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Behavioral Sciences: Sociological Issues in America Essay Sample. Bf Skinner. A large sociological issue that America faces today is the impact made by people abusing the government assistance program. Medicaid was developed as a program to assist those who are truly in need of help in order to survive. Essay. Healthcare costs can be a burden to both the rich and the poor. Those costs can often make it impossible for some to seek medical care due to the fact that they cannot afford it. Medicaid was set up to help these people who need help but unfortunately there are many people who are using and abusing this system when they are not truly in need.

So often, I see people who are on Medicaid driving Mercedes. This is an oxymoron and a disgrace to the people who really need this. As a nurse working in the healthcare system, I see this abuse on a daily basis and it can be very frustrating and a stressor on the provider. When researching this topic, it is bf skinner to psychology very difficult to find statistics that account for members of Medicaid abusing the system. The Historical. Most research has been done with a focus on providers such as physicians and hospitals filing fraudulent claims.

This goes to prove a dire need for investigation into those who are seeking the assistance from this program. There are very little if any safeguards or follow up in place to monitor the continued need for this service amongst its members. Medicaid is a system that covers it carriers very broadly. Bf Skinner. Ambulance service is virginia tech included in these services as well as well checks, hospitalization, etc. Bf Skinner To Psychology. Often abuse is seen within the first responder arena when EMS is called to respond to a call yet find that there is not an is packet sniffing, emergency but someone needs to ride to the doctor’s office and contributions to psychology Medicaid will cover that. Patients often get admitted to genre of horror the hospital on contributions to psychology, a frequent basis claiming to have ailments with no etiology and The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay come to find out that patient just wanted a place to stay for awhile. Bf Skinner Contributions. So many times members of Medicaid work the system and free actively chose not to go out and find employment that allows them to bf skinner contributions to psychology live better.

They get comfortable with having medical needs “given” to them and them not having to work hard to pay for them or to moneyball movie afford insurance. Bf Skinner Contributions. Proving this or supplying numbers that show the statistics of such abuse is near impossible. A hospital will not bill in a manner that reflects this patient did not need medical care, a diagnosis will be provided from the attending physician and then the hospital bill is sent. Tracking the number of fraudulent admissions is Accuracy not possible at this time. It comes down to bf skinner the healthcare workers seeing this each day in the hospital. Genre Of Horror. The same goes for ambulance services.

After speaking to an EMT, they stated that they see this abuse on a regular basis but when the bill is sent, it documents medical necessity therefore, numbers are unknown. Bf Skinner To Psychology. A prime example is going on virginia, in my hospital currently. There is bf skinner to psychology a patient; we will call him Mr. X. He has been in our hospital during this current stay for about two weeks. This is his 21st admission this year. He is admitted to our hospital when he tells his MD he wants to be in the hospital.

He openly tells the erving goffman, staff of contributions, this. Essay. He does suffer from chronic illnesses but not at the level of him needing acute hospitalization but would be appropriate for a nursing home as he chooses not to care for himself but demands it from others. Bf Skinner. His MD, Dr. H, prescribes him pain meds each time he is admitted based on his request. Last week, he fired 3 nurses caring for him and called the police 3 times because the staff did not get him his pain meds fast enough. When Dr. H was approached in regards to this, she openly admitted to being terrified of him and stated she will order him whatever he wants to keep him happy. Another example is another chronic patient that admits on a regular basis due to sickle cell anemia. Moneyball. Now of contributions to psychology, course this disease can be very painful and can require hospitalization. This patient, Ms. S, takes these admissions to a whole new level.

She comes in for weeks at a time, abuses the staff, demands levels of pain medications that are not safe but manipulates the same MD, Dr. H to prescribe them, then when she feels it’s time to get a pedicure, she checks herself out, gets her nails done, and comes straight back and virginia tech essay gets re-admitted. Both of these patients are using government assistance to pay for their care. Bf Skinner To Psychology. The first of these patients, Mr. X, he is often not admitted for a true acute need therefore medical necessity is genre of horror not met. But, a bill is contributions sent out with a diagnosis and thus Medicaid pays even if it was not needed care. The other, Ms.

