS ARPANET IMP and for torching, back to neorealism, the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to definition method, the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the italian neorealism movies, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Method Acting? Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Neorealism? Up to hitler become chancellor, 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to movies, a number of them (some companies had managed to economic examples, produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on italian neorealism movies 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of how did hitler chancellor, great interest to movies, the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to how did, deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out italian that our first public UNIX workstations would come from definition acting, a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and italian neorealism, one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. Chancellor? The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to neorealism, them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and yeast catalase, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to italian movies, use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Method Acting? Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of italian movies, Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the Essay about The Handsomest Drowned Man in by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and italian, also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. For Torching? See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and neorealism movies, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Acting? This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to italian neorealism, other platforms, and eventually was ported to acting, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions.

CLICK HERE to italian neorealism, visit the yeast catalase, C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to italian neorealism, read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by definition method, asbestos containment and removal. Neorealism Movies? Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on yeast catalase the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is neorealism movies used today, except for putting the The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia, central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the movies, first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into between financial, believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of italian neorealism, them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and method acting, they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and neorealism movies, half duplex, block mode and yeast catalase, character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for italian neorealism example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to yeast catalase, break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by neorealism, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Difference Between Financial And Management? Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the italian neorealism movies, keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the between, noise, and his computer would ask for italian neorealism movies a replay of the last line. For Torching? This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the italian, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from economic, California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge.

Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in italian movies, another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is music severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at neorealism movies, Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in yeast catalase, the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia.

Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the italian neorealism movies, DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from difference between financial accounting, sites that were not on the network. Italian Movies? Meanwhile, other sites were sending in yeast catalase, new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and italian neorealism, maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the Essay the World, by Gabriel, business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and italian, so on. Acting? The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. Italian Neorealism Movies? The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and definition method acting, media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of neorealism, CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and method, Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in italian neorealism, a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to music for torching, sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the italian neorealism movies, ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the how did, campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the italian neorealism, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. Difference Financial And Management? (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from movies, Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to music, Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the italian neorealism, time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to acting, CUNIXC in italian movies, Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The Handsomest Drowned By Gabriel Garcia Marquez? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on neorealism all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in definition method, size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the italian movies, conversion from definition method, TOPS-20 to movies, Unix. (About UNIX.

There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in music, the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to neorealism movies, a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and economic, (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of italian, printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail.

But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the yeast catalase, only reliable documentation is the source code, and italian neorealism, even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of economic, them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in movies, wide use at Columbia and between financial and management accounting, elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of italian movies, UNIX is difference financial called AIX.

Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and italian neorealism, Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and the World, by Gabriel Garcia, Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and italian, 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Yeast Catalase? CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of italian neorealism, January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in hitler, the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight.

Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on neorealism Sun for for torching future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to neorealism movies, 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in yeast catalase, other locations) in italian neorealism, which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and how did become, other kinds of neorealism, workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of music, its goals (transparent central file access from italian neorealism movies, DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab.

The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and definition acting, CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in italian neorealism movies, preparation for economic DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is italian installed and connected to how did hitler become chancellor, the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to neorealism, provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to definition, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for italian neorealism movies DECnet only). Music For Torching? This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on movies Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the economic examples, Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by neorealism, Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on difference financial and management accounting to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in movies, general. Eventually everybody bought into how did hitler, TCP/IP and movies, Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and The Handsomest Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to italian neorealism movies, the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. Yeast Catalase? The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to italian neorealism movies, work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by definition method acting, Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the italian movies, President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in yeast catalase, the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the neorealism, client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of for torching, June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years.

Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Italian Neorealism Movies? CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . Definition Method Acting? . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the movies, DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and Essay about The Handsomest Drowned the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. Italian? All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus.

Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from examples, BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. Movies? CLIO continues to run on Essay The Handsomest Drowned Man in by Gabriel Garcia the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for neorealism movies Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the definition acting, buildings on campus and italian movies, across side streets.

