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biology exam essay Award 1 for each pair of statements in today's psychology a table, and 1 for any statement below the table. U =Unique sequences; H = Highly repetitive sequences. Of Proximal Theory. U: occur once in today's psychology genome; H: occur many times; U: long base sequences; H: short sequences/5300 bases; U: (may be) genes; H: not genes; U: (may be) translated/coding sequences; H: never translated; U: small differences between individuals; H: can vary greatly; U: exons (are unique sequences); H: introns (may be repetitive); U: smaller proportion of genome; H: higher proportion of genome; satellite DNA is repetitive; repetitive sequences are used for profiling; prokaryotes do not (usually) contain repetitive sequences; 2. Draw a labelled diagram to new deal show four DNA nucleotides, each with a different base, linked together in two strands. 5 marks. Psychology. Award 1 for bradly nowell each of these structures clearly drawn and labelled. four nucleotides shown in diagram with one nucleotide clearly labelled; base, phosphate and deoxyribose (shown as pentagon) connected between the today's, correct carbons and labelled at new deal least once; backbone labelled as covalent bond between nucleotides correctly shown as 3 to 5 bond; two base pairs linked by psychology, hydrogen bonds drawn as dotted lines and labelled; two H bonds between A and T and three H bonds between C and G; adenine to thymine and cytosine to guanine; do not accept initials of A Society in Danger Essay, bases antiparallel orientation shown; 3. Explain the structure of the psychology, DNA double helix, including its subunits and the way in social media statements which they are bonded together. 8 marks. subunits are nucleotides one base, one deoxyribose and one phosphate in each nucleotide description/ diagram showing base linked to deoxyribose C1 and phosphate to C5 four different bases - adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine nucleotides linked up with sugar-phosphate bonds covalent/ phosphodiester bonds two strands (of nucleotides) linked together base to base A to T and G to C hydrogen bonds between bases antiparallel strands double helix drawn or described.

4. Outline the structure of the nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromosomes. 4 marks. contain histones eight histone molecules form a cluster in a nucleosome DNA strand is wound around the histones wound around twice in each nucleosome (another) histone molecule holds the nucleosome(s) together. 5. State a role for each of today's psychology, four different named enzymes in media statements DNA replication. 6 marks. Award 1 mark for any two of the today's, following up to 2 marks maximum. helicase DNA polymerase / DNA polymerase III RNA primase DNA polymerase I (DNA) ligase Award 1 mark for one function for each of the named enzymes. splits/ breaks hydrogen bonds/ uncoils DNA/ unwinds DNA (DNA) polymerase III adds nucleotides (in 5' to 3' direction) extending existing strand (RNA) primase synthesizes a short RNA primer (which is later removed) on DNA (DNA) polymerase I replaces RNA primer with DNA (DNA) ligase joins Okazaki fragments/ fragments on lagging strand/ makes sugar-phosphate bonds between fragments. 6. Explain the process of DNA replication. 8 marks.

Accept any of the points above shown on an annotated diagram. occurs during (S phase of ) interphase/in preparation for mitosis/cell division; DNA replication is semi-conservative; unwinding of double helix / separation of social media thesis, strands by helicase (at replication origin); hydrogen bonds between two strands are broken; each strand of parent DNA used as template for synthesis; synthesis continuous on leading strand but not continuous on psychology lagging strand; leading to formation of Okazaki fragments (on lagging strand); synthesis occurs in 5 3direction; RNA primer synthesized on the nra parent DNA using RNA primase; DNA polymerase III adds the nucleotides (to the 3 end) added according to today's psychology complementary base pairing; adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine; (Both pairings required. Do not accept letters alone.) DNA polymerase I removes the RNA primers and replaces them with DNA; DNA ligase joins Okazaki fragments; as deoxynucleoside triphosphate joins with growing DNA chain, two phosphates broken off releasing energy to bradly nowell form bond; 7. Explain how the process of today's, DNA replication depends on the structure of DNA. 9 marks. DNA molecule is pakistani double (stranded) hydrogen bonds linking the today's psychology, two strands are weak/ can be broken DNA can split into two strands split by helicase helicase moves progressively down the molecules backbones are linked by covalent/ strong bonds strands do not therefore break/ base sequence conserved reference to semi-conservative replication base pairing/ sequences are complementary A=T and C=G the two original strands therefore carry the new deal, same information the two new strands have the same base sequence as the two original ones the strands have polarity base/ nucleotides added in today's 5` to 3` direction the two strands have opposite the nra, polarity discontinuous segments/ Okazaki fragments added to one strand DNA ligase needed to today's psychology connect the segments. 8. Describe the genetic code. The Nra New Deal. 6 marks. composed of psychology, mRNA base triplets called codons 64 different codons each codes for the addition of an new deal, amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain the genetic code is degenerate meaning more than one codon can code for today's psychology a partiuclar amino acid the genetic code is universal meaning it is the same in media statements almost all organisms (AUG is the) start codon some (nonsense) codons code for the end of translation.

9. Discuss the relationship between genes and polypeptides. 5 marks. originally assumed one gene codes for one polypeptide (one) gene is transcribed into (one) mRNA mRNA is translated by a ribosome to synthesize a polypeptide many exceptions to one gene -- one polypeptide found many more proteins made than there are genes some genes do not code for polypeptides some genes code for tRNA/rRNA some genes regulate gene expression genetic information transcribed by eukaryotes is edited before it is translated polypeptides may be altered before they become fully functional proteins. 10. Explain briefly the today's, advantages and disadvantages of the universality of the genetic code to pakistani humans. 4 marks. genetic material can be transferred between species/ between humans one species could use a useful gene from today's, another species transgenic crop plants/ livestock can be produced bacteria/ yeasts can be genetically engineered to make a useful product viruses can invade cells and take over their genetic apparatus viruses cause disease.

11. Compare the processes of pakistani wedding, DNA replication and transcription. 9 marks. both involve unwinding the helix both involve spearating the two strands both involve breaking hydrogen bonds between bases both involve complementary base pairing both involve C pairing with G both work in a 5` -- 3` direction both involve linking/ polymerization of nucleotides replication with DNA nucleotides and psychology transcritpion with RNA nucleotides details of ribose/ deoxyribose difference adenine pairing with uracil instead of thymine only pakistani muslim wedding one strand copied not both no ligase/ no Okazaki fragments with transcription DNA or RNA polymerase both require a start signal but this signal is different for today's each transcripiton has only one starting point but replication has multiple starting points replication gives two DNA molecules whilst transcription gives mRNA. 12. A Society Examples. Distinguish between RNA and DNA. 3 marks. Psychology. DNA is zone development double-stranded while RNA is single-stranded; DNA contains deoxyribose while RNA contains ribose; the base thymine found in DNA is replaced by uracil in today's RNA; one form of A Society in Danger Essay examples, DNA (double helix) but several forms of RNA (tRNA, mRNA and rRNA); 13. Describe the today's, roles of mRNA, tRNA and ribosomes in zone development translation. 6 marks. mRNA with genetic code/ codons tRNA with anticodon tRNA with amino acid attached ribosome with two sub-units mRNA held by ribosome start codon two tRNA molecules attached with mRNA on today's psychology ribosome peptide bond between amino acids on tRNA polypeptide forms continues until a stop codon is reached polypeptide is released.

14. Outline the structure of tRNA. 5 marks. Accept any of the points above if clearly explained using a suitably labelled diagram. Anime Girl Fighting. tRNA is composed of today's psychology, one chain of (RNA) nucleotides tRNA has a position/end/site attaching an amino acid ( reject tRNA contains an amino acid ) at the 3' terminal / consisting of CCA/ACC tRNA has an anticodon anticodon of three bases which are not base paired / single stranded / forming part of a loop tRNA has double stranded sections formed by base pairing double stranded sections can be helical tRNA has (three) loops (somethimes with an extra small loop) tRNA has a distinctive three dimensional / clover leaf shape. 15. Outline the structure of social thesis, a ribosome. 4 marks. small subunit and large subunit; mRNA binding site on small subunit; three tRNA binding sites / A, P and E tRNA binding sites; protein and RNA composition (in both subunits); 16. Explain the process of translation. Today's Psychology. 9 marks. translation involves initiation, elongation/translocation and termination; mRNA binds to the small sub-unit of the ribosome; ribosome slides along mRNA to the start codon; anticodon of tRNA pairs with codon on social media mRNA: complementary base pairing (between codon and anticodon); (anticodon of) tRNA with methionine pairs with start codon / AUG is the start codon; second tRNA pairs with next codon; peptide bond forms between amino acids; ribosome moves along the mRNA by one codon; movement in 5 to today's 3 direction; tRNA that has lost its amino acid detaches; another tRNA pairs with the next codon/moves into A site; tRNA activating enzymes; link amino acids to specific tRNA; stop codon (eventually) reached; 17.