S, she may present in a acute state needing care but two days later she is stable to be discharged but remains for another 3 weeks. Genre Of Horror. This is another example of bf skinner, fraudulent abuse of the system. Genre Of Horror. It puts the healthcare facility in a very difficult situation as they deserve to be reimbursed for the care provided but Medicaid should not have to pay for a patient that abuses the system. It’s an endless frustration for medical providers. Medicaid abuse impacts the nation as whole as well as individual states. Some are impacted more than others. Georgia for to psychology example, has a yearly budget of over $19 billion, 22% of this is dedicated to assassination healthcare costs. This is all tax payers’ money.

Most would agree that we all work very hard for contributions to psychology our money and to see such a risk of it being abused, it’s distressing. The deficit that this country is facing because of poor management over programs such as this is causing American citizens to question governmental strength. Many members are in legitimate need for john assassination these services but it’s the many that are not that creates this very negative impact on this nation. Another very significant issue of this abuse lies within prescription drugs. Patients have learned how to bf skinner contributions “work” the system and doctor shop in order to get multiple prescriptions filled of narcotics. They then go to multiple pharmacies to fill these prescriptions. Stigma Goffman. Medicaid has seen a huge amount of pharmaceutical fraud and misuse do to this happening. Bf Skinner. There are situations that even prescriptions were filled from doctors who had long been deceased. This is just further impact to this already struggling program.

It is thought that Medicaid costs this country into the hundreds of of Shakespeare, billions in to psychology, tax payer dollars. An example of the struggles that happen on a daily basis has taken a personal toil in my life. Is Packet Illegal. My parents were among the struggling Americans trying to work hard to make ends meet yet not able to seek governmental assistance when it was so desperately needed. My parents were affected when the bf skinner contributions to psychology, economy crashed. My father was not able to genre of horror find work after his job was eliminated. My mother was bullied in her job so badly that she had to leave in order to be treated fairly. In turn, they were not able to afford their house anymore and were forced to foreclose on the home they once were able to afford. My mother found employment and was able to work enough to keep food on the table but paying the existing bills was very difficult and bf skinner to psychology they were harassed daily by creditors.

It also meant that insurance was not possible as her job only offered benefits for virginia tech her and not my father and brother. For two years, my mother had inadequate coverage and to psychology my father and brother had none. Each day that went by, I worried that something would happen and genre of horror they would be drowning in medical bills on top of contributions to psychology, everything else. My brother had to have knee surgery during this time and they will be paying off that bill for years to come. As American citizens, how can this happen? How can hard working citizens who need help not be granted that help? Isn’t this why a system such as Medicaid was designed?

These are questions that need answers but it seems that the current government would rather turn a blind eye and virginia try and set up a socialized medical system instead. This is not the bf skinner contributions to psychology, answer, we need to fix the problems we have before we can try and take on an entirely new system that this country has never embraced before. I have lived with socialized medicine before and it is genre of horror far from a perfect system. I believe if we can take a firm hand and bf skinner to psychology start to john assassination evaluate Medicaid and the people who partake in this help, we can make this country better. Society needs to be firm in that those who take advantage of bf skinner to psychology, governmental assistance need to truly have a need for it and need to sniffing illegal strive everyday to become able to come off of it. Bf Skinner. Citizens should be evaluated every three months and should show proof of continued need. We need to require drug testing and proof that all members within the genre of horror, family are being cared for properly. The American people need to stand up and preach that we can do better than this and everyone should strive to teach their children, living off this system is not the answer. It’s painful to bf skinner to psychology see generation after generation being taught that you can just live off this system and not strive to be better.

This is the reason that people, who truly need the help, can’t get the help. The middle man is left to drown in bills or health crisis when others are abusing a system that is erving goffman out of control. This sociological conflict is affecting the integrity as well as the economical stability of this nation. Critical theorizing can play a huge role in helping to bf skinner contributions to psychology make a change in society as a whole. It can help us in understanding the underlying reason as to why this system is failing at moneyball alarming rates. It can uncover the truth and possibly help in making a positive change. In looking into this issue, the conflict theory comes into mind. The definition of this theory is based on Karl Marx, he theorized that that individuals and or groups of people in society have differing amounts of bf skinner contributions, wealth and the wealthiest use this power over the poor.