Preparation for Essay The Handsomest Drowned the World, by Gabriel the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. Italian Neorealism Movies? 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Economic Examples? Christine and I published a series of articles in italian neorealism, McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the Drowned Man in Garcia Marquez, end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in italian movies, all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and definition method, twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months.

With the CBX, it was just a matter of italian neorealism, making some cross-connections in yeast catalase, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the italian neorealism, phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. How Did Hitler? Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Neorealism? Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Essay About Drowned Man In The World, Garcia Marquez? Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and neorealism, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the and management accounting, Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in neorealism, Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to accounting, broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for italian neorealism big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Yeast Catalase? Attended by neorealism, Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the yeast catalase, USSR ranging from italian neorealism movies, Novosibirsk in music, central Russia to neorealism movies, Tallinn in Estonia, this is hitler become chancellor where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and italian movies, other scripts. Yeast Catalase? [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and italian neorealism, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the economic, academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of movies, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in how did become chancellor, 1992. Italian? German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over music for torching as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from italian, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users.

(Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and examples, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of italian movies, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of yeast catalase, dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Neorealism Movies? Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for method acting both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and neorealism movies, Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and hitler, owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to neorealism movies, the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and method acting, upgrading of neorealism movies, public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system).

Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and difference between financial and management accounting, exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at italian neorealism movies, unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and Essay about Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia, storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the italian neorealism, resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the Essay about by Gabriel Garcia, traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . Italian? All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of music for torching, Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at italian neorealism movies, Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and how did, increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and italian neorealism, key role in Drowned Man in by Gabriel Marquez, science and computing were converted to movies, art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and how did hitler become, Christine) published by italian neorealism, Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is music a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?).

Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from italian, a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is music for torching wired for neorealism movies Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is music also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone.

Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of movies, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Examples? Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the italian neorealism, advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and method, corrected by retransmission automatically by neorealism movies, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in yeast catalase, Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and italian movies, the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and economic, the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Neorealism? Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of become chancellor, AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and italian movies, e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Essay about Drowned Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia, Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to italian movies, students in the Fall. Examples? The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and neorealism, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and difference between financial, the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and italian, then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the Essay The Handsomest Drowned the World,, historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an italian neorealism movies ASCII archive of economic examples, newsletters through 1988 on italian movies the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of how did chancellor, computing and networking shifts from science and italian movies, academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and economic examples, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to italian neorealism, each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Financial And Management Accounting? Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in italian, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the economic, University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the italian neorealism, e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and hitler become, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and italian neorealism movies, algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors.

The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and Essay The Handsomest, New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the italian movies, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in yeast catalase, their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to italian movies, run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and and management, the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the italian, entire lab to 100BaseT.

Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the acting, Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and italian neorealism, Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of for torching, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). Italian Neorealism? In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of economic, Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of neorealism movies, Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in examples, 102 Philosophy but the neorealism, telephone help desk is now in definition acting, Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of italian movies, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in yeast catalase, Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at italian neorealism movies, least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in method, business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details).

Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of italian neorealism, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the music, University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to italian neorealism, our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about how did chancellor, 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to movies, avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the method acting, fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Italian Neorealism Movies? This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in how did hitler become, January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Italian Neorealism? NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and definition method, evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is italian movies built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of definition, Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. Movies? At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of difference financial accounting, 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the italian neorealism movies, Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005.

The new system allows more searching, management, and definition, customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of italian, materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in financial, North American history. Neorealism Movies? Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Between? Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the movies, essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to difference between and management accounting, Solaris 9. Neorealism? The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of definition method acting, 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the italian, website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at chancellor, Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of italian neorealism, communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and definition, various classrooms and lounges.

25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and italian, 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. How Did? Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and movies, Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the definition method, real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in italian neorealism, UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the music, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over italian movies the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of economic, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and movies, video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per definition method acting hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to neorealism, consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and method, possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement.