Compare DNA transcription with translation. 4 marks. both in 5` to anime fighting stance 3` direction both require ATP DNA is transcribed and today's psychology mRNA is new deal translated transcription produces RNA and translation produces polypeptides/ protein RNA polymerase for transcription and today's psychology ribosomes for translation/ ribosomes in A Society in Danger Essay translation only today's transcription in the nucleus (of eukaryotes) and translation in the cytoplasm/ at the nra ER tRNA needed for today's psychology translation but not transcription.

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a good written essay Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Today's? Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is pakistani wedding ceremony, one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. Today's? And this is ceremony, particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Today's Psychology? Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.

Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. Social Thesis Statements? My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. Psychology? The best explanation, I believe , is to pakistani wedding ceremony, be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the psychology world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per anime fighting stance, female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced.

Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. Today's? This ageing of the population has the potential to media thesis statements, create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and today's psychology, their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a).

Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of pakistani muslim wedding ceremony this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and psychology, continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of of proximal shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only today's psychology do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).

As an muslim wedding example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. Today's? It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to the nra new deal, this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Today's? Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in pakistani ceremony itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability.

But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to psychology, this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to girl, low birth rates is today's psychology, that fertility in developed countries seems to bradly nowell, be declining across all education and psychology, class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women.

We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. Bradly Nowell? The improved education and career opportunities for women does not seem to be the psychology decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and muslim, policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an today's economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is the nra, argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the psychology status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the new deal economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of psychology decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of thesis statements safety in psychology order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15).

Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for social media, men. Today's Psychology? Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per pakistani wedding, cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in today's psychology full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). The Nra? And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Today's? Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and muslim wedding, a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young.

Young people around the world seem to have an today's psychology increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in social media statements the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for today's, their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in muslim Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to today's, have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of thesis policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for today's psychology, better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Bradly Nowell? Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed.

What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to psychology, do otherwise. Castigating the pakistani wedding ceremony young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. Psychology? (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Bradly Nowell? Birrell, B. Today's? (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the A Society in Danger blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14.

Chesnais, J-C. Today's? (1998). Below-replacement fertility in A Society in Danger the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Today's? Review of bradly nowell Population and psychology, Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on pakistani wedding, Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56.

Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Today's Psychology? Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of girl America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. Today's? People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. Media Thesis? (2000b). The toolbox of psychology public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the anime girl fighting stance European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000.

Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on today's, fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Anime? Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of today's psychology everyday life. Bradly Nowell? California: Pine Forge.

Notice what the question is today's, asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. Muslim Wedding Ceremony? What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be.

Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Psychology? Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the the nra student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the psychology explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue.

In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is muslim wedding ceremony, presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the today's psychology issue as a #039;problem#039; - and bradly nowell, asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to today's psychology, blame for bradly nowell, declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way.

In the psychology second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in zone of proximal development your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Psychology? Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald.

Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for anime girl fighting, your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for psychology, declining birthrates - and then went on to single out in Danger Essay women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence.

In this paragraph the today's psychology student seeks to dismiss the muslim ceremony view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to today's, be found in stance the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write. In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for today's psychology, the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the girl fighting stance birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by today's psychology, McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey.

Hint: it is important to muslim wedding, have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Today's? Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured.

Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is A Society examples, free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on today's psychology, the screen.

Always print out and edit from new deal, a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to psychology, (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and of proximal, indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Today's Psychology? Of course, all references have to be relevant to new deal, your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is.

And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the psychology impression that they are not allowed to girl, use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the today's psychology ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the of proximal development theory author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is psychology, required in muslim ceremony each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and psychology, Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in bradly nowell a number of ways.

One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the psychology source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about girl, them in Ashby#039;s text. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible.

In such cases, use the today's psychology #039;cited in#039; format. Girl Fighting? When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . Psychology? According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. Thesis? when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to psychology, reject the view in in Danger the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to today's psychology, change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to pakistani muslim wedding ceremony, add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is today's psychology, OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in anime fighting stance a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Today's? Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc.

This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of wedding ceremony reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an today's psychology article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . Bradly Nowell? McDonald points to . Today's Psychology? . which he thinks.

It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Bradly Nowell? Notice how these are indented and psychology, are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number.

You only have to provide a separate list of in Danger references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and today's, format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. Wedding Ceremony? In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Psychology? Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to zone of proximal theory, be sure the today's information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?

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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Sound in the Opening Montage. This is the end Actually, just the beginning, of Apocalypse Now . In class, I showed the opening scene of the film but didnt say much about it. Thats because its a very well-known and brilliant use of sound in the film. It functions as an unconventional overture, as it introduces not only Captain Willard, the main character, but also some of the today's psychology major themes in the film. Let me focus on the song for a moment. The song you hear on the soundtrack during the opening montage is The End by zone of proximal development The Doors. Why a song about the end at the beginning of the film? Because it indicates the end of Captain Willards illusions about the today's war, and the end of Americas illusions as well.

The film was made in 1979, four years after the Vietnam War ended, and pakistani wedding ceremony it was a bitter, soul-searching time what President Jimmy Carter infamously called a time of malaise in the country. The United States had lost a war for today's the first time in its history; its technological prowess and superiority had been bested by a rag-tag communist liberation army. This opening scene is girl much more about 1979 than 1969 (around the time the film is set). If the director Francis Ford Coppola had chosen a different song, even a different song by The Doors, the effect and today's psychology the message would have been quite different. I should note that the film came out before popular music (rather than a composed score) became the norm for movie soundtracks. This innovation in Apocalypse Now suggests that Coppola chose the wedding song for the way it helped communicate the deeper meaning of his film. In your textbook, the authors write about the use of sound to psychology indicate character subjectivity (236). They also mention that often diegetic music reveals character traits (237). Stance! All this is today's true of the use of the song at the beginning of Apocalypse Now . It takes us inside the boozy head of development theory, Willard in the hotel room. Today's Psychology! It reveals to us what Willard is stance thinking, in all it surreal contours.

We hear other sounds mediated through Willards subjectivity in this scene, such as the distorted sound of a ceiling fan, which turns into today's the distorted sound of helicopter blades the ubiquitous sound we hear throughout the film, and throughout most Vietnam War films (Korean War films too, such as Robert Altmans M.A.S.H. ). These are sounds that Willard is hearing. The fact that the sound is distorted tells us its coming from Willards subjective viewpoint. So, just as camera shots can be subjective (such as the shot of the reflection of the snow-globe at the beginning of Citizen Kane ), so too can sounds. One of the best ways to use sound to get into the head of characters is the voice-over. As you know, there is the nra plenty of that in Apocalypse Now . The very first line that Willard utters in voice-over signals the unconventional use of this device in the film: Saigon. Shit. . Today's! . Anime Fighting Stance! . Today's! Still in Saigon. In this one line, heard alongside the music of a marching band outside the window, Willard not only swears, but shows his utter revulsion in regards to the war, while at bradly nowell the same time showing that he cant wait to get back to the jungle. Like a lot of soldiers in Vietnam, and elsewhere in other wars, Willard hates the psychology war but is lost and unmotivated without it. It gives his life meaning. I think you would agree with me (and disagree with the script-writing guru Robert McKee [of Adaptation ]) that, in Apocalypse Now , the anime stance voice-over is vital, not only for presenting vital information about character and plot, but for taking us inside the head of the lead character, revealing to us his subjective take on the insanity of war. This is the famous scene where the cowboy-surfer Colonel Kilgore bombs a Vietnamese village back to the Stone Age, destroying a village in order to save it.

He provides a soundtrack for his bombing raid: The Ride of the Valkyries, from a Richard Wagner opera. Your textbook authors explain: The choice of music is an intertextual reference to [D. Psychology! W. Pakistani Muslim! Griffithss film] The Birth of a Nation , whose original score featured Wagners music accompanying the Ku Klux Klans triumphant charge. Moreover, the choice of Wagner here is a historical reference to German fascism, as Adolf Hitler admired Wagners music and the composers anti-Semitic writing. (260). As the textbook authors note, there is parallel sound editing in this scene, as the choppers blaring Wagner alternate with shots of a quiet village, where only the today's psychology sound of children can be heard, and anime girl stance then a relatively soft alarm bell. The sound of the loud choppers and music slowly builds in the shots of the quiet village, creating a sense of dread.

The textbook authors explain that. The abrupt movement from loud to soft shifts the audiences identification, so that the excitement audiences might otherwise share with the soldiers onscreen gives way to empathy for the villagers. Sound editor Walter Murchs manipulation of volume in this scene puts audiences in today's the position of the attacked, as well as the attacker. (260). This split identification not only defines the audiences experience, but also the experience of the war on the home-front, with the American populace nearly split on thesis the justness of the Vietnam War. The use of sound in this part of the film is also part of a larger sound design in psychology the film, in which periods of quiet alternate with bombastic noise. Characters having to yell over the sound of shooting, bombing, and the cries of the wounded (and the sound of a priest saying mass during the raid, and the sound of a cow being lifted by a helicopter, etc.) or use radio or megaphones is not bad sound design. The noise is an bradly nowell, inescapable part of modern, mechanized war.

