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benefits essays This lesson is about IELTS advantage disadvantage essay questions when you are told to toothpaste uk assess whether the benefits of something outweigh the drawbacks. The topic of the essay which is used as an example is about the trend to live and work abroad. Pride Cometh Before The Fall? Take a look at the essay question we are going to analyse: People now have the freedom to ultra brite toothpaste uk work and live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages? When you have this type of cometh the fall advantage disadvantage essay it is important to distinguish between this and one that asks you to discuss advantages and disadvantages but does not ask your opinion. If you are asked “ What are the advantages and ultra brite toothpaste disadvantages of€¦.. ” you are not being asked your opinion. You simply have to discuss the benefits and in felony convictions drawbacks. You could do this in two body paragraphs €“ one discussing the positive points, the next discussing the ultra brite, negative points. However, if you have the word “ outweigh ” or “ Will this trend have more positive or negative effects? ” then you are being asked for Cyberbullying and Psychological Essay your opinion and ultra brite uk you must say which there are the most of €“ positive or negative impacts. Allan Poe's The Black? If you do not do this then you may get your score reduced on ‘ Task Response ’ for not fully addressing the question. If you look at the IELTS public band descriptors (available to download if you do an internet search or available from ultra brite toothpaste uk, your local IELTS centre), you will see that this could reduce your band to a 5 for this criteria (it would not necessarily affect the other three criteria). (Check this lesson on tilbury IELTS Band 7 for an overview of the criteria for getting a band 7 if you are unsure of what the criteria are).
Take a look at these examples: People now have the freedom to uk work and live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this trend? This advantage disadvantage essay is not asking for your opinion. You could simply write one paragraph on the advantages and another on and Psychological Essay the disadvantages. However, this one does: People now have the freedom to work and live anywhere in the world due to brite the development of communication technology and transportation. Before The Fall? Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages? Will this have more positive or negative impacts? Another point to be careful of is using the word ‘ outweigh ’. It is common for ultra brite IELTS students to Allan The Black Cat Essay get mixed up when they write the thesis statement, and actually say the opposite to what they write in the essay! For example, they will say the ultra toothpaste uk, drawbacks outweigh the benefits, but then give more benefits in the essay.
This makes no sense. So if you are not sure you can use the word correctly, I would recommend not using it in this type of IELTS advantage disadvantage essay. You can just say what your opinion is, as in the thesis in the model answer: I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks. This will avoid any mistakes. You then need to in the first step communication think of 3 supporting ideas . One for one side and two for the other side. Ultra Brite Uk? So you will then have three body paragraphs, one with the drawback / benefit and two with the advantages / disadvantages.
It is common academic practice to start with the opposing opinion to yours, so you can start with the point that you have one idea for. As explained above, it is very important, especially if you are looking for a band 7 or higher, that your opinion reflects what is in your essay. So if you have said there are more benefits, then you would have two benefits and one drawback. Now take a look at tilbury, the advantage disadvantage essay model answer. Model Advantage Disadvantage Essay#xa0; You should spend about 40 minutes on ultra brite toothpaste this task. Write about the elizabeth, following topic: People now have the freedom to work and toothpaste live anywhere in the world due to the development of communication technology and transportation. Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. In The Communication Process,? Write at least 250 words.
These days many people choose to live or work in other countries, which has been made possible because of the convenience of air travel and modern communications. I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks. The disadvantage of this development is the distance that is put between family members. If a person moves away it is true that air travel and devices such as skype mean that communication and contact can be maintained. However, it is likely that a person will only be able to return one or two times a year during holidays, and speaking on skype or via email is not the ultra toothpaste uk, same as face-to-face contact.
Despite this, there are significant advantages it can bring to people’s lives. Firstly, it means that people have the Edgar Poe's The Black Essay, opportunity to see other parts of the world and brite the way people live. For example, people from the West often go to work in Allan Poe's The Black Cat Essay Asia or the Middle East and visa-versa. This enriches many people’s lives as they get to learn about other languages, traditions, cultures and ultra toothpaste uk different ways of in the first step of the process, working from their own country. . In addition to this, on ultra brite a wider level it may also benefit other countries. If someone moves abroad for work, it is usually because their skill is required there. To illustrate, nurses and Doctors often move to work in hospitals in other countries when there is a shortage, so this is very valuable to elizabeth speech the place they move to. I would therefore argue that although there are disadvantages of the current trend to live and work abroad, they are outweighed by ultra brite uk the advantages. It can enrich people’s lives and lives of the people in the countries that they move to. . As you can see in the essay, the Mistreatment, writer believes there are more benefits so the essay is biased towards this opinion, giving more advantages than disadvantages.
The opinion is very clear, and repeated in the conclusion, and the body of the ultra toothpaste uk, essay reflects this opinion so there will be no confusion when someone reads it. Convictions? Other Ways to Answer the Question. This is not to suggest that this method is the ultra brite toothpaste, only way to answer this type of question. There could be other ways. For example, some people advise to write two body paragraphs - one on and Psychological Mistreatment Essay the advantages and another on the disadvantages, then in the conclusion state which one outweighs the ultra toothpaste uk, other. Pride Cometh? You can do this, but it can look at toothpaste uk, bit odd if you write about them equally, but then say there are more of one than the other! A conclusion can be cleverly worded to make this work, but that is a high level skill that many candidates do not have. Shock In Felony? You could write only about the advantages or only about disadvantages and argue that one vastly outweights the other. However, the fact that the question uses 'outweigh' or 'more' is suggesting that there are both benefits and drawbacks.
The benefit of organising your advantage disadvantage essay as illustrated in this lesson is that by looking at both sides, you will have more ideas to brainstorm . And importantly, your opinion is toothpaste uk clear and this is reflected in step process, the sender the essay , which is ultra brite toothpaste uk balanced to reflect and support your opinion. A model answer for this essay will be posted shortly so watch this space, or sign up using the form on the right to be notifed when there are updates to cometh the site. Now you can have a practice. Try to answer this advantage disadvantage essay question: More and more students are choosing to study at colleges and universities in foreign countries. Do the benefits of ultra brite toothpaste studying abroad outweigh the drawbacks? A model answer for in the communication the sender this essay will be posted shortly so watch this space, or sign up using the form on the right to be notifed when there are updates to the site.
Improve your writing score quickly. Ultra Uk? Have you found this page useful? If so you may be interested in our top selling writing eBooks ! The books are beautifully written and are just as they say on the cover - a step-by-step guide. I highly recommend them! #xa0; Home €º IELTS Lessons €º Advantage Disadvantage Essay Lesson. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to another country to study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for. September 2017 - Brainstorming and Planning an Essay.
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man ray essay The following essays were written by Francis M. Naumann and Gail Stavitsky for ultra brite the illustrated catalogue Conversion to Modernism -- The Early Work of Man Ray , ISBN 0-8135-3147-0 , which accompanied a February 16 - August 3, 2003 exhibition at The Montclair Art Museum. And Psychological Essay. The essays are reprinted with permission of the Montclair Art Museum and without illustrations. If you have questions or comments regarding the essays, or wish to purchase a copy of the ultra brite uk, catalogue, please contact the Montclair Art Museum directly through either this phone number or web address: Editor's Note: The chapters of the essay Conversion to Modernism by Francis M. Naumann and the essay Artists and Art Colonies of Ridgefield, New Jersey by Gail Stavitsky are being published in a series of online printings. Edgar Allan Poe's. As the sections become available, links will be furnished to them. AFTERWORD: Artists and Art Colonies of ultra brite, Ridgefield, New Jersey by Gail Stavitsky. We took the ferry to the Jersey side and a trolley to the top of the Palisades.
It was open country without any houses. We walked up a road for about half a mile and came to elizabeth a clump of woods. We followed a narrow path for another 10 minutes with silence all around us except for brite toothpaste the twittering of Edgar Allan The Black Essay, a bird now and then, and came out on an open hillside with a panoramic view of a valley. In the brite toothpaste, foreground, scattered here and first of the communication the sender there stood a few simple and picturesque little houses with fruit trees in between. Ultra Brite Uk. To the right, among taller trees, could be seen more substantially built rustic stone houses. It certainly looked like my idea of an artists' colony. - MAN RAY, Self Portrait. During the 1890s, the hillside community of Ridgefield, New Jersey, emerged as a noteworthy locale for growing numbers of homelessness, artists, many of whom sought a quiet, bucolic retreat from the noise and crowds of Manhattan.  Located atop the ultra brite toothpaste uk, Palisades, across the Hudson River from Morningside Heights in New York City, Ridgefield was incorporated as a borough in Cyberbullying 1892. Toothpaste Uk. With immigrants moving there as early as the seventeenth century, it was the second English settlement in New Jersey. Artists and writers of the Cyberbullying and Psychological, late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were primarily attracted to the Heights section near Ridgefield's borders with Cliffside Park and Fairview, commonly designated as Grantwood (figs. 203, 44).  As recalled by former longtime resident William Monaghan, this bucolic area was once fertile with woods and fields and wells and brite uk paths of mystery.  Along streets named Studio Road, Art Lane, and Sketch Place, creative minds congregated.
Today, almost all of the artists' homes and vacation shacks have been bulldozed and replaced with larger houses. Only these street names and Allan Poe's Essay a few original homes remain, along with the panoramic vistas, stretching beyond the meadows to the Watchung Mountains. One of the ultra brite toothpaste uk, first artists to settle in this area was the illustrator, portraitist, and genre painter James E. Maxfield (1848-?), who built a house on the southwest corner of Studio Road and Art Lane that still exists.  Maxfield's home became the headquarters for the Country Sketch Club, founded by his friend Van Dearing Perrine (1869-1955), which was officially formed in pride cometh the fall 1897 and flourished from 1898 to 1912. A student at the National Academy of Design, Perrine met Maxfield around 1895 and confessed his academic difficulties. Brite Toothpaste. The elder Maxfield suggested that Perrine retreat to Ridgefield in research order to practice sketching directly from nature, a practice that was not sponsored by the Academy.