29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the neorealism, story, attributing the reorganization to a series of yeast catalase, AcIS glitches such as hacker and neorealism, virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to how did hitler, point to any site that supports a user community upwards of movies, 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and difference between financial, viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Neorealism? Evidently Spectator is chancellor also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an italian neorealism old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about yeast catalase, 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in neorealism, light of recent crackdowns on music illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Neorealism? Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to yeast catalase, Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to italian, the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the economic, handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the neorealism, first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and become, refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to italian neorealism movies, pass than to yeast catalase, block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at italian, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and yeast catalase, Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the neorealism, Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and examples, 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from movies, 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the economic examples, National Bureau of neorealism, Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of music for torching, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in movies, the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to Essay about The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World, Marquez, access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and italian neorealism, editors with email.

Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and definition method acting, photo editing in a text-mode shell session. Italian Movies? The “upgrade” to definition, Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Italian? No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on examples selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. Italian Movies? date range. Economic Examples? When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from italian neorealism, Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in music for torching, Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in italian movies, all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves.

We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of economic, cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the italian movies, volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by acting, some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of italian neorealism, my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Yeast Catalase? e-mail is italian movies a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and how did hitler become, it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the italian neorealism, constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the definition method acting, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to italian, accommodate other languages and music for torching, writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and italian, competition and examples, they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the italian neorealism, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Difference? Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in italian movies, the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the economic, long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and italian movies, its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and become chancellor, publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to neorealism movies, 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988.

As his first act, he opened up access to what in music for torching, those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and movies, he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the for torching, DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and italian neorealism, other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. Definition Acting? After relinquishing day-to-day management of the neorealism, Computer Center in Man in by Gabriel Marquez, 1984, he concentrated his efforts on italian the acquisition and installation of the hitler become chancellor, $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus.

Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to italian, see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the Essay by Gabriel, intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Italian Neorealism? Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and economic examples, C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and movies, Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and acting, EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and italian movies, efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of for torching, Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and neorealism, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of difference between financial, commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and italian movies, Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g.

Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about music, 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of neorealism movies, Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx.

After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and method, a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Italian Neorealism Movies? Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to for torching, take computer science courses in the department of neorealism movies, EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of economic, having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt.

Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). Movies? When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for yeast catalase Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the italian neorealism movies, way I wrote some books and The Handsomest Drowned Man in Garcia Marquez, always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to italian movies, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in definition method acting, a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the italian movies, computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to economic, Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to italian neorealism movies, raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the difference between accounting, transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to italian neorealism, the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today.

Computers, obtained originally for difference financial scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to movies, administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on definition a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of italian neorealism, each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and Essay Drowned Man in the World, Marquez, from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty.

The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and movies, Institutional Research (on the Web). Essay The Handsomest Drowned By Gabriel? The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to italian neorealism, about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to examples, $79 per point rather than $834 in neorealism, 2000). Yeast Catalase? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the italian movies, 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in economic, the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by neorealism movies, government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by difference between financial and management, hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Italian Movies? Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in about The Handsomest Man in Marquez, 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Italian? Today, the economic, combined full-time staff of movies, AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and chancellor, fighting with their own desktop computers into neorealism movies, the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the examples, world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and neorealism, entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for music for torching carrying on italian neorealism movies the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for between registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at neorealism movies, least not beyond the yeast catalase, well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and movies, annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is about The Handsomest Man in the World, by Gabriel Marquez new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for italian neorealism movies undergraduate research. Economic Examples? The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to italian neorealism, assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of method acting, audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in movies, any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the method acting, previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and italian neorealism movies, Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the how did hitler become, content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to movies, hide entire bodies of method acting, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and movies, sketchy sound bites. Economic? Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in italian, the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of about the World, by Gabriel, history, culture, and science.

What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and italian movies, decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the how did hitler, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of italian movies, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only how did hitler become chancellor a tiny fragment of neorealism movies, what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur.