In the first half of the film, the today's psychology audience is encouraged to identify the noise with modern American society, and the quiet with rural Vietnam. It illustrates this statement by your textbook authors: Because dialogue tends to overwhelm sound effects, those rare moments when sound effects do compete with dialogue are particularly important (251). In regards to anime girl fighting sound in films, if its soft and hard to hear, its important. The quieter it is on today's the soundtrack, the harder you should listen. Let me illustrate the sound vs. silence rhythm in Apocalypse Now by focusing on a quiet scene that comes between the loud and disturbing opening montage, and the much louder Air Cavalry scene. This is a scene that I discussed in class, where Willard meets with three men in the private quarters of a general, and new deal is given his mission to today's kill Colonel Kurtz. First, theres the background music in the scene (which you really have to listen for). Its what we would call muzak, or easy-listening music.

It defines the general and social thesis statements the scene, in today's psychology contradistinction to the way noise defines Kilgore and his Air Cavalry. It indicates that the muslim general is genteel, and a little prissy or, at the very least, old (at a time when hippies and activists in the counterculture were urging young people not to trust anyone over 30). To emphasize this, we see a number of close-ups of the generals soft hands and fancy eating utensils, not to mention the delicacies they are eating during the scene. In this scene, we also hear Col. Today's Psychology! Kurtz for the first time, on audio-tape. Its significant that Kurtz is introduced in the film via sound. Its even more significant that what we hear are the ramblings of a madman. The tape really represents what the general and his adjutants want to hear. A Society In Danger Examples! We hear a very different Kurtz later, when he reads from Time Magazine to impress upon today's, the captured Willard that the military establishment is lying to the American people (and suggesting that mainstream publications like Time Magazine have become vehicles of war propaganda). It was the silent partner that I concentrated on zone of proximal when we discussed this scene in class. The silent partner, unlike the other two men, is wearing civilian clothes.

He is most likely CIA. Today's Psychology! He does have one line, and its an important one: he says, terminate with extreme prejudice. What this basically means is: do whatever you need to do to bradly nowell kill Kurtz. With this one line, the CIA officer basically issues the order to WIllard to kill Kurtz. In this, he shows that he is the real one in charge, even in today's psychology mufti (civilian clothes). This is Coppolas way of showing that the war was secretly run by the CIA and other clandestine outfits, undermining the traditional military command structure. Coppola does this by using soft sounds in the aural mise-en-scene. Kilgore is bombastic in his conduct of the war, but it is the girl fighting secretive CIA the silent partner that really runs things behind the scenes. Silence in the Temple of psychology, Horror. Much more could be said about sound in Apocalypse Now , particularly the music on the soundtrack used to new deal define different characters and different scenes . There are a lot of today's psychology, synthesizers on of proximal the soundtrack, but they are not used the same way in today's psychology every scene.

The music soundtrack, instead, varies the music for new deal different scenes. If you listen closely enough, youll hear one theme during battles, another theme when the boat crew is at the French plantation, another theme when the boat crew approaches Kurtzs compound, etc. Today's! For instance, the Kurtz music is softer, more Asian in muslim wedding ceremony tone, with flutes and gongs, as opposed to the more dissonant and industrial music heard when the boat crew is on the river. I also have to point out the today's brilliant and devastating use of A Society in Danger Essay, sound in the scene where Clean dies. Youll remember that when Clean was shot he was listening a recording tape sent to him by his mother, and it continues on the soundtrack as the today's crew on the boat deal with Cleans death (with the exception of Lance, who is more concerned with the missing puppy). We hear his mother say, basically, dont get shot and come back to us in new deal one piece, while the today's dead, shot Clean lies on the deck of the boat. For the rest of this entry I would like to focus on the use of silence in the second half of the film.

The first half of Apocalypse Now is much louder than the second, since the bradly nowell first half is today's psychology set in war-zones and new deal much of the second half is set in Kurtzs compound in the Buddhist temple. But I dont want you to come to today's the conclusion that you, as a viewer, are meant to hate the American military establishment and the war (because its noisy), and sympathize with Kurtz (because he, and his temple, are relatively quiet). Zone Development Theory! Rather, as in the scene in the generals quarters, we should be suspicious of the quiet, because some people do terrible things under the cover of silence. Case in point, Colonel Kurtz. Kurtz is a soft-spoken man who is drawn to the contemplative quiet of the Buddhist temple where he resides. There he can read his poetry (mostly T. S. Eliot) in peace. He is also prone to today's psychology long rambling, one-sided philosophical discussions with Willard, who barely says a word while he is Kurtzs guest. The nameless photojournalist, played by Dennis Hopper (Jordy Jr. in Giant ) constantly expresses his inability to articulate things the way Kurtz can. Bradly Nowell! I wish I had the words he says at one point. Psychology! But inarticulation is also one of Kurtzs preoccupations. During one of his monologues, Kurtz says: Words cant describe what is necessary to those who dont know what horror is. Kurtz knows what horror is, and he knows it cant be suppressed by statements silence.

In fact, the horror whispers in today's psychology the shadows of the stance compound. Today's Psychology! For instance, often times on anime girl stance the soundtrack you can hear flies buzzing. Today's! These are the flies that are feeding on the many corpses littering Kurtzs compound. The silence cant block out the new deal flies; instead, the silence makes the sound audible. Psychology! You would never be able to hear the flies during the battle scenes in the film. Thesis Statements! Nor would you notice them if, instead, the soundtrack played up the cries of the dead and dying in the compound. That would have been too obvious: it is the horror in the silence that Coppola wants us to hear. Eventually we come to realize that the quiet in the Buddhist temple is anything but peaceful. It is part of today's, Kurtzs insane tyranny: he commands it.

Thats why the people are so quiet there. Its one of the first things the viewer (or rather hearer) notices when Willard, in the boat, arrives at Kurtzs compound. Media Thesis! There are lots of people there on the dock and the shore, but none of them utters a sound. Today's Psychology! In fact, they scatter when the quiet is disturbed by bradly nowell the boats siren. Theyre inarticulate because they are not allowed to speak. Similarly, when Willard finally kills Kurtz, and exits the temple, he is greeted by today's psychology a large, utterly silent, crowd. Willard is the new chief, the new tyrant.

Willard might be seduced by this deceptive silence, knowing that its a accoutrement of social statements, command and power, but instead he rejects it. He will instead return to the noisy, messy world. Apocalypse Now ends with Kurtzs dying words: the horror, the horror. They are whispered, barely heard, which is appropriate since it is in the quiet that the horror manifests itself. That is, the film suggests that its the today's silence that brings out a persons inner demons, not the bombast of A Society Essay examples, war. War and its horrors are represented by more than bombs bursting and voices booming over megaphones. War is also represented or cloaked by quiet, by whispered conversations in psychology silent temples, even by poetry. In the end, thats what the Vietnam War means to Coppola; it has infiltrated, even colonized, the girl silent interstices of the mind. Never again will war be known only by the sounds of psychology, explosions.

It will also be known by bradly nowell the softer sounds of implosions, of minds going slowly mad. University of Maryland. The Male Gaze in Alfred Hitchcocks Psycho. Last week in today's class I mentioned that I planned to write a blog entry comparing Hitchcocks Psycho with Michael Powells Peeping Tom , which came out the same year (1960). Like Psycho , Peeping Tom is a story about a psychopathic serial killer. Anime! I also mentioned that the reception of the two films was radically different. Hitchcocks had a huge commercial and critical success with his film, whereas Powells film was a commercial flop and a critical disaster. Powell was practically blacklisted in movies for years afterward. Today's! The purpose of my blog entry was to in Danger figure out why these two films did so differently in the movie theaters and in movie reviews. I have some ideas in this direction, but I decided that this was too much to take on right now. The Peeping Tom with his camera.

I do want to write something on Psycho , by itself, in relation to what is psychology called the Male Gaze. According to social media statements Glen Johnson, the Male Gaze (or The Gaze) is. a concept introduced by Laura Mulvey (Visual Pleasure Narrative Cinema, 1975) to characterize cinema as an instrument of male spectatorship. Classical cinema produces images of women reflecting male sexual fantasies. Mulvey went so far as to suggest that the cinematic apparatus (the camera, as well as darkened theaters and other viewing practices) is today's coded as male. Bradly Nowell! Feminist critics frequently consider filmic point of view (including reaction shots, showing who gets to look) as an indication of power or control within the movie. Bob Bednar adds that Mulveys.

essay outlines an idea about the male gaze in which men have the today's psychology power to actively look upon passive female bodies. Anime Stance! Women became objectified objects, symbols of castration with no agency or power. Today's Psychology! Cinema functions within in this by allowing women to always be on display for the male viewer. Obviously, this idea is problematic, for not all viewers of film are male, and not all females are represented as simply something scopophilic. Still, Mulveys idea about the male gaze has some validity to girl it, which we find in today's psychology Hitchcocks films. Simply put, the of proximal development Male Gaze refers to today's the idea that the point of view in Hollywood films is male, and that women are usually presented on screen for the sexual pleasure of men. Mulvey builds a whole Freudian, psychoanalytic apparatus around this, but I will spare you the details (you can go ahead and read it here, if you like). In my online research, I found quite a few articles on Hitchcock and the Male Gaze (as well as a few student blogs!). This is not surprising, given that Hitchcocks Rear Window is Mulveys textbook example of the zone development Male Gaze at work. Other critics have examined the Male Gaze in other films by Hitchcock.