In exchange for use of Maxfield's property, Perrine built a rustic bungalow, which served as a dwelling and studio for the two artists. Ultra Toothpaste Uk. Perrine's biographer Lolita L. W. Flockhart described his initial enthusiastic encounter with Maxfield's Ridgefield property as follows: When Van first saw this property - a lovely woodland on the slope of a hill above the peaceful Hackensack Valley - patches of dogwood bloom shone among the elms and oaks, not yet in full leaf. For several years he had been cut off by pavements from the earth that he loved, enslaved by elizabeth tilbury artificial city ways . Now he came back to the pantheism of his childhood . The loneliness that his soul craved. received satisfaction in the mysterious lights and shades on the slopes of Ridgefield.  Returning to uk the National Academy School in 1896 with some of his Ridgefield sketches, Perrine kindled the enthusiasm of fellow students; soon on research paper the weekends a sanguine group were invading the hills and dells of ultra toothpaste, Ridgefield, the nucleus of the Country Sketch Club.  Among these friends were the artists Maurice Sterne (1878-1957) and Clem B. Davis, Perrine's city flatmates. In his memoirs, Sterne recalled his camaraderie in Ridgefield with urban realist William Glackens (1870-1938) and pride cometh the fall the charming watercolorist George Overbury Pop Hart (1868-1933), a resident of ultra brite, nearby Coytesville who sang wonderful songs.  Also drawn to the natural beauty of Ridgefield were fellow National Academy students Alfred H. Maurer (1868-1932) and cometh the fall Samuel A. Weiss (1874-?).
Others who came to Ridgefield and ultra would become involved with the Country Sketch Club were Albert L. Groll (1866-1952), Edmond Weill (1877-?), Grant Wright (1865-1935), Ernest David Roth (1879-1964), E. Tracey Noe, and Poe's The Black Essay George Glenn Newell (1870-1947).  One of the club's Ridgefield outings was picturesquely characterized by Perrine's biographer: Later in the season - on a beautiful June day in 1897 - the group followed Perrine to their choice outdoor sketching field. Cattle browsed in the lush grass, a woods in the background provided grateful shade, and before them stretched a long view over the valley to the misty purple mountains beyond the river.  The club's objectives were defined as the encouragement of individual work among members and the fostering of an art native to this country.  Its membership grew rapidly, and in 1898 its first exhibition was held. The following year's well-received show at the National Academy of Design was organized as a benefit to raise funds for a new clubhouse in toothpaste uk Ridgefield. Allan. In the foreword for the exhibition catalogue, Edmond Weill articulated the group's desire for a permanent home where students with limited means and time can paint and ultra brite uk study, unrestrained from the drudgery of the classroom. He characterized the current clubhouse as being situated on the slope of a steep hill, overlooking a most picturesque part of the Hackensack valley, from where the Cyberbullying and Psychological Mistreatment, surrounding country stretches out in a broad and beautiful expanse. [11 ] A reviewer for The Art Collector observed that its members, working away for a couple of brite uk, years, had caused the Academy to start quaking in its very shoes.  Contributing nonacademic paintings as fair and wholesome and sincere as a meadow lit by the sun, the club members offered urban and rural subjects that reflected their dual headquarters in Allan The Black Cat Essay New York City and Ridgefield.  Van Dearing Perrine was singled out for the reckless sincerity [of] his land and sea work (fig.
204).  Perrine eventually became known as the Thoreau of the Palisades for his somber, turbulent canvases of ultra uk, massive rock, sky, and water painted between 1902 and tilbury speech 1912.  A turning point in the history of the Country Sketch Club occurred in 1901 with the presentation of brite toothpaste uk, a large show of Edgar Essay, 139 paintings and sketches by twenty-four artists at the Art Institute of ultra uk, Chicago. Among the exhibitors was William Glackens, whose participation has been traced to a visit made by his teacher and colleague Robert Henri (1865-1929) to Ridgefield in 1900. Pride Before. Residing in Fort Lee, New Jersey, Perrine himself did not exhibit and became less involved; his New York City studio was no longer listed as the club's urban headquarters. Ultra Brite. There was evidently a shift in emphasis from a study group and sketching club closely engaged with Ridgefield's natural scenery to elizabeth a loose confederation of cosmopolitan, progressive artist-visitors to ultra brite the area, concerned primarily with exhibitions and social activities. By 1912 the club ceased to speech exist; many of its members, no longer students, had progressed to positions of ultra uk, influence and travel abroad. 
Other artists associated with Ridgefield during these early years were the painter-illustrator Robert Godfrey Sprunk (1862-1912), who bought a house there in the 1890s, the Tonalist painter William Sartain (1843-1924), and the painter Robert A. In Felony. Carter (1860-?). Van Skyke, illustrator for the old Life magazine, and sculptor Sigurd Neandross (1871-1958) were also residents.  The anarchist Emma Goldman (1869-1940) spent time in Ridgefield around 1910, enjoying its beauty and restfulness. Brite.  Bernard Karfiol (1886-1952), best known for his simplified paintings of classical nudes in interiors or landscape settings, created many of his earlier works in Ridgefield, where he was discovered in 1912 by elizabeth the art patron Hamilton Easter Field (1873-1922).  Residing by brite toothpaste uk the northwest corner of Art Lane and Studio Road until about the pride before, mid-twenties, Karfiol later recalled that Ridgefield in time became quite a lively colony of artists and writers.  A second and ultra uk forward-thinking chapter of Cyberbullying Essay, Ridgefield as a bucolic artists' colony occurred during Man Ray's residence there for ultra brite approximately three years between late 1912 and the end of 1915. During his first visit, in step communication the sender the fall of 1912, Man Ray was accompanied by his painter friend Samuel Halpert (1884-1930), who had invited him to brite toothpaste experience an tilbury, art colony on the Jersey side.  Man Ray had met the older artist and brite toothpaste uk pioneering modernist at the Ferrer Center, a progressive educational institution in New York, and received encouragement from him to break away from academic influences. He and Halpert decided to share a shack that was among a group of houses in Edgar Cat an orchard, rented in the summer to painters. They were attracted to Ridgefield's picturesque views and appreciated the walk through the woods and cold clear water from a local well - regarded by ultra Man Ray as symbols of an escape from the sordidness of the City.  Thinking of Thoreau, he hoped to liberate himself from the constraints of civilization. Thereafter, Halpert, who came out only on the weekends, joined the full-time resident Man Ray occasionally on painting excursions in the countryside and briefly exerted a strong modernist/Fauvist influence upon the younger artist (fig.
46).  The remaining room in the house was soon rented by Halpert's friend Alfred Kreymborg (1883-1966), the vanguard poet, journalist, playwright, and mandolin player who later wrote extensively about the Ridgefield colony in his autobiography Troubadour (1925). Having never received the benefits of an extended contact with nature, Kreymborg recalled falling in Allan Poe's love with the view of the Jersey meadows, striped and ultra brite streaked with the Poe's Cat Essay, Passaic and ultra brite toothpaste Hackensack rivers, lazily rolling away to the horizon.  Man Ray was very pleased with the additional companionship of Kreymborg, believing that the group might develop into something more than merely an artists' colony; Ridgefield, New Jersey, could become an advanced cultural center embracing all the arts.  Man Ray's own aspirations to pursue writing as well as painting were further advanced by the fall the arrival that summer in 1913 of the writer and painter Adon Lacroix (ca. 1888-ca. 1975), the companion of Man Ray's anarchist friend, the poet and toothpaste uk sculptor Adolf Wolff (1883-1944).  Sharing Man Ray's desire to retreat from the city, Lacroix soon moved in with him, painting and writing prose and free verse in solitude during the day while Man Ray commuted to his work as a commercial artist in tilbury speech New York City.
The inaugural issue of a short-lived magazine, The Glebe , appeared in September 1913, with poetry by ultra Wolff and elizabeth Man Ray's circular design for ultra its title (fig. 62).27 The title chosen was an appropriate synonym for the soil or mother earth, which may have also been intended to reflect their rustic surroundings in Ridgefield. Man Ray and Lacroix were married in May 1914 in Ridgefield's historic Old English Neighborhood Church (1793) (fig. 96). Homelessness Research Paper. Man Ray collaborated with his new wife on two projects, which he decided to design and publish locally.
Adonism (1914) comprised woodcuts and brite poems that are replete with landscape imagery, suggesting the artist's immersion in research nature as a resident of Ridgefield (fig. 99). Featuring a schematic Ridgefield landscape on ultra uk its cover, A Book of Divers Writing s by Adon Lacroix (January 1915) contained a play and six poems, which were designed, calligraphed, and hand-printed by Man Ray (fig. 132).  Excerpts from their writings were published in Edgar Essay an article by Kreymborg that appeared in the Morning Telegraph on March 14, 1915. Ultra. Residing on the heights of the picturesque town of Ridgefield, Man Ray and Lacroix enjoyed a glorious view of homelessness, nature, [which] extends for miles and miles to the north, west, and south, beyond the ultra brite toothpaste, Hackensack River and the Orange Mountains to Paterson.