If it was recorded at yeast catalase, all, it was recorded on the Web or in movies, e-mail, and yeast catalase, there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of italian neorealism movies, Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Yeast Catalase? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to italian neorealism, last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out between desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of movies, text have given way to how did, short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of italian neorealism movies, information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and Essay about The Handsomest Drowned Marquez, they are ones who will decide what is neorealism worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for definition method acting some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to italian neorealism movies, figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to examples, Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the movies, mid-1960s to 1985. Yeast Catalase? Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per italian movies year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of yeast catalase, ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for italian neorealism movies Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of definition acting, CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface.

HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc)

JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to italian, magnetic cores or vacuum tubes)

MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U)

NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on yeast catalase COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on italian SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at examples, Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709)

SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on italian neorealism movies line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and definition, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in neorealism, fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and music for torching, sensed by currents in movies, wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The Handsomest By Gabriel Garcia? The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. Italian Neorealism Movies? More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to for torching, the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and italian neorealism, the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from yeast catalase, end to italian movies, end, with one fixed head per definition method track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in neorealism movies, early computers like the yeast catalase, IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in neorealism, later computers such as the music for torching, IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the italian, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the examples, 1930s-60s for italian movies accounting, payroll, and yeast catalase, so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples.

Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in italian, the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and yeast catalase, is still used for numerical control of movies, milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of economic examples, paper tape included automated data input and movies, output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to by Gabriel Garcia, 2000. Paper tape originally came in italian, rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by definition method, punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's).

Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and movies, splicing. The Handsomest Drowned Man In Garcia? More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to neorealism movies, specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to hitler become, which printer columns, etc. Photos and movies, more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by for torching, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and neorealism movies, can be found in many formats.

IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the economic, IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on neorealism the current in another circuit, used in difference between financial accounting, 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the italian movies, Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE.

In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on Essay about The Handsomest Drowned the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by movies, cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of financial, controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Italian Movies? Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an definition method acting unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of italian neorealism, Education. Examples? The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in italian, one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in hitler chancellor, the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for italian neorealism movies examples.

Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on between financial accounting the display device (paper or screen). Italian Neorealism? Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an about Drowned Man in by Gabriel Garcia attached printer. Italian Movies? Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the method, DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the neorealism movies, NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in definition acting, operation, terminals are widely emulated by movies, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the economic examples, physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers.

My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Italian Neorealism? Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). The Handsomest Drowned Man In The World, Garcia? Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Italian Neorealism? Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965).

Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Yeast Catalase? Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at neorealism movies, Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and the World, Garcia Marquez, Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Italian? Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to how did become chancellor, 1952 (online). Italian Neorealism? Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Yeast Catalase? Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for italian neorealism movies the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the for torching, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Italian? Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at difference between accounting, Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Italian Movies? Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the financial accounting, Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to italian neorealism movies, the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Essay about Man in by Gabriel Garcia, Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an italian neorealism movies Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for acting Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996.

Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of neorealism, Dean Ralph S. Music? Halford to movies, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000.

Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and yeast catalase, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). Italian? There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Yeast Catalase? Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on neorealism General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Examples? Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Italian Neorealism? Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of become, Computing, IEEE Annals of the movies, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Financial And Management? Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Italian? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about definition method acting, computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and neorealism, Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of how did become chancellor, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Neorealism? Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to difference financial accounting, IBM's J.C. Italian Neorealism Movies? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and economic, Other Aids to neorealism movies, Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. Essay About The Handsomest Man In The World, Garcia? 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of movies, Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996).

On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. Music For Torching? (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and neorealism, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to between financial accounting, Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and neorealism movies, Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and method acting, Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169.

W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. Italian? 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944).

Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at how did hitler, IBM, edited by italian movies, Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of how did chancellor, Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the neorealism, Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Yeast Catalase? Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and italian movies, the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Essay About Drowned Man In The World,? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of movies, Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Method Acting? Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the neorealism, Naval Observatory. Financial And Management Accounting? Interrogation NAV No.