This includes Psycho . (Besides Rear Window and Psycho , other Hitchcock films that have been studied in terms of the Male Gaze are Vertigo and Notorious ). The gist of many of today's, these studies (including Mulveys) is that Hitchcock was a misogynist (someone who hates women) who exploited women for fun and the nra new deal profit. Scottie, with his camera, in today's psychology Rear Window . For instance, in The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory , Tania Modleski describes how. in Film Studies, Hitchcock is often viewed as the archetypal misogynist, who invites his audience to social thesis statements indulge their most sadistic fantasies against the female. Some critics have even argued that Hitchcocks work is prototypical of the extremely violent assaults on women that make up so much of our entertainment today. . Psychology! . . As might be expected, such films are usually thought to appeal largely to males; women, it is claimed, can enjoy such films only by assuming the position of masochists. Rape and violence, it would appear, effectively silence and subdue not only the woman in zone development theory the films the one who would threaten patriarchal law and psychology order through the force of her anarchic desires but also the women watching the films: female spectators and female critics. (17). But some critics, including feminist critics, refuse to damn Hitchcock as an inveterate woman-hater.

The iconoclastic feminist cultural critic Camille Paglia (who wrote about Hitchcock in her controversial book Sexual Personae , and wrote a study of Hitchcocks The Birds for the British Film Institute), said in a 1999 interview: From the moment feminism began to solidify its ideology in the early 70s, Hitchcock became a whipping boy for feminist theory. Anime Girl Stance! Ive been very vocal about my opposition to the simplistic theory of the male gaze that is associated with Laura Mulvey (and that she herself has moved somewhat away from) and that has taken over feminist film studies to today's psychology a vampiric degree in the last 25 years. Zone Of Proximal Development Theory! The idea that a man looking at or a director filming a beautiful woman makes her an object, makes her passive beneath the male gaze which seeks control over woman by turning her into mere matter, into meat I think this was utter nonsense from the psychology start. . . Zone Of Proximal Development Theory! . It was an a priori theory: First there was feminist ideology, asserting that history is nothing but male oppression and psychology female victimization, and then came this theory the victim model of feminism applied wholesale to works of bradly nowell, culture. I agree with Paglia that Psycho is not the today's film of a misogynist; quite the contrary. But the basis of my defense is not feminist theory, but rather film theory. Lets call it the Self-Awareness Defense (Note: Self-reflexivity, a term youve been introduced to the nra new deal and which will be important in today's the second half of the pakistani wedding course, is a term quite similar to psychology self-awareness). That is, Hitchcock knows what he is doing, and he makes sure the bradly nowell viewer knows what hes doing.

Hitchcock doesnt leer at women in his films, neither does he encourage other viewers to leer; he instead exposes the machinery of misogyny, the workings of the Male Gaze, to psychology the viewer. We can test my Self-Awareness thesis by bradly nowell looking at Psycho . The partially-clothed Marion Crane is often on display in psychology Psycho . And she is often watched by men. Travis Carr writes that. Before main character Marion Crane even reaches the social statements Bates Motel she is being watched; she is questioned and then followed all the way to Los Angeles by a far-too-diligent cop after spending the night in her car on the side of an isolated desert road. The scenes involving the today's psychology cop are fairly obvious in their voyeuristic qualities, with the cop intently watching Marion from the nra across the street as she hurriedly buys a used car. But Marion was being watched even before that. Today's! In the opening scene, the long pan/zoom shot, the camera creeps into the window of media, a bedroom, the today's psychology hotel room where Marion and Sam are having their tryst. But making it seem so obvious, with the camera acting like a peeping tom, Hitchcock draws attention to it.

He is self-aware about bradly nowell it, which means he tries to make the viewer aware of it. Evangeline Spachis also notices that. throughout the first half of the narrative, Marion Crane is the subject of a number of gazes, from the leering Mr. Cassidy in today's the office, to the suspicious Police Officer and the nra new deal ultimately by Norman Bates. These gazes are represented both technically (camera angles, point of shot) and by today's the script and the representation of the zone theory characters.

A number of critics, Spachis included, dwell upon today's, the police officer: As a viewer who knows of Marions activities, we . Zone Of Proximal Theory! . . feel he is being overly invasive and therefore implicates us in the crime also. Today's Psychology! The dark, opaque sunglasses the officer wears seem intrusive, aggressive and pakistani block the viewer (and Marion) a chance to interpret his character via his eyes. In large part because of the sunglasses, the psychology film viewer never really takes on the point of view of the police officer in this scene. The viewer doesnt see what the police officer sees, but rather sees the police officer seeing.

That is, Hitchcock shows us the officer leering he exposes him rather than let us share the officers leering point of view. This is another example of how Hitchcock is self-aware in new deal Psycho . The parlor scene is today's another example. There is a lot of looking and being watched in this scene. Anime Fighting Stance! Spachis describes the scene: The parlor room in which they have lunch is filled with Normans stuffed birds, many frozen in full flight indicating perhaps the action of capture and the birds all-seeing point of view on its prey. Normans declaration to Marion: You, you eat like a bird reinforces the interpretation that Norman has an today's, eagle-eye view of muslim wedding, Marion. Spachis reads the stuffed birds as extensions of Normans Male Gaze. But the Male Gaze becomes much more pertinent at the end of the scene, when Marion leaves and Norman peeks at her as she prepares to take her fateful shower. Carr writes: After Marion leaves the parlor for today's her room, Norman watches her through a peep hole in the wall, the wedding camera zooming in on his eye.

This time, though, what Norman gazes upon is far more overtly sexual than anything previously; he watches Marion undress and prepare for today's psychology a shower, and media statements when the psychology camera assumes the viewpoint of Norman the audience itself becomes an objectifying voyeur. The importance of this peeping tom moment is that we see that it is A Society in Danger examples a peeping tom moment. Hitchcock makes sure we see it. Norman spies on Marion through a peep-hole hidden behind a painting. The light from Marions room illuminates Normans eye in profile nearing closer to the hole in the wall. The camera shifts to psychology Normans point of the nra, view and today's instantly implicates the bradly nowell viewer in today's the voyeurism.

We are both shocked at his invasion of her privacy and yet cannot turn away. Spying on Marion getting undressed invites us to witness the cause of Normans arousal and statements the manifestation of his desire from behind a wall forever kept apart from any possible sexual gratification. Moments later, the famous shower scene occurs. For both Carr and Spachis, the shot of Norman peeping at Marion implicates the viewer as voyeur. Hitchcock is saying: Look, youre a voyeur too! When you watch this kind of scene, and find pleasure in it, you are participating in a patriarchal system that treats women like sex objects. Alan Vanneman suggests something similar: For the fourth time, with Normans assistance, we will spy on today's psychology Marion in muslim wedding ceremony a bedroom.

We are complicit with Norman here, thankful that he lets us see Marion undressed once more (though angry when he blocks our view). The extraordinary close-up of Normans eye, filling the screen, reminds us of the watchful camera (the first entrance into Sam and Marions hotel room, the tracking shots of the envelope stuffed with cash and the suitcase) and the relentless eyes of Mr. Cassidy and the state trooper. I would just like to re-iterate something that Vanneman mentions: the viewer has seen Marion in a bedroom, in today's various stages of dress, three times before Norman peeks at her through the wall. During those three other times, we just accepted that we were watching Marion in the bedroom. Bradly Nowell! We didnt notice we were watching. But now, after we have briefly taken on Normans point of today's psychology, view as we peeped Marion, being in a bedroom is the nra no longer innocent. Today's Psychology! We are aware of what it means now. Then there is the famous shower scene, when Norman in development theory the guise of his mother attacks Marion with a knife.

Some critics read this scene as the today's psychology epitome of the Male Gaze, and see Normans attack as a pseudo-rape. Carr writes that this scene, all rapid cuts and the nra new deal screams, goes so far as to today's psychology visualize the violent scopophilic rape that Laura Mulvey discussed in her article Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. It is an onscreen manifestation of the males desire to rape the female, and Marions murder (in which the audience is forced to, at times, assume the role of the murderer himself) is tantamount to that. On a side note, after her death, the camera zooms in on the nra new deal her lifeless eye, furthering the notion of the gaze. Modleski argues that the shower scene is an opportunity for the presumed male audience to today's see their deep-set sadistic desires played out on screen. This idea is emphasised in Laura Mulveys famous article Visual Pleasure and bradly nowell Narrative Cinema (1975). . Today's! . . If this scene was in reverse (as in, the camera viewpoint was from Marions perspective) the effectiveness of the scene would be lost.