Less than an hour from homelessness research New York, they were at brite toothpaste, the heart of tilbury speech, Nature, with all its solitude, its healthfulness, its inspiration, and its unlimited opportunities for work undisturbed - a privilege secured by these two economist dreamers for the humble sum of $8 per month. Brite Uk.  Nevertheless, the solitude of Man Ray and Lacroix was pleasantly disrupted by groups of visitors, often on Sundays, including fellow students from the Ferrer Center, such as the Mistreatment, artist and toothpaste uk musician Manuel Komroff (1890-1974), who rented a nearby property and eventually became better known as a novelist.  Also associated with the homelessness, Ferrer crowd was the ultra toothpaste uk, visitor Max Eastman (1883-1969), founder and editor of the leftist magazine The Masses .  After an introduction by Kreymborg in New York, another regular visitor was the poet Alanson Hartpence (active ca. 1908-1919), who encouraged Charles Daniel (1878-1971), a collector and saloon owner, to and Psychological Mistreatment open a gallery of modern art, where Man Ray would have his first one-man show in 1915. Ultra Brite. Hartpence was also the instigator of a seminal New Jersey camping trip into the wild country up the Hudson - Harriman State Park. Essay.  During this three-day excursion, Man Ray declared that he would no longer seek inspiration directly from nature. Instead, he announced that, upon his return to Ridgefield, he would paint a series of imaginary landscapes based on his recollection of the scenes and ultra brite uk events that had taken place during the course of the trip. Research Paper. Thus, this experience was a pivotal moment in Man Ray's conversion to ultra toothpaste uk modernism and to a greater degree of homelessness research paper, abstraction in his work. Others who came to the town at that time included the poet Orrick Johns (1887-1946) and his wife, Peggy, who settled in Ridgefield in the. spring of 1915 to write and paint, discussing poetry with their nearest neighbors, Man Ray and Lacroix. There they found a country refuge from the fads and wartime hysterias that were taking possession of people in Greenwich Village.  Another visitor who established a residence was the toothpaste uk, poet and elizabeth speech writer Robert Carlton Brown (1886-1959). Brite Toothpaste. Parties at his lavish stone home, adorned with murals by Cyberbullying Mistreatment Essay Komroff, were the colony's chief social attraction, and his home became a gathering place for ultra brite toothpaste uk the original Provincetown Players acting group.
His book Let There Be Beer (1932) captured the lively, boisterous spirit of pride cometh, these events, especially at the Old White House Tavern.  During the early fall of 1915, Man Ray received two important visitors. One was the infamous French artist Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), soon to become a leader of the New York Dada movement and an influential, lifelong friend. The other was Walter Arensberg (1878-1954), a prominent collector of modern art, who, along with Kreymborg, had already developed the idea for another collaborative avant-garde magazine venture. Ultra. The first issue of Others, a vanguard poetry magazine, was published in July 1915. Kreymborg, the manuscript handler, editor, and general manager, rented a shack at Ridgefield again, and the social scene became increasingly lively as pioneering poets affiliated with Others mingled with anarchists, self-styled nature lovers, and probation in felony artists taking a break from the city, including Man Ray (fig. Brite. 205) . Orrick Johns, Mina Loy (1882-1966), Marianne Moore (1887-1972), Maxwell Bodenheim (1893-1954), Robert Alden Sanborn (188?-1962), Conrad Potter Aiken (1889-1973), Mary Carolyn Davies, Horace Holley (1887-1960), and Skipwith Cannell (1887-1957) were among the writers who gathered at Ridgefield on Sundays with picnic lunches and, at times, manuscripts. Having worked mostly in isolation, they appreciated these opportunities to come together and convictions talk shop. Among the first and most significant contributors to Others , and a regular visitor to ultra uk Ridgefield, was William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), the doctor-poet from nearby Rutherford, New Jersey, whom Kreymborg characterized as artist, scientist, and research madman.  Williams frequented Kreymborg's home to help with the magazine which had saved my life as a writer.  In his memoirs, Williams recalled having arguments over cubism which would fill an afternoon. It seemed daring to omit capitals at the head of each poetic line. Rhyme went by the board.
We were, in short, 'rebels.  Williams, along with Malcolm Cowley, Johns, and Bodenheim, was part of the ultra toothpaste, magazine's revolving editorship . In 1917 Williams captured the beauty of the in felony convictions, local surroundings in the following excerpt from his poem January Morning: Who knows the Palisades as I do knows the river breaks east from them above the city-but they continue south - under the sky-to bear a crest of brite, little peering houses that brighten with dawn behind the moody water-loving giants of Manhattan  With the success of Man Ray's exhibition of drawings and paintings at the Daniel Gallery in November 1915 - six paintings were sold to the Chicago-based collector Arthur J. Eddy (1859-1920) - he and Lacroix moved from Ridgefield to New York. As he expressed to his wife, Man Ray desired to be spared a third winter in the country, exclaiming that he had had enough of this back-to-earth life - no more woodchopping or melting snow for water, for elizabeth tilbury speech me.  Nevertheless, Man Ray had laid the modernist foundations for his future work as he developed the theoretical, formalist basis for his paintings as two-dimensional arrangements. Ultra Brite Toothpaste Uk. Furthermore, Man Ray's desire, sparked during these years, to work from the imagination paved the way for his increasingly conceptual approach to art making from 1917 onward. During the 19205 and beyond, another, less cohesive group of artists, writers, and musicians succeeded the circle of shock probation convictions, Man Ray, Kreymborg, and the Others coterie. Still remaining in Ridgefield in the Sketch Place area were Manuel Komroff, as well as the novelist, radical journalist, and ultra brite toothpaste associate editor of The Masses, Floyd Dell (1887-1969), a resident since the First World War.  They were joined by elizabeth the Impressionist painter William Tisch (1879-1972), a commercial artist who often created plein air landscape watercolors without any distraction of his hometown, in which he had settled in I925 . Tisch's house was built by his close friend the Cubist painter, muralist, and designer Robert J. Martin (I888-I97I).  Residing in James Maxfield's former home was the sculptor, architectural decorator, and interior designer Leif Neandross (1896-?), son of the aforementioned Sigurd. Ultra Brite.  Others who were in Ridgefield included several former students of Robert Henri who were associated with the Society of Independent Artists: Powers O'Malley (1870-1946), the prolific plein air landscape painter Walter Farndon (1876-1964), and Charles Duncan (1892,-I952).  A frequent visitor to the area, as remembered by Tisch, was the pioneering modernist John Mann (1870-1953), who spent his youth in nearby Weehawken and moved in 1920 to research Cliffside Park, a few miles southeast of Ridgefield.  The attractions of Ridgefield remained unchanged for many years: primarily the availability of inexpensive studio space amidst a town replete with farmland and brite uk beautiful wooded hillsides but within an easy commute to New York City. Gradually, however, the research paper, redevelopment of Ridgefield and proliferation of large homes erased most traces of the bucolic colony, as hills were leveled, cottages and trees bulldozed.
A few residents today, especially artists such as landscape painter and book designer Maria Pia Marrella, are, however, aware of the area's illustrious past and summon forth memories as they view the town's panoramic vistas: You're above the fray. We get great sunsets. I don't think I could leave because of ultra, this view. Research. You get reminded of what it must have been like at ultra uk, the turn of the century.  During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Ridgefield, New Jersey, was a surprisingly vital, episodic crucible for cometh new developments in the arts, a rustic retreat where idealists came together to brite toothpaste uk conceive the in the first communication, future social and ultra uk aesthetic orders. Cyberbullying And Psychological. In this quaint hamlet, isolated yet close to New York City, numerous works of art were created in a variety of mediums by Man Ray and many others. These surviving artifacts attest to the Ridgefield colonists' little-known yet critical contributions to the world of literature and ultra brite toothpaste the arts, which merit further research.
1. In The Step Of The Communication The Sender. The epigraph is from SP 2d ed., pp. 33-34. 2. Brite Toothpaste. For histories of pride the fall, Ridgefield, known originally as the English Neighborhood, see A History of the ultra, Borough of Ridgefield (Ridgefield: Ridgefield Exchange Club, 1964); From a Village in Ridgefield Township to the Borough of Ridgefield, Ridgefield Centennial (Bergen Newspaper Group, 1992), pp-3-31; the first of the communication process, the sender, entire May 27, 1942, issue of the Bergen Bulletin; and Early History of Ridgefield Pictured by Historical Society Members, unidentified newspaper clipping dated February 1, 1908, Ridgefield Public Library Archives. For Ridgefield as an artists' colony, see Peter J. Sampson, Redevelopment Slowly Erasing Shadows of Artists' Colony, Record, June 19, 2000, pp. L1 L6; William H. Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in toothpaste uk New Jersey (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1964), pp. 215-219; Lucy D. Rosenfeld, 3 Towns Where Creative Minds Congregated, New York Times, December 22, 1996, p. 13. William H. Gerdts, Art across America: Two Centuries of Regional Painting, 1710-1920, vol. i (New York: Abbeville, 1990), pp. 258-261; Mel Most, A Time Long out of Mind: Ridgefield Art Colony in Retrospect, Record , January 21, 1975, pp.
A11, A13; Sheila Magee, Town's Past Art Thrived in shock in felony convictions Borough, Record , May 16, 1967, pp. C1 C3; and Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists, Bergen Bulletin, May 27, 1942, p. 14. See also Richard Burdi, An Art Colony and More, and Lila Locksley, A Bohemian Heaven on the Palisades, both unidentified newspaper clippings, Ridgefield Public Library Archives. 3. William Monaghan, Those Were The Days, My Friend, Those Were the Days, typescript, p. 1, Ridgefield Public Library Archives. 4. The author is grateful for information on the little-known Maxfield received from David Dearinger, chief curator, National Academy Design Museum, in an e-mail of ultra, August 24, 2001, containing the text for the entry on Edgar Allan Poe's The Black Maxfield that will appear in the Museum's collection catalogue, to be published in early 2003. See also Who Was Who in American Art, vol. 2 (Madison, Conn.: Soundview Press, 1999), p. Ultra. 2225. On Maxfield in Ridgefield, see Ridgefield Home of in the of the process,, Many Noted Authors and Artists and Most, Time Long out of Mind. Maxfield's home was acquired by the sculptor, architectural decorator, and interior designer Leif Neandross (as discussed later in this essay), who sold it to the current owner, Mike Merse (interview, May 1, 2001).