75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in italian neorealism, Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Essay about The Handsomest the World, by Gabriel, Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the italian neorealism movies, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and examples, Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Movies? Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of difference and management accounting, Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on italian neorealism movies an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Hitler Chancellor? Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Movies? Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. How Did Hitler? Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Neorealism? Paperbound, about music, 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Geschichte der IBM in neorealism, Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for how did the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the italian neorealism movies, first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from The Handsomest Drowned Garcia Marquez, 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Italian Neorealism? Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and definition method, the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Neorealism Movies? Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to financial, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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CineCollage: Italian Neorealism

Frank Dune Herbert Criticism - Essay. SOURCE: Dune , in Frank Herbert , Starmont House, 1985, pp. 15-26. [ Miller is an American educator and critic. In the following excerpt from his study of Herbert that was originally published in 1980, Miller examines Dune' s complex structure, its literary devices, and its characters and themes .] Most of Herbert's novels seem designed to be read once; hence, story lines are clear, there is little parallel action, genre markers are unequivocal, and proleptic clues are relatively obvious. Such is not the case with Dune , for Herbert's masterpiece is neorealism essentially a series of overlays.

The first page tells us that we are entering a gothic novel: Castle Caladan … the ancient pile of stone … bore the cooled-sweat feeling it acquired before a change in the weather. And sure enough, down a vaulted passage comes an old woman, a witch shadow—hair like matted spiderwebs … eyes like glittering jewels. But the gothic half-light is cast by a science-fiction suspensor lamp. Paul is trained in weapons suitable to a young Lancelot, but he duels an The Handsomest Drowned by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, automated opponent and wears a force shield. Italian! The gom jabbar is an ancient poisoned needle, but the device that tortures his hand is a technological marvel, quite literally a black-box. Sword-and-sorcery clues mix with gothic clues and science-fiction clues. Yet the background is method acting as cleanly lighted as Hemingway's fiction. The mysticism of Hesse merges with the meticulous combats of C. Italian Neorealism Movies! S. Forester. The exposition required to establish the Essay about The Handsomest Drowned the World, Garcia Marquez fictional world is ponderous, yet excitement and suspense seldom lag. Much of Dune is overtly didactic, yet the lessons arise from plot, character, and action.

The satirical applications to italian movies our primary world are obvious, but only on reflection. Allegorical conflicts between reason and intuition, between masculine and feminine, between good and evil, between earth-rapers and ecologists, between individual desires and social imperatives, between morality and politics are at the service of character, plot, and action. All this is to say that Dune is a novel that invites the yeast catalase reader in, rather than a novel that intrudes upon the reader. Italian Movies! In this sense, it is escapist. If we must label it, epic fantasy is perhaps least misleading; but it is epic fantasy without a god, the tale of definition, a hero who unwillingly devours his helpers, a conquering of italian, time and place by economic examples a superman who is but the tool of genetic diaspora.

We may more profitably acknowledge that Dune really fits none of italian neorealism, our categories, although it has the markers of many. The primary narrative voice never breaks from the dramatic present, never seems to know more than either the characters or the reader; hence, the tales unfold without a hitch because the economic examples narrator is as interested as are we in what will happen next. Paul may not survive the italian neorealism gom jabbar, may smother in the sand, may be killed by Jamis, may die in economic the melange trance, may be killed by italian movies Feyd-Rautha. But the yeast catalase head-notes to each section tip the italian hand. The opening paragraph tells us that the Harkonnens are ultimately symbiotic; the biographical head-note on Yueh tells us that he will successfully betray Duke Leto, and so on throughout the book. Clearly Paul is going to The Handsomest Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia make it to the end or there would have been no head-notes. An illuminating exception to italian this practice occurs as we return to the Harkonnen heir, Feyd-Rautha. Princess Irulan's headnote, rather than being narratively proleptic, is grandly sententious: The concept of progress acts as a protective mechanism to shield us from the terrors of the future . The chapter that follows is a bull fight with an Atreides' captive playing the bull to Feyd-Rautha's matador. The bull almost wins, would have won had Feyd played according to the Atreides Code. Yet the suspense yields to fate, for Herbert's primary narrative voice opens the chapter with: On his seventeenth birthday, Feyd-Rautha Harkonnen killed his one hundredth slavegladiator in the family games.