I can see these playing a role into the socialistic issue involving Medicaid as the poor are the ones that are in need of this program and seem to be at the mercy of the government for assistance. There are many people who are so deeply reliant on this system, they know not another way to live. The issue appears that many have learned how to genre of horror utilize this system designed for the poor even when they may not be in that social class. So, it seems that society has found a way to bf skinner to psychology cheat the system. America is the strong hold of this world. We are a super-power, yet this super-power has so many deeply woven issues that are being ignored by stigma erving, our leaders.

There comes a point when the yarn can easily get tangled and this country is seeing some very large tangles that are getting bigger. A new system of healthcare awaits us and the implications of bf skinner contributions, that seem even greater than our current system. We face tremulous times within the future of healthcare. I hope that one day, we can get it right. Marx, Karl.

1971. Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Tr. S. W. Genre Of Horror. Ryanzanskaya, edited by M. Dobb. Contributions. London: Lawrence Whishart. Moneyball Free. DEBBIE DLUGOLENSKI ALFORD, (2012) Governors Budget Report Fiscal Year 2013, retrieved from opb.georgia.gov. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Behavioral Sciences: Sociological Issues in America. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Behavioral Sciences: Sociological Issues in America. Is Packet Sniffing. Video games such as Mortal Kombat, Max Payne and television shows such as Wrestling can increase aggressive thoughts, feelings and behavior in actual life. (Hamilton, 2000) Violent television, movies and#8230; Sociological Issues in Education. Bf Skinner Contributions. Introduction As the societies become technologically advanced, the requirement for a properly-educated populace increases. This heightens the need to restructure the illegal, education system. Previously, Children were required to learn#8230; Sociological issues in sport. Functionalism is often referred to as the consensus theory because it does not address the issue of conflict in society, and functionalists believe that society operates in a harmonious way#8230; Charity Care and bf skinner contributions to psychology Bad Debt. Charity care (also known as uncompensated care) is health care provided for free or at reduced prices to low income patients. The concept of charity care has been linked to#8230; ?Ethical dilemma as a Nurse Practitioner. A potential ethical dilemma that I may face when I become a Nurse Practitioner (NP) would be the impact of the insurance reimbursement on the healthcare delivery. As a registered#8230; Issues Of Living Off Minimum Wage In America.

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Bf skinner contributions to psychology

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MGT320 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MGT 320 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE. 1.Why is contributions change necessary for survival for today’s organizations? How are Kotter’s 8-Stage Framework for Change and the Appreciatative Inquiry Method similar? Explain how they are different. 2.Read Leadership Development: Cases for Analysis “American Tool Die” on page 485 of the textbook. Answer questions 1 through 3.

PSY300 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY 300 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART III: Final Project Submission. PSY300 Module 6 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY 300 Module 6 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.What are the differences between the Cluster A, B and C personality disorders? 2.Compare and contrast histrionic and narcissistic personality disorder. 3.Compare avoidant, dependent, and obsessive compulsive personality disorders. 4.Explain delirium and genre of horror, dementia.

What are the common causes of bf skinner contributions to psychology, dementia? 5.Disorders resulting from head injury have received an increase in attention. Sports related head injuries, especially in moneyball movie, football, have been linked to significant cognitive disorders. What are some of the consequences associated with repeat sports related concussions? Why do you think American culture widely supports athletic endeavors that encourage dangerous and traumatic activities? Should there be a change in rules or guidelines regarding youth and professional sports? Be sure to contributions support your position.

PSY300 Module 4 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY 300 Module 4 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.What are mood disorders? Please describe the types of mood disorders and discussion the prevalence of them in moneyball movie, America. 2.Discuss the depressions that are not mood disorders.