Spachis notes all the allusions to the voyeuristic eye in the scene: the shower-head, the drain, Marions dead eye. Vanneman claims that. the brilliance of the scene is social thesis statements that it keeps us relentlessly in the very middle of a horrifying event we feel as if we are seeing everything, far more than we want to see without ever becoming merely sadistic or gruesome. To a very great extent the violence is today's psychology implied, though we certainly have no sense of censorship. In part, we are caught between two desires, the desire to new deal see the today's naked body of a beautiful woman (Hitchcock has been teasing us with this for the whole film), and the desire not to see a brutal murder. In Danger! But Hitchcock wont give us the one without the other. But its not just a matter of Hitchcock making the viewer pay for his or her desire by psychology forcing the him or her to witness a murder. Its that he makes us witness a murder to show us the end result of desire. Hitchcock is media self-aware about watching in the shower scene, and if the viewer follows his lead, the viewer will become aware too. He ruins our enjoyment for the sake of a greater awareness of the way men, in today's psychology particular, objectify women when watching films.

The basic premise of what Im arguing is that if Hitchcock were a vehicle for the Male Gaze, he would not be so obvious about it, pointing it out to the viewing audience; he would make the thesis experience of watching women for sexual pleasure seamless and invisible. But instead he keeps reminding the viewer of what they are watching, how they are watching, and, to today's psychology some extent, why they are watching. Hitchcock is self-aware so that we might be aware. If all this is thesis statements still a little blurry, dont worry. Today's Psychology! Well be talking much more about self-awareness in film in the second half of the course.

University of Maryland. Bob Bednar, Mulvey, Alfred Hitchcock: A Visual Analysis (a website for COM 783: Visual Communication, a class at Southwestern University) Travis Carr, Voyeurism the Male Gaze in Psycho (1960), Yahoo! Voices : Glen Johnson, Feminist film theory, MDIA-ENG 451: Hitchcock (course taught at Catholic University of zone development, America, Spring 2013) Modleski, Tania, The Women Who Knew Too Much: Hitchcock and Feminist Theory (New York: Methuen, Inc., 1988). Evangeline Spachis, Drawing back the shower curtain: Voyeurism in today's psychology Hitchcocks Psycho (1960), Girl on Film (blog): Michael Sragow, The Savage Id (Interview with Camille Paglia), Salon (website): Alan Vanneman, Heres Lookin at You, Kid!: Alfred Hitchcock and Psycho , Bright Lights Film Journal. In your textbook, in the chapter on editing, there are a couple examples of editing in Psycho (theres also an bradly nowell, essay, at today's psychology the end of the chapter, on editing in Alfred Hitchcocks Notorious ). The first example analyzes the editing in the scene set in the parlor of the Bates hotel where Marion Crane gets to know (perhaps a little too much) about the reclusive Norman Bates. It is an example of the nra new deal, how timing in the cuts, and alternating camera placement within the cuts, is significant.

At the beginning of the scene, the timing and the camera angles, in the shot/reverse shot sequence, are fairly conventional. But as the conversation between Marion and Norman gets darker, the timing changes to show emotional responses by today's psychology both Marion and Essay examples Norman, and the camera angles become more distorted and disturbing. The second instance of editing in Psycho mentioned in today's psychology the textbook is the anime girl fighting stance short sequence that shows the murder of the private investigator, Arbogast, at the knife-wielding hands of Norman or rather, Normans mother. This is an example of collage encouraging the audience to compare and contrast the cinematographic qualities of each shot ( Film: A Critical Introduction 193). The scene begins with a shot from today's high above the action, in the stair landing on bradly nowell the second floor, and then cuts to a close up of today's, Arbogast, as he is being stabbed, and falling backwards down the stairs. The textbook authors quote Hitchcock himself to bradly nowell explain the significance of the editing here: The main reason for raising the camera [to an overhead shot] was to get the contrast between the long shot and the close-up of the big head as the knife came down on him.

It was like music, you see, the high shot with the today's psychology violins and suddenly the big head with the brass instruments clashing. The textbook authors say, of this quote, that it suggests how the director was acutely aware of the way abrupt changes in in Danger camera positioning can evoke an emotional response. The juxtaposition of shots also shows how editing gives the audience an opportunity to compare/contrast the distinctive mise-en-scene, and cinematography, of single shots cut together. Today's Psychology! Like the other formal film elements weve discussed in class, editing usually works in conjunction with other formal film elements. The textbook authors dont discuss Hitchcocks use of the pakistani muslim ceremony same overhead shot though much more drawn out a little later in the film when Norman carries his mother down-stairs. Since there isnt a cut to something else, in this case, it would seem that Hitchcock was more than just trying to juxtapose two shots for aesthetic effect.

Hitchcock was also interested in distancing, and today's disorienting, the viewer, as he often does with his cinematography and editing. I should also mention that, in social terms of cinematography, the shot of Arbogast falling down the today's psychology stairs is distinctive. Bradly Nowell! It is an example of the today's psychology trombone shot that Hitchcock made famous in Vertigo . A Society In Danger! This unsettling shot involves focusing in on an object at today's psychology the same time that the camera is moved backwards, or vice versa. It is optically confusing and causes discomfort and in Danger Essay examples misapprehension in the audience. (We see the same trombone shot, reversed, when Arbogast is walking up the stairs.) In class, I showed you a few other instances of editing in psychology Psycho . I began with the establishing shot at the beginning of the in Danger film, which is today's psychology actually a number of bradly nowell, zoom shots edited together, transporting the viewer into the hotel room where Sam and Marion have just finished having sex (it is implied). The shot/reverse shot editing in the hotel room show the intimacy between the two, before they begin discussing the difficult dilemma they are in (she has no money, and Sam has no money because of alimony payments, so they cant get married), at which point the shot/reverse shot shows distance between them. I will have more to say about the intrusive camera in this scene, in another post.

Then I showed you an psychology, example of an eye-line match cut, in Essay examples the scene where Marion is today's deciding whether she will steal the social thesis money, or not. Throughout the scene, the editing shows Marion glancing nervously at the money, undecided but certainly tempted. Psychology! Eventually, she decides to take the money; and this sets up the most prominent McGuffin in the film (a McGuffin is a plot element that forwards the media thesis statements plot, though often misleading the audience as to the true direction of the plot, becoming a red herring). Then we looked at the sequence in which Marion flees Phoenix in today's her car, with the in Danger Essay stolen money. Initially the shot/reverse shot builds suspense by quick cutting between a distressed Marion and an obscured view of a rain-drenched road. Once Marion decides to stop her car at the side of the road to psychology sleep, the editing slows significantly. Then we have the muslim wedding ceremony tense shot/reverse shot of Marion and the policeman in sun-glasses, in which camera angles are important: the policeman is seen in an extreme close up shot from a low angle, which, along with the fact that we cant see his eyes, makes him an psychology, ominous figure. Meanwhile, we see Marion in medium close up from a high angle shot, which makes her look smaller compared to anime girl fighting stance the policeman. This sequence is followed by another series of tense shot/reverse shots, as Marion drives down the road followed by the policeman. We see Marion, again distressed, with the police car behind her in the shot; and psychology then, to emphasize Marions anxiety, the anime fighting camera cuts to shots of the police car in psychology the rear-view mirror. I would have been deficient as a film professor if, in media statements class, I hadnt discussed the today's editing of the famous shower scene in Psycho . When we went over it in class, I demonstrated (by counting) how the thirty or so cuts we see, once Marion steps into the shower, creates a sense of frenetic action and a feeling of disorientation in the audience, due to the dizzying array of multiple camera angles and the variety of zooms (close-up, extreme close up).

Let me add that, as the development camera usually has a point of view, the editing in this scene subtly forces the audience to today's take on new deal Normans crazed point of view. The frenetically-paced and confusing editing in the shower scene is by today's psychology now quite common in horror and suspense films, but when Hitchcock did it, it was new and A Society in Danger Essay somewhat controversial. There are a couple other instances of editing in Psycho that I should mention. In the scene where Norman is watching Marions car with all of Marions effects, including, unbeknownst to today's Norman, the the nra new deal money Marion stole the pacing of the editing of the shot/reverse slows down. Instead of creating suspense by speeding up the today's cuts (as in the scenes where Marion is fleeing with the money, and in fighting the shower scene), the longer shots in this scene, along with the more leisurely pacing of cuts, give us ample opportunity to see Normans anxiety, coupled with relatively long shots of a car that refuses to sink. Today's Psychology! In this case, speeding up the cuts would undermine rather than enhance the suspense in the scene.

One reason Hitchcock is so methodical and careful in this sequence is that the sinking of the car represents Normans psychological repression of the heinous deed that he, not his mother, perpetrated. According to this reading, the swamp represents Normans unconscious. Pakistani Muslim Ceremony! While the today's psychology final shot of the film, showing the car being dragged from the swamp (reversing the shot that shows it sinking), represents Normans crime coming to light. Finally, Hitchcock provides us with a good example of parallel editing (cross-cutting) in the scene where Sam and Lila (Marions sister) go to the Bates motel to A Society in Danger Essay examples investigate. We have shots of Sam talking with Norman, stalling for time, and cross-cuts to Lila seeking Mrs.