5. Lolita L. W. Flockhart, A Full Life: The Story of Van Dearing Perrine (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1939), pp. 77, 101. Flockhart's book provides the most complete account of the Country Sketch Club (pp. 76-88, 94-130, 147, For recent accounts, see Arleen Pancza, Van Dearing Perrine and the Country Sketch Club, in Van Dearing Perrine: First Decade on the Palisades, 1902-1912 (New York: Graham Gallery, 1986), pp. 12-15, and ultra brite uk Gerdts, Art across America , pp. Pride. 258-260. 6. Flockhart, Full Life , p. Ultra Toothpaste Uk. 94. 7. Charlotte Leon Mayerson, ed., Shadow and Light: The Life, Friends, and and Psychological Opinions of Maurice Sterne (New York: Harcourt, Brace World, 1952), p. Uk. 38.
Sterne became best known for his figurative studies on the island of and Psychological, Bali from brite uk 1912 to 1915, which show the influence of the work of shock in felony, Gauguin and Cezanne. For Glackens's evidently brief experiences in Ridgefield, see Flockhart, Full Life , p. 137. 8. Ultra. Flockhart, Full Life , pp. 83, 87, 99, 114-123. See also Who Was Who in American Art , vol. 2, p. Probation In Felony Convictions. 2410, vol. 3, pp. 3499, 3507, 3645. 9. Flockhart, Full Life, p. 106.
10. Quoted in Pancza, Van Deering Perrine and the Country Sketch Club, p. 12. 11. Quoted in Flockhart, Full Life , p. 115. 12. The Country Sketch Club, Art Collector 9 (June 1, 1899), p. 230. 15. John I. H. Baur, Rediscovery: Van Dearing Perrine, Van Dearing Perrine: First Decade, p. Ultra Uk. 7. 16.
See Pancza, Van Dearing and the Country Sketch Club, pp. 13-14. Among those who exhibited in the 1901 show at the Art Institute of Chicago were Charles W. Hawthorne, Jonas Lie, Alfred H. Maurer, Ernest David Roth, Paul Goeble, Albert L. Groll, G. Glenn Newell, and Maurice Sterne. 17. See Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists, Bergen Bulletin , May 27, 1942, p. 14, and A History of the Boreough of Ridgefield , p. Shock Probation In Felony Convictions. . See also Who Was Who in American Art, vol.1, p. 586, vol. 2, pp. 2225, 2394, 2469, vol. Ultra Brite Uk. 3, pp. 2895, 3132.
18. Emma Goldman, Living My Life (New York: Dover, 1970), p. 471; Most, Time Long out of shock in felony convictions, Mind; Monaghan, Those Were the brite uk, Days, p. . 19. Gerdts, Painting and pride before the fall Sculpture in ultra brite New Jersey, p. 215; Orrick Johns, Time of Our Lives: The Story of My Father and Myself (New York: Stackpole Sons, 1937), p. Speech. 225. 20. Bernard Karfiol, Bernard Karfiol (New York: American Artists Group, 1945), p. .
23. On Halpert, see Diane Tepfer, Edith Gregor Halpert and The Downtown Gallery Downtown, 1926-1940: A Study in American Art Patronage, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1989, p. 25, and Diane Tepfer, Samuel Halpert: A Conservative Modernist, Federal Reserve System, Washington D.C., 1991, pp. 10, 17. I am grateful to Diane Tepfer for an advance copy of her publication Samuel Halpert 1884-1930 Art and Life (New York: Millennium Partners, 2001), p. 9. and plate 7, p. Ultra Brite Toothpaste Uk. 30 discussion of elizabeth tilbury speech, Interior with Man Ray, 1913-1915. In an e-mail of August 9, 2001, Tepfer stated that Halpert never mentioned Man Ray or Ridgefleld in his writings that are included in her publication (e.g., Halpert's autobiographical letter of toothpaste uk, November 14, 1915, to John Weichsel). On Halpert's influence in Ridgefleld, see Francis M. Naumann, Man Ray, 1908-1921: From an Art in paper Two Dimensions to ultra brite uk the Higher Dimension of Ideas, in Merry Foresta et al., Perpetual Motif The Art of Cyberbullying, Man Ray (New York: Abbeville, 1988), pp. 55-56.
24. Alfred Kreymborg, Troubadour: An American Autobiography (New York: Sagamore Press, 1957), p. 200. 26. See Francis M. Ultra Brite Toothpaste Uk. Naumann and Paul Avrich, Adolf Wolff, 'Poet, Sculptor, and Revolutionist, but Mostly Revolutionist,' Art Bulletin 67 (September 1985), pp. 486-500, and Francis M. Naumann, Man Ray and America: The New York and Ridgefleld Years, 1907-1921, Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 1988, op cit, pp. Research Paper. 6,8, 17-19. 27. On The Glebe , see Kreymborg, Troubadour , pp. 151-158, and Neil Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist (New York: Da Capo Press, 1988), pp.
32-35. See also Naumann, Man Ray and America, pp. 5-6. 28. Toothpaste. See Naumann, Man Ray and America, pp. 10-16, and Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist , pp. 39-40. 29.
Alfred Kreymborg, Man Ray and Adon La Croix, Economists, Morning Telegraph , March 14, 1915. 30. SP , 2d ed., pp. 43-44, Johns, Time of Our Lives , p. 225, and Naumann, Man Ray and America, pp. Elizabeth. 10-11.
31. Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist , p. 33; and Man Ray, SP , 2d ed., p. 40. 32. SP, 2d ed., p. 50 and ultra brite uk pp. 45, 47-49, 52-53, 55, 56, 69. 33. Johns, Time of Essay, Our Lives , p. 224. 34. SP, 2d ed., pp.
48, Robert Canton Brown, Let There Be Beer (New York: Harrison, Smith Robert Haas, 1932), pp. Ultra Toothpaste. 189, 195ff. See also William Carlos Williams, The Autobiography of William Carlos Williams (New York: New Directions, 1948), pp. 137-138. 35. Baldwin, Man Ray: American Artist, p. 44. 36.
Kreymborg, Troubador , p. 243. See also Man Ray, SP , 2d ed., p. The Fall. 40, and Neil Baldwin, To All Gentleness: William Carlos Williams, the Doctor Poet (New York: Atheneum, 1984), pp. 78-80. 37. Williams, Autobiography of William Carlos Williams , p. Brite. 135. 39. Naumann, Man Ray and America, pp. 19-20. 40. A. Walton Litz and Christopher MacGowan, eds., The Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams , vol. I 1909-1939 (New York: New Directions, 1986), pp.
102-103. 42. Of The. See Ridgefield Home of Many Noted Authors and Artists; Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in ultra brite uk New Jersey , p. 218; Most, Time Long out of Mind; Monaghan, Those Were the Days, p. ; and Burdi, 'An Art Colony and More, p. Homelessness Research. 15. 43. David S. Heeren, Ridgefleld Art Colony Recalled In Octogenarian's Reminiscences, and Bill Dalton, Painter Rich in Memories: Art Was His Life Style, unidentified clippings, Ridgefield Public Library Archives. 44. Burdi, 'An Art Colony and More, p. 15 Edward Tuite, Octogenarian Artist Enjoys Talking: Tisch, 89, Recalls Ridgefield 'Colony' on the Hill, Hudson Dispatch , November 17, 1970, p. 2; Monaghan, Those Were the Days, p. 3, also mentions Carol Ruggles, a composer, on p. 7; and Heeren, Ridgefield Art Colony Recalled, also mentions Anton Rovinsky, pianist, as a resident. 45. Most, Time Long out of Mind, and Personality Profile - Leif Neandross, Society News 16 (New York: General Society of toothpaste uk, Mechanics and Tradesmen of the Poe's The Black, City of New York), January I, 1975, pp.
4-7. 46. Ultra Brite. Gerdts, Painting and Sculpture in New Jersey , p. 218, and Who Was Who in American Art, vol. 1, pp. Paper. 979, 1086. 47. David S. Heeren, Ridgefield Art Colony Recalled In Octogenarian's Reminiscences. See also Lucy D. Rosenfeld, 3 Towns Where Creative Minds Congregated, p. 13, and John Mann: The Weehawken Sequence (Jersey City: Jersey City Museum, 1985), essay by Robert Ferguson. 48.
Sampson, Redevelopment Slowly Erasing Shadows of Artists' Colony. Editor's Note: Please see other published articles and essays concerning Man Ray (Emmanuel Radnitzky) in this magazine: Read more articles and ultra toothpaste essays concerning this institutional source by Cyberbullying visiting the sub-index page for the Montclair Art Museum in Resource Library Magazine. Search for brite more articles and tilbury essays on American art in Resource Library . See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on historic artists. This page was originally published in 2003 in Resource Library Magazine . Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information.
Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.
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Saturn Essay Research Paper Saturn is the. Saturn A New Kind Of Car Essay 3 . Tqm Relating To Saturn Of Japan Essay 6 . Three Kings Day Essay Research Paper 4 . Baseball Essay Research Paper AllStar Baseball 2002It 15 . Pluto Essay Research Paper Pluto repeats 1 . Jovian Planets Essay Research Paper The Jovian 17 . The Jovian Planets Essay Research Paper The 17 . Saturn Essay, Research Paper. Saturn is the outermost planet of the planets known in ancient times. Ultra Uk. The earliest known observations of Saturn, by the Babylonians, can be reliably dated to the mid-7th century BC, but it was probably noticed much earlier, since Saturn tends to shock in felony convictions shine brighter than most stars. To the naked eye it appears yellowish. The Greeks named it after Cronus, the original ruler of Olympus, who in Roman is the ultra brite uk, god Saturn. Saturn is the 6th planet in order distance from the sun. It cannot approach the planet Earth closer than 1,190,000,000 kilometers. Cyberbullying Mistreatment Essay. Its brightness is due to its large size. Saturn’s equatorial diameter is 120,660 kilometers, but its globe is kind of flattened, and the polar diameter is only 108,000 kilometers.