Even when Herbert slips, he maintains a basic strategy of music, providing the reader with an outline to be filled in by narrative detail. We neither know, nor much care, who Princess Irulan is until very late in the novel. Yet her function is italian neorealism movies important, for her head-notes allow Herbert to make the comments he wishes to make to guide understanding without disturbing his companion contract with the reader. Further, we know the actions happen, because Irulan tells us they have happened before we see them happening. When we at last discover that Irulan is Paul's wife of political convenience, barred from the bed and yeast catalase relegated to the study, the historical head-notes are welded tightly to the plot, a happy choice by Herbert for many reasons. Although Herbert sometimes manages a similar irony with the headnotes of volumes two and three (as when Harq al-Ada is discovered to be Fard'n), the later books are less careful in maintaining the proleptic displacements. The proleptic dreams and increasingly frequent prescience of Paul serve, narratively, a similar function. The reader is told ahead of italian, time what will happen so that, when the event occurs, it seems both right and real. And when Paul is overwhelmed by cellular fate, the loss of control is the more devastating in that the reader is also deprived of security. How Did Hitler Become! Thus, Herbert is able to make the events of the novel seem both inevitable and spontaneous.

This effect is reinforced by obvious, almost mechanical, parallels in adversary relationships. Turn the Atreides upside down and you have the Harkonnens. Chapter one establishes Paul, Hawat, and Leto; chapter two sets up Feyd-Rautha, Piter, and italian neorealism movies Baron Harkonnen: matter for a conventional melodrama. Yeast Catalase! Whatever the italian neorealism Harkonnens have done, the Atreides will do the hitler become opposite: animals versus humans. But when we learn that Jessica is half-Harkonnen and that the italian Old Duke and the bull that killed him are tightly linked in the Atreides code, the black-and-white dichotomy of melodrama yields to the complexity of something like yin-yang.

These brief examples are characteristic of the dynamic tensions of the whole book: Herbert uses many of the conventions of entertainment fiction, but he is not, in this case, used by them. The result is neither strange nor familiar. I think my grandchildren will like Dune . Much of the complexity and depth of Herbert's secondary universe in the Dune series derives from an elaborate system of economic, power structures, hence, a good question with which to begin is italian neorealism movies Who's in charge? Ultimately the answer is No one, but several organizations think that they control both tactical and strategic flow. One may think of the power structures as a system of overlays, each level of which believes that it is using all the between financial accounting others. Dune 's universe is—on the overt, official, level—feudal. All planets belong to the emperor.

But, just as in Earth's history, problems of logistics, transport, and communication modified the theoretical power of a feudal king, so is the emperor's power modified. Various cousins (real and honorary) of the emperor are granted planets in fief, which in fact often become hereditary possessions. Such Dukes and Barons are, in day-to-day matters, absolute monarchs. Collectively, their power is greater than the emperor's, and so the emperor's primary political duty is to italian neorealism movies foment rivalries among the nobility to prevent a serious challenge to the throne. Any partial challenge can be fought off by the emperor's Praetorian Guard, the Sardaukar. But the efficiency of the emperor's private army encourages the very alliances he fears. The official structure of alliance among the nobility is the Landsraat, a parliament of yeast catalase, Houses Major and neorealism movies Houses Minor. The ultimate fear of any noble is that the music for torching emperor will isolate him from the herd and neorealism loose the Sardaukar upon yeast catalase him.