Bates in the house. This, like much of the editing in the film (and like most instances of parallel editing), is today's done to anime girl create suspense. One of the interesting things about the cross-cutting here is that while Sam rather aggressively interrogates Norman, accusing him of killing Marion to steal the today's psychology $40,000, Lila by girl fighting stance way of many eyeline-match cuts finds ample evidence in the mise-en-scene of Normans arrested development and insanity. That is, Sam is psychology dead wrong in his approach, while Lila inadvertently gets to the bottom of things, just by closely observing the in Danger details in Normans home. Happy Halloween from psychology Normans mom, three weeks early. Dont eat too much candy so you can have pearly white teeth like mine! Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Highlights.

With its use of deep focus, strange shot angles, and impossible crane shots, the thesis cinematography of Citizen Kane is justly famous and has been hugely influential. The irony is that cinematographer Gregg Tolands unsettling and idiosyncratic use of the camera may have been part of the reason why Citizen Kane was not a commercial or critical success when the film was first released. Ive already posted the notes I took when I was watching the film only for the cinematography. Here I will elaborate upon some of the today's more innovative uses of cinematography in the nra Citizen Kane . 1. Snow globe reflection shot (2:40 2:46). Coming near the today's beginning of the film, this is one of the more striking shots in the film. Pakistani Muslim! Using the broken snow globe that the dying Kane held in his hand, Toland shot the reflection of today's psychology, a nurse entering the room. It is a bizarre and yet artistic shot that reflects the distorted, subjective POV (point-of-view) of Kane at girl the moment of his death.

2. Mock newsreel cinematography (3:12 12:27). This montage, done in the style of film newsreels (which were shown before most feature presentations at the time Citizen Kane was released), has a lot of inventive camera and film work. We see many low angle shots of the buildings at Xanadu, Kanes pleasure palace. We also see a couple extreme high-angle plane shots from far above Xanadu. Often, when the human figure is featured in the shot, low angles denote the psychology POV of a powerful figure in the frame and, conversely, high angles typically show a dominated figure. But sometimes, as is the case in the mock newsreel, both low and high angle shots are used to highlight something unusually large or extensive (Xanadu and the many things owned by Kane). Both are used to communicate power. Note also the media thesis grainy look of the older film excerpts. Psychology! This was done intentionally to give these excerpts the look of development, very old movies, by way of film processing, choice of film stock, and/or scratching the film itself. 3. Crane shot introducing Susan Alexander (14:25 14:58).

I discussed this shot in class. Though it is today's psychology made to look like one long crane shot, it is really three crane shots edited together using dissolves. Bradly Nowell! The famous crane shot in Orson Welless Touch of today's psychology, Evil is actually just one take, which makes it more impressive than three crane shots edited together (and shows the advance of camera technology). The Susan Alexander crane shot repeats 1:25:19 1:25:36, and, reversed, 1:47:05 1:47:12. 4. The relationship of Kane and Thatcher (23:08, 24:48 27:15). Media Statements! At 23:08, we have a low-angle shot of Mr Thatcher towering over the boy Kane at his first Christmas in New York city. We then have a montage of different newspaper headlines and the older Thatchers response to them; in the final instance of this, there is a dissolve that takes the viewer to a shot of today's psychology, Kane and Thatcher at Kanes Inquirer office.

During the scene, Thatcher cedes the foreground to Kane, and also diminishes in the shot. He begins, once again, by towering over Kane, but by A Society in Danger Essay examples the end of the scene Kane is decidedly taller. I wrote about today's figure placement and power dynamics in Giant . Similar dynamics are in A Society in Danger Essay play in this scene in Citizen Kane . 5. Deep focus shot at Kanes party (40:08 45:11). This scene begins with a trick shot that involves cinematography and editing. We see, reflected in a window, the logo of Kanes rival The New York Chronicle superimposed upon Kane, Leland, and Bernstein. The camera zooms in on a photograph of the ten star journalists working for psychology the Chronicle . Then the photograph comes alive and we are taken a couple years into the future when the ten journalists now work for Kanes New York Inquirer . In the scene that ensues, at a party for Kane, there are many striking close-ups and deep focus shots. In Danger Essay Examples! There is one sequence where we have an extreme close-up of Bernstein and Leland singing. Then we have, from three different angles, a conversation between Bernstein and Leland. Some of these shots show Leland and Bernstein from the front, with Kane reflected in a window.

As is often the today's psychology case with deep focus shots, particularly in the nra new deal Citizen Kane , the psychology figures in the foreground discuss the figure in the background (in this case, Leland and Bernstein are in the foreground discussing Kane in the background). At one moment, Leland exhales smoke from a cigar and it covers over media thesis statements the figure of Kane in the window. Psychology! Here the bradly nowell camera suggests Lelands suspicion (later confirmed) that Kanes principles are shallow: they are merely smoke and mirrors. 6. Susan at the opera (1:17:26 1:17:31; 1:29:42 1:30:32). The scene in psychology which Susan makes her opera debut is played twice in the film, once from Lelands point of view, and then from Susans point of view. In the Leland POV shot, we see Susan on stage from the front, and then the camera cranes up until we come to two lowly stagehands high above the girl stance action, as Susan sings. One holds his nose to indicate what he (and Leland and just about everybody besides Kane) thinks about Susans singing. When it comes time for Susan to today's narrate her opera debut, we see her from behind the stage. So, we have a front shot from the audience (Leland) and a back shot from the Essay examples wings (Susan), to today's indicate two different points of view.

From Susans POV, we also get a shot of a shadowy Kane watching from high above the stage. This shows Kanes dominance of Susan (from her POV). We see a similar shot shortly after this in which a shadowy Kane overshadows Susan (1:34:42). Right before this, there is an extraordinary montage (1:34:46 1:35:25) showing triple super-impositions of newspaper headlines, Susan singing, and stage lights (eventually the stage lights are replaced by Kane). This is certainly creative shot-making, but the effect is due more to editing than cinematography. 7. The reporters come to Xanadu (1:51:18 1:56:35). Near the end of the pakistani muslim wedding film, when the reporter Thompson interviews Kanes valet Paul, there is a lot of interesting camera work.

First, there is the eternal regression mirror shot that shows a reflection of a reflection of a reflection ad infinitum of Kane . This summarizes not only Pauls view of Kane, but also the view of the reporters trying to track down Rosebud. The image suggests that Kane is nothing but a series of reflections, without real substance. At the today's very end of the film, Thompson makes this explicit by saying that Kane is nothing but a jig-saw puzzle with pieces missing. This brings us back to zone of proximal development theory the idea, suggested by the fragmented narrative told by five narrators, that Kane is not only unknowing but unknowable. Following the infinite regression shot, there are a number of crane shots, deep focus shots, and zooms that show the huge spaces of Xanadu, filled with loot, after Kanes death. All that is left are his possessions, and some of these including Kanes most cherished junk, such as his sled are thrown on the fire. This suggests the transience of things, which will pass away in time. And when they are gone, the owner will be lost to today's psychology memory. Though the word Xanadu comes from the poetry of the British Romantic Samuel Taylor Coleridge, another poem by another Romantic poet, Percy Shelley, epitomizes Kane at the end of of proximal development theory, his life:

And on the pedestal these words appear: My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings: Look on psychology my works, ye mighty, and despair! Nothing beside remains. Round the decay. Of that colossal wreck, boundless and social bare, The lone and today's psychology level sands stretch far away (Ozymandias). University of zone development, Maryland. Citizen Kane and Cinematography: Film Viewing Notes. opening: crane shot up to show three different kinds of fence (3 shots edited) (repeated at end, but reversed: 1:56:43 1:56:56) opening: succession of shots that get closer and closer to xanadu. snow globe shot (distorted POV) mock-newsreel cinematography (low angle shot of xanadu, plane shot, grainy film stock, pans, close ups, hand-held camera) crane shot to introduce susan alexander 14:25 14:58. (repeated 1:25:19 1:25:36) (repeated, reversed 1:47:05 1:47:12) kane and psychology thatcher (movement foreground to social statements background, low and high angle shots) kane sells newspapers (deep focus) from portait picture of ten journalists to come alive shot (Chronicle to today's Inquirer journalists)

Kanes party (deep focus) lelands story (double exposure dissolve) kane political rally (long zoom, distance to new deal object, low and today's high angle shots) lelands view of opera house (beginning of in Danger, shot susan from audience POV, crane shot up) susans view of opera house (shot now from backstage, showing change to today's susans POV) kanes view of susan at opera house (high angle shot) kane towers over development theory susan. montage of susans opera reviews (triple impositions) susan ill foreground, (deep focus foreground and background foreground sedative and glass replaced by doctors black bag) kane infinite regress mirror shot. closing up xanadu (crane shots, deep focus, distance to objects, zoom out and in) The Controversial Wunderkind Orson Welles. Before making his first film, Citizen Kane , Orson Welles was already considered something of psychology, a boy-wonder, having made a great success on Broadway and on the radio in his early twenties. Welles became a national sensation with his Mercury Theater radio broadcast of H. G. Zone Theory! Wellss The War of the Worlds on Halloween night in 1938. As a result, Gary Simmons notes, Welles was almost universally regarded as a precocious and prodigious talent who was given free rein in the making of Citizen Kane highly unusual at today's a time when films were largely controlled and shaped by the studio system (139). In 1939, RKO Pictures courted the 24-year-old wunderkind and offered him a contract to direct films at RKO. Welless first project was to be Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness , but this was abandoned when he went over pre-production budget.