The mass of Saturn is 95.17 times that of the Earth, and the escape velocity, which is the velocity which once attained it will enable the brite, object to “coast” away from the pride cometh the fall, planet, is ultra, 32.26 kilometers per second, more than three times that of the Earth. Saturn’s outer layers are made up of homelessness research paper, gas, it is a world quite unlike our own. Saturn’s ring system is in a class of brite toothpaste uk, its own. While Jupiter and Uranus also have rings, those of Saturn are striking, and first of the process, a telescope of moderate power will show them excellently. There can be no doubt that Saturn is one of the most beautiful objects in the sky. The first telescopic observations of Saturn have been made by Galileo in July 1610. He saw the disk of the planet clearly, but his telescope gave only a magnification of 32 diameters and that was not good enough to show the ultra toothpaste, ring system in the way we know it nowadays. Galileo thought that Saturn must be a triple planet and wrote that “Saturn is not one alone, but is composed of three, which almost touch one another.” Two years later, he found to his surprise that the “companions” had vanished, so that Saturn appeared as a single object. The ring system was then edge-on to the Earth, and shock in felony this is why it could not be seen in ultra brite toothpaste Galileo’s telescope. The original aspect was seen again in the years following 1613, but Galileo was never able to interpret it correctly. Various strange theories were proposed to explain the planet’s unusual form.
Hevelius of Danzig, for example, believed Saturn to be elliptical in shape, with two “appendages” attached to the surface. The problem was solved by a Dutch astronomer, Christian Huygens, who began his observations in 1655. The telescopes that he used were much more powerful than Galileo’s, and gave a sharper defintion, so in step the sender a short time he concluded that “ Saturn is surrounded by a thin, flat ring which nowhere touches the body of the planet.” His theory was not widely excepted, but by 1665 it had been universally accepted, even though the nature of the ring system was not established until much later. Toothpaste Uk. Data for Saturn are given in table one on the next page. Table 1: Planetary Data For Saturn. Distance from the Sun Mean 9.54 a.u. (1,472,000,000 km) Maximum 10.07 a.u. Sidereal period of revolution 10,759.20 days, or 29.26 years. Mean synodic period 378.1 days.
Rotation period(means) 10 hours 39 minutes 24 seconds. Mean orbital velocity 9.6 km/sec. Axial inclination 26 44’ Orbital inclination to elizabeth tilbury speech the elliptic 2 29’22” Orbital eccentricity 0.056. (polar) 120,660 km. Apparent diameter seen from Earth Maximum 21” Mass (Earth=1) 95.17. Volume (Earth=1) 744. Density (water=1) 0.7. Among planetary orbits, that of brite toothpaste, Saturn is of fairly low eccentricity (0.056), though the difference in distance between perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) and aphelion (farthest retreat from the Sun) amounts to speech 160,000,000 kilometers.
Because Saturn is so far from the ultra brite toothpaste uk, Sun and the Earth Saturn always appears to be full, or nearly so, in the sense of the full moon. The mean synodic period, the interval between successive oppositions, when the Earth passes approximately between Saturn and the Sun, is 378.1 days, so that Saturn is well placed for observation during several months in each year. Homelessness Paper. Opposition dates up to ultra brite toothpaste uk 1990 are April 8, 1982; April 21, 1983; May 3, 1984; May 15, 1985; May 27, 1986; June 9, 1987; June 20, 1988; July 2, 1989; and July 14, 1990. Like all the superior planets, that is all outwards from the Earth, Saturn moves for the greater part of each year eastward. Its average rate is speech, about 1 in toothpaste eight days. Homelessness. As it approaches opposition its motion seems to slow down and to stop all together for about 70 days before the toothpaste uk, opposition date. For a period that may be as little as 133 days or as great as 141 days, it then seems to move in a retrograde, or westward, direction before reaching another stationary point and resuming its eastward movement.
This behavior does not indicate any real alteration in motion. The apparent regression is due to the fact that the Earth moving in a much smaller orbit at a greater velocity, is catching up with Saturn and passing it. Saturn’s color is yellowish, darker belts parallel with its equator are always seen. These belts are not nearly as attracting as those on Jupiter, nor do they show so much detail. Saturn’s greater distance and smaller size make it less easy to in the step the sender study than Jupiter, the beauty of ultra toothpaste uk, Saturn’s rings system tends to homelessness paper divert attention from its disk, particularly when the brite toothpaste, rings are wide open, thereby hiding a considerable part of the globe. Saturn’s albedo, which is the proportion of incident light it reflects, is Mistreatment Essay, 0.61.
The planet’s apparent magnitude, which is its brightness as it appears from Earth, depends largely upon the angle at which the ring system is displayed, largely because the rings are more reflective than the disk. When the rings are wide open, the ultra brite toothpaste, magnitude attains -0.3, so that, of Mistreatment, stars, only Sirius and Canopus appear brighter than Saturn. At oppositions when the rings are edge-on, as in 1980, the magnitude is brite uk, as low as +0.08, though even at these times Saturn is still prominent. The equatorial zone appears creamy, sometimes almost white. The polar regions are almost always less brilliant. The belts, unlike those of Jupiter, do not show obvious colors. Well-defined spots on Saturn are rare.
The most prominent example sighted during the present century was that discovered on August 3, 1933, by the English amateur W.T. Hay, using a six-inch refractor. The spot took the form of a large white oval patch in the equatorial zone, about one-fifth of the planet’s diameter in length, and with both ends well defined. Shock Convictions. During the next few weeks it lengthened rapidly, until by mid-September it had spread out so much that it could no longer be called a spot. Pioneer 11 was the brite toothpaste uk, first unmanned space probe to meet with Saturn in in felony September 1979. It had already passed by Jupiter, which had been its main objective, but valuable information about ultra uk, Saturn was obtained. Homelessness Paper. The second space probe was Voyager 1, which made its closest approach on November 12, 1980, wen it passed only 124,200 kilometers above Saturn’s clouds. Its twin Voyager 2, was scheduled to make its meeting with Saturn in August 1981. Detailed views and a great amount of new information were obtained by Voyager 1. Though Saturn’s disk is blander than that of Jupiter because of a greater amount of overlying “haze,” much detail was shown. Ultra Brite Toothpaste Uk. A red spot was detected in the southern hemisphere, with brownish ovals in the northern hemisphere. Measurements of the locations of individual features at different times yielded data concerning the speed of the winds, and homelessness research it seems that Saturn’s circulation is different from that of Jupiter.
The maximum westward velocities of Saturn occur near the centers of dark regions. Toothpaste Uk. In the polar latitudes, the large-scale light and dark bands break down into small-scale features, giving the impression of waves and eddies. The wind velocity at the cloud tops seems to be about 1,400 kilometers per hour, or twice that of homelessness, Jupiter. According to ultra brite toothpaste a recent theory, Saturn has an in the step process, the sender, iron and rock core that extends out ultra brite, 13,000 to 14,000 kilometers from its center and is so compressed that it contains 15 to 20 times the mass of the Earth. Surrounding the core is a layer of electrically conductive metallic hydrogen in liquid form, outside of which is an in the first step of the process, the sender, envelope of ultra brite toothpaste, hydrogen and helium. There is Edgar Allan Poe's Essay, a magnetic field 1,000 times stronger than that of the Earth, though far weaker than that of Jupiter. The magnetic axis is almost coincident with the axis of rotation, and brite toothpaste uk the magnetosphere extends out beyond the orbit of the Allan The Black Cat, largest satellite, Titan. Ultra Toothpaste Uk. There are fairly strong radiation belts, but these, again, are much weaker than those of Jupiter. The temperature at the cloud tops of elizabeth speech, Saturn is approximately –180 C. A theory that the planet might be self-luminous has been disproved. Saturn, like Jupiter, releases about twice the amount of energy it receives from the Sun, indicating the existence of an internal source of heat.
While Jupiter emits energy from the brite, gravitational contraction that occurred when the planet was formed about 4,600,000,000 years ago, it is in the communication process,, unlikely that the heat source of uk, Saturn is similar. Saturn is smaller and less massive and has a lower overall density, therefore, any heat remaining from the gravitational contraction of Saturn would have been dissipated long ago. Instead, the heat source of Saturn may result from the separation of hydrogen and helium in the fall the planet’s outer layers, with the ultra, heavier helium sinking through the liquid hydrogen middle layer. The rings of Saturn are much more prominent than those of in the first the sender, Jupiter or Uranus, and they are different in nature. Saturn’s rings are made up of icy or ice-covered particles. Ultra Toothpaste. Each ring moving around Saturn moves in its own independent orbit. Elizabeth Speech. The ring plane remains in an almost fixed position with reference to ultra brite uk the stars, but as seen from the Earth and homelessness paper Sun the tilt of the brite uk, rings are continually changing. Twice in each Saturnian revolution the plane of the rings passes through the Sun. A few months before and after each such occasion, the ring plane passes through the Earth, which is near the sun as viewed from Saturn. Two of the three main rings, termed A (outer) and shock probation in felony convictions B, are bright.
In 1675 G.D. Cassini, at the Paris Observatory, discovered the gap between them, known as Cassini’s Division. The “ring” seen by Huygens was a combination of the two, and his telescope was not good enough to show the ultra, division. Ring B is elizabeth, much brighter of the two. In 1837 J.F. Encke, at Berlin, discovered a less prominent division in Ring A, known as Encke’s Division.
In 1850 a dusky inner ring, ring C, was discovered by W.C. Bond and G.P. Brite. Bond. This is shock probation in felony convictions, known as the Cr?pe Ring. The outer diameter of Ring A is 272,300 kilometers, the inner diameter 239,600 kilometers.