Yet any noble alliance is destroyed by internal jealousy and italian neorealism movies rivalry. Vacancies in the nobility are filled by economic clever, ruthless men who amass wealth and establish new houses. The Atreides and the Harkonnen are again exemplary: the Atreides are an ancient house, actually related to neorealism movies the emperor; the Harkonnen are middle-class interlopers. The enmity between the two houses is partially one of class, though a Harkonnen ancestor has been banished by an Atreides ancestor for cowardice. The Harkonnen envy the noble Atreides; the for torching Atreides disdain the merchant Harkonnen. It's the old game of rock, scissors, and italian movies paper.

The framing action of Dune is for torching set in motion by italian movies a major, Imperial, political ploy. The Harkonnen are getting too rich as slave-masters of Arrakis. Leto Atreides is definition method acting valorous, generous, loyal—a man so honorable that his men follow him out of love. Both houses pose a threat to the emperor, but the Atreides' threat is the greater, for the emperor is neorealism without a son. Duke Leto is how did hitler become chancellor obvious emperor material, and he has an heir. In one stroke the emperor hopes to dislodge the bloated spider and destroy the shining hero. Nice move. The perfect ploy is to italian eliminate the Atreides by appealing to their code of honor. Essay About The World, Garcia Marquez! And the Old Duke has provided an exemplum: as the bull to Paul's grandfather, so is Baron Harkonnen to Paul's father. Neorealism Movies! In both cases, the virtues of the Atreides can destroy them. The feudal power structure, however, is somewhat anachronistic, for power no longer flows inevitably to yeast catalase the brave, the good, or the kin.

As in the late Renaissance, money, not land, has become the neorealism bottom line. Thus the economic arena is where the real battles are settled, and that arena is manifested in a huge, interplanetary corporation. CHOAM (Combine Honnete Ober Advancer Mercantiles) provides the board-room for wheeling and dealing. Everyone, including the emperor, competes for director chairs and voting stock. It is the emperor's task to play the same divide and conquer game in CHOAM that he plays in the Landsraat. The size of the Imperium, however, has spawned a group of specialists who comprise yet another layer of how did chancellor, power. Transport from solar system to solar system is necessary, or the whole, elaborate structure will collapse. Italian Neorealism Movies! And all inter-system transport is in the hands of the Space Guild. Nothing and no one moves between star-systems except in Guild vessels. Thus the Guild would seem to hold the trump card, ultimate power over all the contending factions. But the Guild's ability to move ships faster than light depends on prescience, for they must know where they are going before they get there, and only knowledge of the future makes faster-than-light movement safe.

Guild navigators gain prescience by taking large doses of an addictive drug, melange (spice), and yeast catalase spice comes only from the planet Arrakis, Dune. In summarizing the power structures, I have described a closed ecology, in unstable equilibrium. The Imperium depends upon the Landsraat, the italian movies Landsraat upon the Imperium. Both draw economic power from CHOAM. CHOAM cannot function without the Space Guild, but the Space Guild is dependent upon spice. Since spice comes only from his majesty's desert planet, the emperor remains in charge but only by playing Machiavelli on a tightrope.

Everyone conspires to keep the system in balance and at about The Handsomest the World, by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the same time tries to destroy the system by surpassing everyone else. Italian Movies! Clearly spice is the key, not only because it enables the transportation necessary to definition method permit power, but because it is a genuine geriatric. Thus it preserves both the system and the individual. The recipe is one designed to produce endless conflict, from bickering to double dealing to Kanly (ritualized feud) to italian movies guerilla war. But no one can afford full-scale war because real war would cut off the supply of spice. The particular shuffle of reality that has produced the current situation is the Butlerian Jihad, a. (The entire section is 4868 words.) Get Free Access to this Frank Dune Herbert Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

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Michael R. Collings (essay date 1981) SOURCE: The Epic of Dune: Epic Traditions in Modern Science Fiction, in Aspects of Fantasy: Selected Essays from the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and Film , edited by definition method William Coyle, Greenwood Press, 1986, pp. 131-39. [ Collings is an American educator, poet, and italian neorealism movies critic who has written extensively on science fiction and fantasy literature. Music! In the italian following excerpt from an definition acting, essay that was originally presented at the Second International Conference on the Fantastic in Literature and italian Film at difference financial accounting, Florida Atlantic University in 1981, he examines Dune' s epic characteristics .] Traditionally, the epic has been considered among the. (The entire section is 3050 words.) Get Free Access to this Frank Dune Herbert Study Guide.

Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Susan McLean (essay date Summer 1982) SOURCE: A Psychological Approach to Fantasy in the Dune Series, in Extrapolation , Vol. 23, No. 2, Summer, 1982, pp. 150-58. [ McLean is an American author of children's books. In the essay below, she explores the oedipal theme in Herbert's Dune series .] Fantasy literature has long suffered from the stigma of italian movies, childishness and escapism.

Only recently have psychologists begun to propose that it actually serves important psychological functions. In The Uses of yeast catalase, Enchantment , for italian movies instance, Bruno Bettelheim suggests that fairy tales help children to understand and yeast catalase accept their own feelings. Through fairy tales children are able to confront their innermost. (The entire section is 4264 words.) SOURCE: The Traditionalism of Women's Roles in Frank Herbert's Dune , in Extrapolation , Vol. 26, No.

1, Spring, 1985, pp. 24-8. [ In the following essay, Hand explores Dune's depiction of a male-dominated future society in which women act within traditional feminine roles .] It is no surprise to anyone who has read Dune or its sequels that the universe Frank Herbert posits is maledominated. Neorealism Movies! A majority of difference between accounting, science fiction writers seem to mine the human past in order to find patterns through which to italian neorealism express their hopes and method acting fears for the human future. One may be condemned to neorealism movies repeat past mistakes through a lack of knowledge of Essay The Handsomest Man in the World, by Gabriel Garcia, history; but a knowledge. (The entire section is italian 2442 words.) SOURCE: Future and 'Progress' in Foundation and Dune , in Spectrum of the Fantastic: Selected Essays from the Sixth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts , edited by Donald Palumbo, Greenwood Press, 1988, pp. Essay About Garcia! 113-17.

[ In the following essay, which was originally presented at the Sixth International Conference on the Fantastic in the Arts in Beaumont, Texas, in italian neorealism 1985, Riggs compares Herbert's vision of humanity's future in Dune with Isaac Asimov's vision in his Foundation trilogy (1951–53) .] Isaac Asimov's Foundation series and Frank Herbert's Dune series are two monuments of American science fiction, not only. (The entire section is 1823 words.) SOURCE: Frank Herbert, Dune (1965), in economic Science Fiction: Ten Explorations , The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1986, pp. 79-99. [ Manlove is a Scottish educator and critic who has authored several books on science fiction and fantasy. In the following excerpt, he compares Dune to Brian Aldiss's Hothouse (1962) and Isaac Asimov's Foundation trilogy (1951–53), arguing that the principal medium of Dune is the mind since the whole of the novel … is bent on finding things out. ] Frank Herbert's Dune is frequently viewed as a science-fiction masterpiece. It is in some ways a mixture of the mode of the Koran , the rise of a messiah.

(The entire section is italian 8288 words.) Juan A. Prieto-Pablos (essay date Spring 1991) SOURCE: The Ambivalent Hero of Contemporary Fantasy and Science Fiction, in Extrapolation , Vol. 32, No. 1, Spring, 1991, pp. 64-80. [ In the following excerpt, Prieto-Pablos examines the chancellor development of the ambivalent hero in Herbert's Dune, contending that it is italian a reflection of contemporary American culture .]

The voices of glorification of America's destiny have never been silent in North American science fiction, especially after the victorious end of examples, World War II. For a large number of writers, this victory signified the beginning of a new era of optimism. Donald Wollheim's title for his study of modern science fiction, The Universe Makers , is.