He was given final cut for Citizen Kane if he didnt go over budget. This time he didnt. The film was released according to Welless vision. Dennis Bingham argues that Citizen Kane is the zone studio eras outstanding anomaly, the work that subverts the today's psychology system in almost every way while taking full advantage of the resources of the studio the first American mainstream art film (50). The Ballad of Hearst and Welles. Even before it was finished, the newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst had heard the social thesis statements rumors swirling around Hollywood that Welless forthcoming Citizen Kane was a thinly veiled attack upon Hearst.

Hearst very quickly marshaled his considerable forces in order to destroy the today's film and Welles himself.Hearst attempted to buy the film negatives and fighting stance all copies of Citizen Kane so that he could destroy them. He initiated a campaign in his newspapers demonizing the today's psychology film and the nra Welles. Today's Psychology! Hearst wouldnt let his newspapers review Citizen Kane , and pakistani ceremony refused to publicize RKO films. It might not have been just a personal vendetta: Hearsts film production company, Cosmopolitan Pictures, produced the kind of Great Man biopics that Welles was parodying with Citizen Kane . All this is discussed in the 1995 documentary film The Battle of today's, Citizen Kane . Largely as a result of Hearsts opposition, after showing in a few movie theaters in big cities, Citizen Kane was locked up in RKOs vaults and was unavailable until the late 1950s, only after which it was hailed by critics as one of the best films ever made. Since the 1960s, critics have been on the look-out for Hollywood directors who managed to create interesting and innovative works of film art within the artistic constraints imposed by bradly nowell the studio system.

The studio factory was seen to have produced its auteurs against the grain of artistic standardisation and economic regulation (Street 52). Welles is often consider something of a poster child (and cautionary tale) for the Hollywood auteur. The Martyrdom of today's, Orson Welles. It wasnt just Hearst that had it in for Welles. In the history of anime girl fighting, Hollywood film, Welles is considered by today's some a tragic figure, an in Danger examples, artist brought low by psychology his own hubris and the envy of others. For instance, Welles did not have final cut for The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), the film he made after Citizen Kane . After it tested poorly in previews, largely because the ending was thought to be depressing, Welless producers at RKO cut an pakistani muslim, hour out psychology of the film and tacked on zone of proximal development theory a happy ending. They also destroyed the footage they removed so that the film could not be reconstructed.

This was done while Welles was in Brazil shooting a documentary. Many Welles among them consider this as the beginning of the end of Welless Hollywood career. He made most of his subsequent films outside of the United States, on shoe-string budgets, the money coming largely from today's his acting fees. There is good reason to believe that Welles the auteur was destroyed by Essay examples the Hollywood studio system. This was because, according to today's psychology David Thomson, he was a young man who intended to defy Hollywood, and who could have spelled out why its factory was as bad for critical thinking and progress as the New York Inquirer [Kanes newspaper in the nra Citizen Kane ). Welles was revolutionary and self-destructive, and he would be adopted by the many cultural anxieties that perceived Hollywood as a rotten place and a delusion (45). Best Ever? Not Even the Best of 1941. For many film viewers and critics, it is a terrible scandal that Citizen Kane , supposedly the psychology Greatest Film Ever Made, did not win the the nra new deal Academy Award for Best Picture (or many Academy Awards at all) in 1941.

Instead, the Academy awarded the Best Picture Oscar to today's How Green Was My Valley , a film adaptation of a British novel about Welsh coal miners, directed by John Ford (he didnt just do film westerns). In retrospect, critics generally think Fords film was fine, but not the bradly nowell earth-shaking aesthetic statement that was Citizen Kane . But there are other reasons, besides artistic merit, that films are awarded a Best Picture Oscar. Often times, the Academy voters want to send a message, often a social message. The message in this case was a vote of confidence and solidarity with Great Britain, which was at that time barely fighting off Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Europe. And the Award for the Greatest Film Ever Goes To As already mentioned, between its run in 1941 and today's psychology the mid-1950s, few people had seen Citizen Kane . Once RKO allowed it to be re-released and available for anime girl stance television syndication and particularly after French critics got a hold of it Citizen Kane quickly rose to the top of critics lists. According to the influential Sight and Sound poll, taken every ten years, Citizen Kane was the Greatest Film Ever Made, for forty straight years. But last year (2012) Citizen Kane fell to the second spot in the poll. It was bested by today's psychology Alfred Hitchcocks Vertigo . This is what the British Film Institute (BFI), publishers of Sight and anime girl stance Sound magazine and the Sight and Sound poll, says about Citizen Kane: The use of deep-focus photography (keeping both foreground and background in today's focus) and abstracted camera angles, the non-chronological narrative structure and overlapping dialogue, were just some of the of proximal development myriad formal innovations that Welles brought together for his groundbreaking debut.

Such novelty and controversy proved a curse for Welles, whose career never enjoyed such indulgence again. They also mention that the film goes after the dark heart of the American dream. And here is what BFI says about Vertigo : This classic from the master of psychology, suspense was so poorly received upon zone of proximal theory, release that Alfred Hitchcock later withdrew it from distribution for several years. Its reputation has since grown and it is now widely regarded as Hitchcocks finest film, a haunting examination of male desire memorably filmed in real San Francisco locations. . . . Today's Psychology! Vertigo succeeds as a hallucinatory fable about the traps of desire. A thriller of dreamlike allure, its whipped to dizzying heights by Bernard Herrmanns Wagner-influenced score. The displacement of Citizen Kane by Vertigo has been controversial. Some critics see dark forces at work. Essay Examples! For instance, Richard Rushfield at The Daily Beast blames the the current popularity of social networking:

The last Sight and Sound poll was conducted in 2002, when the blogosphere was still in today's diapers. Social media was just a twinkle in a Harvard-bound honor students eye, and the idea of communicating in 140 characters was as unimaginable as a cure for the common cold. Once, however, all these forces were unleashed there was no way Kane could sit fat and content innovative, visionary, ponderous atop the field forever. That is, because of the ubiquity and the ease of use of social networking platforms like Twitter and blogs, everyone can be a critic. According to development Rushfield, this democratizing trend has led to backlash against intellectual film critics, who have been frightened into abandoning aesthetic standards and forced to speak for the unwashed masses. Needless to say, the film critics who replaced Citizen Kane with Vertigo would vociferously disagree with Rushfield and, perhaps, point out that Vertigo is really not that popular outside critical circles and is admired for the same artistic reasons Citizen Kane is admired.

University of today's psychology, Maryland. British Film Institute, The Greatest Films Poll at Sight and pakistani ceremony Sound, 2012. Dennis Bingham, Whose Lives Are They Anyway? The Biopic as Contemporary Film Genre (Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010). Richard Rushfield, Citizen Kane v. Vertigo: Why Kane Fell in the Sight and Sound Poll, The Daily Beast (August 1 2012). Gary Simmons, Smoke and Mirrors in today's psychology Citizen Kane , Screen Education 51 (2008), 138-144. Sarah Street, Film in Context: Citizen Kane , History Today 46.3 (March 1996), 48-52. Thomson, David. The Mark of Kane, Sight Sound 21.1 (2011), 44-48.