For ring B, the brite, outer and inner diameters are 234,200 kilometers and 181.1000 kilometers. Of The Process,. The inner diameter of ring C is 149,300 kilometers, so that it extends 17,000 kilometers above the ultra uk, cloud tops. New rings have been discovered since then. A dusky ring, closer in than ring C was reported by step communication, telescopic observers. Voyager 1 results indicate that a ring, designated ring D, does not exist there. Outside ring A is the clumpy and braided Ring F. Brite Toothpaste Uk. Rings E and Allan The Black Cat G were also shown on ultra brite toothpaste uk, Voyager 1 images. Voyager 1 showed that the research, rings are much more complex than had been thought. Each contains hundreds of components, and there are several distinct narrow rings inside the Cassini Division. It was once thought that the main divisions in the ring system were due to the cumulative perturbation effects of Saturn’s satellites, but this explanation is clearly inadequate, and other forces must be involved. Saturn has 15 known satellites, details of which are given in table 2 . Brite Uk. An additional satellite named Thames, was reported by W.H.
Pickering in the early 20th century, but it has not been recovered and probably does not exist. In 1966 A. Dollfus announced the Poe's Essay, discovery of an inner satellite, named Janus, moving at 169,000 kilometers from Saturn in a period of 0.815 day. The Voyager probe showed that there is no satellite moving in this orbit, and the name Janus has been dropped. Ultra Brite Toothpaste. It is probable that Dollfus’s observations actually related to some of the small inner satellites discovered by pride, the Pioneer 11 and Voyager probes. The unnamed satellites S.14 and S.13 move in toothpaste uk orbits close to the inner and outer edges of Ring F and probably keep this ring stable. S.10 and S.11 move in the same orbit, and must periodically approach each other closely, though clearly they do not collide. S.12 moves in in the step of the communication the sender the same orbit as Dione.
Phoebe, the ultra, outermost satellite, was not within the elizabeth tilbury speech, range of Voyager 1 probe, and little is known about it. It may be a captured asteroid. Iapetus is brite toothpaste uk, unique in having one hemisphere of high albedo and and Psychological Mistreatment Essay the other of low albedo, this explains why when Saturn is observed from Earth the west side appears much more brighter than the east side. As with all the ultra brite toothpaste uk, other satellites, Iapetus has a captured rotation, that is its axial rotation period is equal to of the communication process, the sender the time taken to complete one orbit. Table 2, Satellites of Saturn. Satellite Distance from center of Saturn (km) Period. (days) Orbital eccentricity Orbital inclination.
S.15 138,200 0.60 ? ? 80. S.14 138,600 0.613 ? ? 500. S.13 141,000 0.629 0.007 ? 600. S.10 149,400 0.695 0.013 ? 700. S.11 149,400 0.695 0.013 ? 135?70. Mimas 185.400 0.942 0.020 1.5 350. Enceladus 238,200 1.370 0.004 0.0 520. Tethys 294,600 1.888 0.000 1.1 1,020. Dione 377,400 2.737 0.002 0.0 1,120.
S.12 377,400 2.737 0.0? 0.5? 80. Rhea 526,800 4.518 0.001 0.4 1,530. Titan 1,200,000 15.95 0.029 0.3 5,100. Hyperion 1,482,000 21.28 0.104 0.4 440. Iapetus 3,558,000 79.33 0.028 14.7 1,440. Phoebe * 12,960,000 550.4 0.163 150 80.
* Phoebe moves around Saturn in a retrograde direction. Rhea, Dione, Tethys, and Mimas have icy, cratered surfaces. One huge crater on Mimas has more than one-third the diameter of the satellite itself, so that, if the crater were formed by impact, it seems that Mimas would have been in danger of breaking up. Enceladus was not well shown from Voyager 1, but it may be comparatively smooth. Titan, by far the largest of Saturn’s satellites, is in a class of its own because of its dense atmosphere. Data obtained from ultra uk, Voyager 1 indicate that the atmospheric pressure at Titan’s surface is 1.5 to two times that of the Earth at sea level.
The actual surface of the satellite has an orange-colored layer of before the fall, what may be called “photochemical smog.” Titan’s atmosphere is made up almost entirely of nitrogen with little amounts of methane and cyanide. Brite Toothpaste. It is possible that the intensely cold surface is covered, at least in part, by oceans of liquid nitrogen.
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Essay: A Review of momentum trading strategy after Global Financial Crisis. Unlike normal portfolio managers who perform various analysis on the fundamental performance of equity stocks, a momentum portfolio is only concerned with the patterns of the stocks. The portfolio will then take a long or short position on the stock in order to ultra toothpaste arbitrage from the continuation of its upward or downward movement, which is so called momentum. Inspired by Jegadeesh and Titman (2011), I focus the attention on the post-crisis performance of shock convictions momentum trading strategy with the special focus on the negative return on the year 2009. A sample of 1294 firms from brite uk NYSE from July 2009 to June 2015 is homelessness investigated and brite the result from the regression shows that the return of the momentum strategy has been disappeared in the US. Based on the research, the adjusted returns, based on the Fama-French factor model, of all the winner and Edgar Allan The Black loser portfolios are not significantly different from zero. The regression result indicates that the disappearance of abnormal return discovered in Jegadeesh and Titman (1993). Therefore, this paper employs behavior model and attributes the ultra brite uk, return to the market over or under reaction to information. This conclusion may also provide support for testing the efficient market hypothesis, to cometh which the momentum effect is strongly against.
Chapter 1 Introduction. Since 1960s, efficient market hypothesis has been widely accepted by the financial market. Ultra Brite Toothpaste! Traditional finance theory proposed by Fama and French declares that there is a tradeoff between risk and and Psychological Mistreatment return, and no one can consistently achieve higher profit without taking additional risk. Later, the arbitrage pricing theory put out by Stephen Ross provided further explanation for ultra toothpaste the price movement under the cometh the fall, efficient market situation. However, these papers do not prevent the passion of greedy individuals from ultra brite toothpaste exploiting zero risk profit. Researchers and investors have consistently found problems with the efficient-market hypothesis and APT, the most prominent one is the momentum anomaly discovered by Jegadeesh and research paper Titman. The momentum strategy is based on the phenomenon that the ultra toothpaste uk, best (worst) performed stocks during the past several months tend to continue to pride the fall perform good (bad) over the following months. Ultra! According to Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) this strategy could consistently generate an abnormal return of about 1% per Cyberbullying and Psychological Mistreatment Essay, month for the U.S. market over the period 1965-1989. In the toothpaste uk, following paper Jegadeesh and Titman (2011) shows that momentum strategies still persist to be profitable until 1990s and there are more empirical evidences across countries to support it. Moreover, it also extended its research until 2004 and successfully got a consistent result. However, the strategies experienced the first loss for the five year period from cometh 2004.
Another five years has now passed since that paper and the financial market has survived and is recovering from the financial crisis. It is interesting for the researcher to know how the momentum strategy performed after the financial crisis and what is the brite uk, reason behind the dramatic change in the momentum profit. So my research question is: What is the performance of momentum portfolio after the global financial crisis? In particular, this article will focus on the momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of elizabeth tilbury speech also six months. Using the same lengths of ranking and toothpaste holding periods as Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), we are in an attempt to compare with their result to see whether the elizabeth, successful performance of the momentum strategy still persists. In our follow-up study, the research will also be conducted on the performance of the momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of three months to see whether the result is consistent.
To illustrate our process in a nutshell, the sample consists of all the 1991 stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange that have a continuous price record from uk June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. From this sample small size firms and low priced stocks are then excluded to avoid liquidity issues. The remaining 1315 firms are used to form winners/losers portfolios at the end of each ranking period based on their past six-month returns. These portfolios are then held for the next six months. Monthly roll over strategy is applied, which means, for and Psychological Mistreatment Essay every consecutive twelve months in our sample period starting from July 2009 to May 2013, there is a ranking and holding period formed. The winners/losers momentum return for a particular month is the average of returns of all the winners/losers portfolios held at that month.
The calculated monthly winners/losers momentum return time series are then used to test for the risk adjusted returns using the CAPM/ the ultra, Fama-French three-factor model. Besides these, the average book to pride before market value and the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio and the average monthly return of toothpaste each momentum portfolio are also reported to assist in interpreting the result. The remainder of this paper is paper constructed as follows: Chapter 2 provides a brief background of momentum studies. Chapter 3 details our data processing and brite uk methodology. Chapter 4 demonstrates the results and analyses, and Chapter 5 concludes the paper. Chapter 2 Literature review and prior empirical evidence. 2.1 What is momentum trading strategy. The phenomenon that the best- and of the communication worst-performing stocks of the ultra brite toothpaste, past three to twelve months continue to before realize, respectively, high and low returns over the next three to twelve months, is called price momentum (Nico L. Toothpaste Uk! van der Sar, Stock pricing and Corporate Events, 2nd edition 2011). In The Of The Communication The Sender! The theoretically best trading strategy based on this phenomenon which basically takes a long position in the past winners while going short in ultra toothpaste uk the past losers is first step of the communication process, called the momentum trading strategy.
This strategy consists of two time periods. Period A is the ranking period where stocks are ranked based on their past returns, while period C is the holding period for when the brite toothpaste, portfolios of the selected stocks are held. Sometimes there is also a period B called the skipping period added in between A and C to aid the performance of this strategy. However, this paper does not include this period, as Jegadeesh and Titman (2001) did. Investors following this strategy can construct different portfolios by choosing different ranking and holding periods ranging from 3, 6 to 12 months. Edgar Poe's The Black Cat Essay! The great profit they achieved through applying this strategy on the earlier found price momentums raises the question of whether this phenomenon shall persist, or whether it is ultra brite uk just a compensation for risk. 2.2 Theories behind the momentum profit. In explaining the source of the momentum profit, traditional finance theory and the behavioral finance field deviate much.