Stanley Kubrick and his Conspiratorial Interpreters. According to Angela Watercutter. Stanley Kubricks The Shining is arguably the most cerebral horror film ever made. The film is studied at universities, chronicled in books, and has generally inspired levels of academic analysis rivaled only by the work of bradly nowell, Talmudic scholars. But despite all the study, there are still few conclusive answers as to what Kubrick was actually trying to say with The Shining , opening the door for countless interpretations, Adam B. Vary adds that The Shining is a film that has inspired perhaps more deep analysis, explication, and theorizing than pretty much any other major feature film of the last 40 years. Watercutter and Vary made these remarks as part of their respective reviews of Room 237 , a film documentary by Rodney Ascher that profiles five people who have come up with bizarre, even conspiratorial, interpretations of today's psychology, The Shining . Watercutter briefly looks at fighting stance ten of the interpretations of these five people; Vary comes up with five additional interpretations. There are quite a few other quirky interpretations of The Shining , as a search at YouTube will show. Jay Weidner, one of the five interpreters profiled in Room 237 , argues that The Shining is Kubricks cryptic confession that he was involved in today's psychology the supposed faked moon landing of 1969. He bases his interpretation, in part, on media the fact that Room 237 was actually Room 217 in Stephen Kings novel. Watercutter explains Weidners thesis further:

As evidence, [Weidner] points to the Apollo sweater young Danny wears, the fact that the moon is about 237,000 miles from Earth (its 238,855 on average) and the inscription on today's psychology the rooms key: ROOM No 237. Theres only two words that you can come up with that have those letters in them, Weidner says. And thats moon and room and so on the key, the tag, it says moon room.' (Those letters also spell moron, but that seems like more of a coincidence.) One of the other Weidner theories mentioned by Watercutter is wedding ceremony that Kubrick inserted sexual subliminal messages in his film, particularly in the scene where Jack interviews for the caretaker job in psychology Stuart Ullmans office. Muslim Wedding Ceremony! According to Weidner, Ullmans paper tray closely resembles a phallus. Juli Kearns argues that the window in that scene does not exist in psychology the floor plan on the hotel. She should know, because he made a detailed map of the rooms and passages of the Outlook Hotel. Kearns also proposes the interpretation that Jack is the Minotaur of classical mythology and the Outlook Hotel is the labyrinth (or maze) built by Dedalus to contain the media statements monster. As evidence, Kearns argues that Jacks face gets progressively bull-like in the film. She also sees a minotaur in a sky poster in the film. Her evidence is quite circumstantial but it is not a stretch to say that Kubrick meant to allude to the myth of the minotaur and the labyrinth in the film.

Vary discusses Aschers contention that the ski poster that Kearns focuses on also shows evidence of a secret CIA mind-control program called MKUltra (which went by code-name Monarch, a word prominently displayed on the poster). One of the more respectable interpreters (in that he is an academic historian) is today's Geoffrey Cocks, who has written a book on A Society examples his theories concerning The Shining . Cocks argues that the today's psychology film has a subtext that concerns the Holocaust. Throughout The Shining Jacks Adler typewriter goes from a light tan color to a grey-blue with no real explanation. Historian Geoffrey Cocks believes that the typewriters color shift has significance to his theory that Kubricks film has a deeply-laid subtext about the Holocaust. Girl Stance! That typewriter, that German. typewriter which by the way changes color in today's the course of the film, which typewriters dont generally do is terribly, terribly important as a referent to that particular historical event. This is flimsy evidence for such a controversial interpretation put forth by an academic historian (and unlikely to pass peer-review scrutiny).

It doesnt help Cockss case that he has equally far-fetched interpretations for what other people would call continuity errors (unnoticed mistakes in production) in The Shining . Pakistani Wedding Ceremony! For instance, there is a chair that disappears in one scene, which Cocks (not a film critic) explains as Kubricks attempt to parody the horror genre. Then there is the disappearing Dopey which Cocks, again, refuses to today's psychology attribute to continuity error. John Fell Ryan makes the bradly nowell case that The Shining , when run forwards and backwards, offers up many new meanings. He and Akiva Saunders actually translated Ryans ideas into concrete action, creating projection technology which allows people to see the film backwards and forwards. Ryan doesnt really build a theory around this as much as play around with the film and deconstruct (or hack) it via technology. However, like the psychology other four conspiratorial interpreters, Ryan has other theories about the film. For instance, he argues that in the scene where Jack, just arrived at the Overlook, waits for Ullman, he is reading a Playgirl magazine (which featured naked men). Ryan links this to Jacks abuse of the nra, Danny which Ryan (with little evidence) suggests was sexual abuse.

Note that the figure on the cover of the magazine is long-haired, most likely a woman (who would not be on the cover of Playgirl magazine). The magazine looks more like Cosmopolitan . Room 237 also features the interpretations of BIll Blakemore, an ABC News reporter. Watercutter doesnt say much about Blakemores larger theory that the film is about the psychology genocide of Native Americans. In an article he published online, he presents his evidence, which is not very convincing. Blakemore sees the traces of Native Americans all throughout the film (and there is quite a bit of Native American art on the floors and the walls and, in one scene, on Wendys clothes), though he admits that no Native Americans are shown in the film which is somehow evidence for the presence of Native Americans and claims that Dick Halloran, a black character, is meant to be read as Native American. The Colorado Room, where Jack works, is A Society in Danger examples full of Native American designs.

Blakemore also goes for the sexual sublimation thing. Psychology! In the art deco design of the carpet in room 237, he sees penises and vaginas copulating. Says Blakemore (quoted in Watercutter): The design on the rug shows basically in geometric form with round curves the act of intercourse itself, one after another after another after another. . . . Sort of like the picture of down through the generations of what produces life. More evidence of a sex-crazed Kubrick. In sheer number of theories concerning The Shining , Rob Ager should have but did not made the cut in thesis Aschers documentary. Most of his ideas are contained in an in-depth analysis of The Shining that he published online. Today's! You can also find a number of his analysis videos at YouTube, including the one where he contends that the two twin girls in the film are not Delbert Gradys daughters, the one where he claims that there is something meaningful in the river of blood, and the one where he asserts that Kubrick inserted a secret message condemning the gold standard, in the photograph that we see at the end of the film. Why are there so many wacky interpretations of in Danger examples, The Shining ? Watercutter attributes much of this conspiratorial theorizing to advances in technology. She writes:

There was no internet when The Shining was released and it would be a while after it played in theaters that VHS really took off, so the capacity for psychology obsessive watching and re-watching, frame-by-frame analysis, and sharing of theories online is girl stance only something thats been around in the latter part of the films history. We can only psychology, guess what kind of theories will arise in an even newer technological moment, when anyone at anytime can stream the film, playing it forwards and backwards to their hearts content. We are now in what writer Chuck Klosterman recently dubbed Immersion Criticism: the kind of in-depth interpretations of popular culture that can only come after watching a particular piece of media dozens of times. Its not just a matter of noticing things other people miss, because that can be done by anyone whos perceptive, Klosterman wrote about A Society Essay Room 237 at Grantland . Its a matter of noticing things that the director included to indicate his true, undisclosed intention. Vary puts the onus on the director, Stanley Kubrick. Vary suggests that Kubrick seeded his film with a lot of mysteries, which guaranteed his film continuous scrutiny. Vary quotes Tim Kirk, the producer of psychology, Room 237 : '[ The Shining ] doesnt solve things even on a plot level. What happened in room 237? We dont really know.

Rodney has pointed out that the photograph at the end is played almost like a big reveal of Aha! But its not really. If anything, it just deepens the mystery (qtd. in Vary). Kubricks reputation as an auteur, an art film director, is also part of the equation. Again, Vary quotes Kirk, who says: I think the understanding of Kubrick as this meticulous, obsessively detail oriented director does make you think that if you see something in a frame, then he put it there and theres a reason, says Kirk. That is a jumping off point for pakistani wedding a lot of people. . Today's! . Bradly Nowell! . The rest of his movies are all so good and so close to perfection, he adds, that if you dont get something . . Today's! . A Society In Danger! theres a trust that its not that its a mistake, its that you didnt figure it out. All work and no play means too tired to psychology notice obvious continuity errors This is social media what I call argument by psychology mise-en-scene. Its an idea that I typically subscribe to: nothing in the shot (visual details) is an girl stance, accident. But the conspiratorial interpretations of The Shining certainly challenge this idea.

The Shining is a cautionary tale in regards to interpretations. That is, what you say the mise-en-scene isnt necessarily so. A reading of a visual detail does not, alone, make for a viable interpretation. Many of the visual details cited as evidence by the interpreters discussed in this post could just as easily be continuity errors. At the moviemistakes.com wiki page on The Shining lists 21 continuity errors found and posted by viewers. (It doesnt list the one I discovered: in the scene where Wendy discusses Danny with a doctor, Wendy mentions that the today's abuse incident occurred five months before; but when Jack discusses the same incident with the ghostly barman, shortly after this point, he says the incident occurred three years before). The horror! I will live on forever as a footnote in some crazy persons conspiracy theory!

So now I present my own conspiratorial interpretation. I argue that Kubrick himself (before his death or from the grave ) planted all the interpretations mentioned to cover up the zone development fact that he was quite sloppy when making The Shining . He wanted people to be distracted from the fact that he messed up on the Grady daughters, the prop left in the river of blood shot, the changed typewriter, the missing chair, the missing Dopey, the floor plan of the hotel, and today's the changed room number. How else to explain a film that is about the Holocaust, Native American genocide, a faked moon landing, Americas abandonment of the gold standard, AND a CIA mind-control program, all in the same film? The only possibility is that Kubrick floated those theories himself. And we have only scratched the surface of all the conspiracies Kubrick has floated. Social! Its only a matter of time before someone links The Shining to today's the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and zone development theory the Mayan Apocalypse.

I see all these future theories coming down on us like a river of today's psychology, blood. Prepare yourself. . . . Im outta here (before they discover my interpretation is full of holes) Angela Watercutter, The 10 Most Outrageous Theories About What The Shining Really Means, Wired Magazine (March 29, 2013). Adam B. Vary. 5 Conspiracy Theories About The Shining That Arent In Room 237. Buzzfeed Entertainment (March 28, 2013).