In traditional finance theory, the market is homelessness paper considered to be overall efficient. An informational efficient market in finance refers to a market where prices completely reflect all relevant available information at any given moment (Fama, 1970). For this informational efficiency, Fama (1970) distinguishes three forms, each of these forms being related to a specific collection of information, one containing more than the other. The weak form which lies at the very bottom of uk this efficient market hypothesis holds when prices fully reflect all currently available security market data. According to this, future price movements are completely independent from the past price patterns. Strategies like momentum trading are thus in vain.
The risk adjusted abnormal returns achieved by Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) are therefore considered to be an anomaly which attempts to homelessness reject the EMH. However, due to the joint hypothesis problem, one can never reject the EMH since there is toothpaste always a voice judging that the risk factor model may be not perfect. Conrad and Kaul (1998) thus argued that the momentum profits could be entirely explained due to homelessness research paper the cross-sectional variation in mean returns rather than any predictable time-series variation in stock returns. Traditional finance theory has struggled for years to try to explain this anomaly. Fama and French (1996) addressed the price momentum phenomenon as the major embarrassment of their model to which further robustness tests on other recent data sets would be appropriate. Grundy and Martin (2001) demonstrated that the high momentum profit could also not be explained by toothpaste uk, the Fama-French three-factor model even the in the process, the sender, dynamics of the factor betas were taken into account. Where traditional finance has failed, behavioral finance has offered numerous explanations for price momentum. These explanations can be summarized as medium-term over- and/or under- reactions as a result of investors’ misperception of information or cognitive biases.
Various theoretical models were built to explain these inefficiencies. Brite Toothpaste Uk! Among them are the model built by Daniel, Hirshleifer and Subrahmanyam (1998) based on investor overconfidence and self-attribution, the model developed by Barberis, Shleifer and Vishny (1998) which has one security assumed to follow random walk and one investor who believes in either of two incorrect regimes, and the model developed by Hong and Stein (1999) which separates the population into two groups -‘the news watchers’ and ‘momentum traders’-and let information diffuse gradually among them. 2.3 Prior empirical evidence. Besides theoretical models built to illustrate the momentum profit, empirical evidence was documented to demonstrate the strength of its existence and the performance of momentum strategies. De long, Shleifer, Summers and Waldmann (1990) showed a strong evidence of positive feedback trading in the majority of 32 merging and mature stock index futures markets. Rouwenhorst (1998) demonstrated the existence of a high risk adjusted momentum profit of more than 1% per month in twelve European countries from 1980 to 1995.
De Haas (1999) examined the price momentum effect for all stocks in the Netherlands from elizabeth speech 1976 to 1998 and also achieved a significant abnormal return of over 1% per month. The results were also positive though low for emerging Asian markets documented by brite toothpaste uk, Chui, Titman and Wei (2000). Studies showed a disappearance of momentum profit has also brought our attention. Muga and Santamaria (2007) in examining the Cyberbullying Essay, momentum effect in the Spanish stock market during the 1990s showed that the brite, evidence of momentum disappeared after the 1997 crisis. Grinblatt and Titman (1989) and Grinblatt, Titman and Wermers (1995) showed that a large number of successful mutual funds appeared to have a preference for stocks of past winners. A question arises of whether the intense institutional trading recent years has eroded the momentum effect to its disappearance. Chapter 3 Data and in the of the process, the sender Methodology. 3.1 Data overview.
The data used in this paper comes from the toothpaste, Datastream database[TBD]. It contains all the 1991 equity securities listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange from June 30th 2009 to research paper May 31st 2013. Ultra Brite Toothpaste Uk! These 1991 firms do not include those that went public or got delisted during this period. Thus all the firms included have a continuous monthly price record for the whole period. The number of firms that went public during this period is 329 within which there is no firm that also got delisted during this period. And Psychological! Unfortunately, we do not have the number of firms that had survived till June 30th 2009 but got delisted during the following 4 years of sample period. Further research will be conducted on this. But we do not expect this number to be large and hope the total number of firms excluded will not count above 20 percent of the whole sample.
Also, firms tend to face a decline in toothpaste their market value before delisted. They are likely to fall into the ‘small stock’ category we later define which anyway will be excluded from the dataset in ex-post sample selection. Therefore, we believe the exclusion of these firms will not make our results biased because of either survivorship bias or cross-sectional data mining. The monthly price data we use for shock probation convictions these 1991 firms is the brite uk, adjusted closing price at the end of each month starting from probation June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Ultra Uk! The adjusted price is defined as the closing price which has been historically adjusted for bonus and rights issues. The data also contains the daily market value and the daily price to book value of tilbury speech each firm during the ultra toothpaste, period. The market value is defined as the homelessness paper, share price multiplied by the number of ordinary shares in issue.
We also have the daily ‘market value corporation’ data available for brite each firm which also takes into account the in the step the sender, market values of other listed and unlisted equities. But we find this two does not make any significant difference for us to define small stocks. Brite! Thus only the market value is used. The price to shock probation in felony book value is defined as the share price divided by the book value per share. 3.2 Sample selection and descriptive statistics.
Small firms and brite toothpaste uk low priced stocks are excluded from our sample to ensure that our results are not driven primarily by small and illiquid stocks or by bid-ask bounce pointed out by Conrad and Kaul (1993) to De Bondt and Thaler (1985). To achieve this, we define the market capitalization of each firm as the shock probation in felony convictions, three-year average of their daily market value from January 1st 2010 to toothpaste May 31st 2013. For the probation, 1991 firms in total, we first rank them according to this average and ultra brite uk exclude those that belong to the bottom decile. 200 firms are in this case excluded from the sample and the remaining 1791 firms have their market capitalization from $28.9 million to in the step of the communication process, the highest $377 billion. Uk! We then count the number of times for communication process, the sender each of the remaining firms to be priced below $5 per share at the ends of the total 36 ranking periods from December 31st 2009 to November 30th 2012.
The length we use for a ranking period is six months. Thus the first ranking period is from July 1st 2009 till December 31st 2009 while the last is from June 1st 2012 till November 30th 2012 after 35 monthly roll-overs. Those firms that are priced below $5 per share for above 10 times at the ends of the 36 ranking periods (i.e. the holding periods’ beginnings) are excluded from the sample. These are what we define as low priced firms. 476 firms are in this case excluded, and the remaining 1315 are those finally used to form portfolios. The descriptive statistics of the market capitalization, the three-year average of daily price to book value and the average monthly return of ultra brite toothpaste these 1315 firms can be found in Appendix Table 1. Due to data limitations there are 30 firms that do not have their daily price to and Psychological book value available. [TBD] By using the monthly adjusted closing prices, first the monthly returns for each firm from July 2009 to May 2013 are calculated. Toothpaste! Then the cometh the fall, compounded returns of every six consecutive months for each firm are calculated, starting from July 1st’December 31st 2009 to June 1st-November 31st 2012. These are the 36 ranking periods discussed in the previous section. Following Jegadeesh and Titman (1993), at the end of each ranking period we rank the 1315 stocks in our sample based on their past six-month compounded returns and then group them into 5 equally weighted portfolios based on ultra brite these ranks. Each portfolio consists of 263 firms and homelessness research paper is held for the next six months.
Ranking Period Holding Period. ( Month -5 to Month 0 ) ( Month 1 to Month 6 ) Portfolio I always contains stocks ranked from ultra brite toothpaste 1-263 which are those stocks that perform worst in the ranking period. Portfolio II always contains stocks ranked from in the step the sender 264 to 789, and so on. It is the Portfolio V that holds the past winners. Each portfolio in our holding period is ultra toothpaste rebalanced monthly for simplicity. Since each portfolio is only held for shock probation in felony convictions six months every time, we believe our monthly returns for each portfolio will not deviate much from those if not rebalanced. To increase the power of our tests, we also construct overlapping portfolios as Jegadeesh and ultra toothpaste uk Titman (1993) did: In this case, a momentum quintile portfolio in any particular month holds stocks ranked in cometh that quintile in any of the previous six ranking months.
For instance, a December winner portfolio comprises twenty percent of the stocks with the highest returns over the previous June to November period, the previous May to October, and so on up to the previous January to June period. Ultra Brite Toothpaste Uk! Each monthly cohort is assigned an equal weight in this portfolio. To put in another way, for every month (except the beginning five and the ending five months) we now have six Portfolio I s, six Portfolio II s and homelessness research paper so on, and the return of the winner/loser portfolio (denoted as Portfolio 5/Portfolio1) in that month is the average of the returns of the six Portfolio Vs/Portfolio Is.TBD. Chapter 4 Results and Analyses. 4.1 Average monthly returns.
Appendix Table 2 presents the ultra brite, average monthly return from Jan 2010 to tilbury speech May 2013 for each of the five momentum portfolios. The sample is the 1315 stocks we selected. EWI is the average monthly return for an equally weighted portfolio that contains every stock in our sample, also rebalanced monthly. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, while P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the ultra brite uk, next lowest past six-month returns, and so on. Compared with Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), the monotonic increasing pattern of returns over portfolio ranks observed in their result now disappears. Instead, our result reveals a symmetric U shape of returns over ranks. It is the winners and the losers portfolios (P5 and P1) that achieve the highest average monthly returns.
It is the most modest portfolio P3 that achieves the lowest average monthly return. Homelessness Research Paper! Somewhat ironic is that the losers portfolio even outperforms the winners. However, these differences are all not statistically significant. The difference between the P5 and P1 portfolio returns is -0.037% and the t statistic is only -0.1068. Brite! This is in contrast to the 1.17% difference and 4.96 t statistic found in Jegadeesh and communication the sender Titman (1993). We also take the difference between the P1 and P3 portfolio returns and find their t statistic is also smaller than 1. [ Insert Appendix Table 2 ] To see whether our result of the losers portfolio P1 outperforming the winners portfolio P5 on the average case is due to a potential outlier effect of one specific month, the monthly returns of the two portfolios from January 2010 to May 2013 are presented in Appendix Figure 1. Indeed there is one month (January 2012) in which the losers portfolio P1 significantly outperforms the winners portfolio P5. However, from the figure there is no evidence suggesting for the most part P5 outperforms P1 in the other months.
After we exclude the January 2012 returns, very slightly P1 still outperforms P5 indicating the ultra, momentum effect is now gone. [ Insert Appendix Figure 1 ] 4.2 Average price to book values and Average market capitalizations. Appendix Table 3 reports the average price to book value of first step of the process, firms under each portfolio. The price to book value of a firm under this case is defined as the three-year average of its daily price to book value. We also have transformed the ultra brite uk, price to book value to the book-to-market ratio and report under Table 3. [ Insert Appendix Table 3 ] There is a roughly increasing pattern of the shock in felony, book-to-market ratio from P5 to toothpaste P1 indicating that the past winners portfolio P5 is to a large extent constructed by homelessness research, those glamour stocks named by ultra uk, Lakonishok, Shleifer and Vishny (1994), while the losers portfolio tends to contain the value stocks. The pattern is not very robust and the book-to-market ratios are actually very close to each other. The Fall! This may be because that we have only divided the sample into five quintiles, and ultra toothpaste what most crucial is paper that we have used the three-year average (which does not vary with time) to define a firm’s book-to-market ratio under each holding period which varies with time and with the firm’s position changes within the five quintiles. Table 3 also reports the average market capitalization of brite firms under each momentum portfolio. There is also an increasing pattern from P1 to P5 indicating that the past losers portfolio is to Poe's Cat Essay a large extent constructed by those stocks of small size firms while the past winners tends to contain big firms. Ultra Uk! Similar to research the price to book value, here the brite toothpaste, market capitalization suffers from the elizabeth tilbury speech, problem of using the three year average of market value to define a firm’s market capitalization under each holding period. The results above suggest that the ultra toothpaste uk, highest average monthly return of P1 seems to tilbury be partly due to its smaller market capitalization and higher book-to-market ratio.
This is consistent with the Fama-French three-factor model (Fama and French, 1993) as small size firms and firms with higher book-to-market ratios tend to have higher risk factor coefficients. However, this reasoning cannot explain our observed high average monthly return of the past winners P5. This may be due to the problem we discussed before that makes our average book to market ratio and average market capitalization indications not timely precise to each holding period. Also we have not considered the toothpaste, sensitivity of each portfolio to the market risk factor and its magnitude which explains the tilbury, risk adjusted return in part as well. In order to look further on this, in the next section we test for brite toothpaste uk the risk adjusted abnormal return using the three factor model and check the factor coefficients patterns among the five portfolios.
4.3 The risk adjusted abnormal returns. Though the winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 on Cyberbullying average outperform P2 P3 and P4, we have to ultra toothpaste check whether this outperformance is attributed to risk. Appendix Table 4 Panel A summarizes the probation in felony convictions, factor sensitivities of each portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model with their t statistics reported in parentheses. The market sensitivity to the CAPM model is estimated by regressing the monthly return of each momentum portfolio less the risk-free rate (except for the zero investment P1-P3 and P5-P1 portfolios) on toothpaste the monthly return of the NASDAQ composite index less the risk-free rate, while the in the step of the process, the sender, factor sensitivities to the Fama-French three-factor model is estimated by regressing on the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors. FF: R-R_f=i??i??(R_m-R_f )+ b_s (SMB)+b_v (HML)+i??i?? The risk-free rate used in both cases is the monthly interest rate on the Treasury bill. This data is from the Wharton Research Data Services. And the brite toothpaste uk, data for the monthly returns of the probation convictions, three Fama-French factors is from the Kenneth R. French Data Library. Due to data limitations the monthly interest rate only has an available record till December 2012. However, as a result of the Federal Reserve quantitative easing policy, the monthly interest rates during the whole sample period are very close to uk zero with the highest only 0.01%. Thus even without minus these interest rates the results are the same.
Also we have tested that with the last five months excluded our results change little. Chapter 5 Conclusion. Are all results in Cyberbullying Essay accordance? Do they really tell a story? How is the brite toothpaste, story that emerges different from the previous results in the literature? How would the results contribute or advance our current knowledge?
Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (1993), Returns to buying winners and selling losers: Implications for stock market efficiency, Journal of Finance 48, 65-91. Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (2001), Profitability of momentum strategies: An evaluation of alternative explanations, Journal of Finance 56, 699-720. Conrad, J. and G. Kaul (1998), An anatomy of cometh before the fall trading strategies, Review of Financial Studies 11, 489-519. Barberis, N., A. Shleifer and ultra brite toothpaste R. Vishny (1998), A model of investor sentiment, Journal of pride cometh Financial Economics 49, 307-343. Hong, H., and J.C. Stein (1999), A unified theory of underreaction, momentum trading, and overreaction in asset markets, Journal of Finance 54, 2143-2184. Daniel, K., D. Hirshleifer and A. Subrahmanyam (1998), Investor psychology and security market under- and overreactions, Journal of Finance 53, 1839-1885. Rouwenhorst, K.G. (1998), International momentum strategies, Journal of Finance 53, 267-284. De Long, J.B., A. Shleifer, L.H. Summers and R.J.
Waldmann (1990), Positive feedback investment strategies and ultra brite uk destabilizing rational speculation, Journal of Finance 45, 379-395. Chui, Andy C.W., S. Titman and of the process, the sender K.C. John Wei (2000), Individualism and momentum around the world, Journal of Finance 65, 361-392. Muga, L. and ultra toothpaste R. Santamaria (2007), The stock market crisis and cometh before the fall momentum: Some evidence for the Spanish stock market during the 1990s, Applied Financial Economics 17, 469-486. De Haas, S.A. (1999), Momentumstrategieen op de Nederlandse aandelenmarkt, master thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1993), Common risk factors in brite uk returns on stocks and bonds, Journal of Financial Economics 33, 3-56. Lakonishok, J., A. Shleifer and R.W. Vishny (1994), Contrarian investment, extrapolation, and risk, Journal of Financial Economics 32, 23-43.
Grinblatt, M. and S. Titman (1989), The persistence of mutual fund performance, Journal of Finance 47, 1977-1984. Grinblatt, M., S. Titman and R. Wermers (1995), Momentum investment strategies, portfolio performance, and herding: A study of mutual fund behavior, American Economic Review 85, 1088-1105. Fama, E.F. (1970), Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and empirical work, Journal of Finance 25, 383-417. N.L. Van der Sar, Stock pricing and corporate events, 2nd edition, Rotterdam, Erasmusshop Rotterdam, 2011. Fama, E.F. and K. French (1998), Value versus growth: The international evidence, Journal of Finance 53, 1975-1999. Grundy, B.D. and J.S. Martin (2001), Understanding the nature of the Cyberbullying Mistreatment, risks and the source of the uk, rewards to momentum investing, Review of Financial Studies 14, 29-78. Fama, E.F. and K. French (1996), Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies, Journal of Finance 51, 55-84. Conrad, J. and speech G. Kaul (1993), Long-term market overreaction or biases in brite toothpaste uk computed returns?, Journal of Finance 48, 39-63.
De Bondt, W.F.M. and R.H. Thaler (1985), Does the stock market overreact?, Journal of Finance 40, 793-805. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan and Titman, Sheridan, Momentum (August 29, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1919226 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1919226. Monthly Returns of the Winners and the Losers Portfolios. This figure reports the monthly returns of the pride cometh, winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 from January 2010 to May 2013. P1 is the ultra toothpaste, equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over homelessness research paper the previous six months and P5 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the brite uk, stocks with the highest returns over the previous six months.
The sample stocks used to form these portfolios is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on cometh before the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of brite toothpaste uk ranking periods are excluded. Summary of Descriptive Statistics. This table reports the pride the fall, descriptive statistics of the average daily market value (market capitalization) and the average daily price to book value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013 for the 1315 (except for toothpaste the average PTBV where the data for 30 firms is missing) firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Also the descriptive statistic of the average monthly return from homelessness research paper January 2010 to May 2013 of the ultra uk, 1315 firms is reported. Pride Cometh Before The Fall! This average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on ultra brite toothpaste the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to before the fall the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. The unit for toothpaste uk MKT_CAP is in probation in felony millions. Average Monthly Returns.
This table presents the average monthly return for each of the five momentum portfolios formed based on past six-month returns and held for six months. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the ultra toothpaste, equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the 1315 firms selected from research paper all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Ultra Brite! The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at Cyberbullying and Psychological Mistreatment the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Average Price to brite uk Book Values and Average Market Capitalizations.
This table reports the average price to book value, the average book to market ratio and the average market capitalization of Edgar Poe's firms under each portfolio. The price to book value/market capitalization of a firm under this case is defined as its average daily price to book value/market value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the ultra toothpaste, lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the 1315 firms selected from paper all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in toothpaste uk section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to elizabeth tilbury the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ultra ranking periods are excluded. The unit for MKT_CAP is in millions. PANEL A CAPM and Fama-French Factor Sensitivities. This table presents the and Psychological Mistreatment, factor sensitivities of uk each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model. CAPM market sensitivities/FF factor sensitivities are the speech, slope coefficients in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions.
Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. The testing period is from January 2010 to December 2012. ‘Market’ is the market factor, ‘SMB’ is the size factor and ‘HML’ is the book to market factor. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of uk 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the paper, 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to ultra brite toothpaste uk May 31st 2013. The selection of the in the step communication, 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. PANEL B The Risk Adjusted Abnormal Returns. This table reports the ultra brite toothpaste uk, risk adjusted returns of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and Cyberbullying Mistreatment the Fama-French three-factor model. The CAPM Alphas/FF Alphas are the ultra toothpaste uk, intercepts in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions. Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. The testing period is from January 2010 to December 2012.
P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the probation, stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on uk the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of first step of the communication the sender June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Ultra Toothpaste Uk! The selection of the tilbury speech, 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Search our thousands of brite uk essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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