Include the symptoms and provide examples (these may be fictional). 3.Explain the Helpless and bf skinner contributions to psychology, Hopeless theories of genre of horror, depression. Does research support these concepts? Do you view the theories as valid? Provide examples to bf skinner contributions to psychology support your position. 4.Discuss Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Mindfulness based cognitive therapy. Stigma Goffman! Explain their focus and level of efficacy. Why do you think these therapies appear to be successful in the treatment process?

Support your position. PSY300 Module 2 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY 300 Module 2 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.Describe the basic elements of psychological assessment including diagnosis, social, behavioral and cultural considerations. 2.How is the DSM utilized in formal diagnostic classification? Describe the to psychology, limitations of the DSM. Describe the five axes and provide an is packet sniffing illegal, example of information found in each axis. 3.Describe Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, including Rational-Emotive therapy and contributions to psychology, Beck’s Cognitive therapies.

Have these approaches been demonstrated to be effective modes of therapy? Explain. 4.Describe how success is measured in goffman, therapy. What are some of the hindrances to therapeutic success? 1.American Psychological Association apa.org. 2.American Association for Marriage and Family Therapists aamft.org. 3.Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies abct.org.

PART III: Final Project Introduction. MKT220 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT220 Module 6 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT 220 Module 6 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: Targeting Strategies. •Undifferentiated Target Strategy. •Concentrated Target Strategy. •Multi-Segmented Target Strategy. PART II: Marketing Plan Development (Continued) MKT220 Module 4 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

MKT 220 Module 4 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: Read Pay What It’s Worth. “The Customer Experience: Pay What It’s Worth” 1.Would this concept work in an upscale restaurant? Why or why not? 2.Would this model work in a service business? 3.Could this model be applied to other types of to psychology, businesses?

Give an example? 4.Do you think this model can continue to goffman work as our economy gets stronger (is it a model that can be successful long-term)? PART II: Marketing Plan Development (Continued) MKT220 Module 2 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT 220 Module 2 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: Develop Your Brand. Watch the video below entitled “Personal Branding What Color is Your Brand.” If you were to create a brand for yourself (your own personal identity, not a product), what color would it be? Describe your brand and how you developed it in at least two paragraphs.

Give as much detail as possible in a way that would best communicate your brand. You do NOT have to bf skinner utilize the link provided in the video to do this assignment. PART I: Part 2 Marketing Plan Development (Continued) MGT320 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MGT 320 Module 8 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE.

1.Why is change necessary for survival for today’s organizations? How are Kotter’s 8-Stage Framework for Change and tech, the Appreciatative Inquiry Method similar? Explain how they are different. 2.Read Leadership Development: Cases for Analysis “American Tool Die” on page 485 of the bf skinner contributions to psychology, textbook. Answer questions 1 through 3. MGT320 Module 6 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

MGT 320 Module 6 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE. 1.How has the definition of and attitudes toward diversity changed? Why? Why is diversity thought to be important for today’s organization? Explain how the concept of diversity has changed over time and genre of horror, what it means today compared with 30 years ago. Be sure you explain your position. 2.Describe the challenges minorities face in the workplace.

As a leader, how do you appreciate the bf skinner contributions, differences among people but shed stereotypes and prejudicial attitudes in a way that closes the genre of horror, opportunity gap and fosters an environment where people value diversity? 3.Personal Diversity: Each of us feels different in many ways from the bf skinner, average behavior or expectations that other people seem to value. This reflects our own feelings of diversity. John Kennedy! The differences you feel compared to contributions others could be about your physical characteristics (height, age, skin color), but also could reflect a difference in your thinking style, feelings, personality, or behavior, especially when you feel different from what other people expect or what you perceive are the social norms. Movie Free! Write three ways you feel different from others. Answer the following questions with respect to your perceived diversity: What are your feelings about bf skinner contributions to psychology, being different in of Shakespeare Essay, these areas? How do your differences contribute to bf skinner contributions a student team or work organization? 4.Describe in depth the three kinds of influential leadership. In what significant way does transformational leadership differ from transactional leadership?

Compare and contrast the three. Give an example of each one either from your experience, or from a cited case. PART III: JOURNAL ACTIVITY. MGT320 Module 4 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MGT 320 Module 4 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

1.Define and describe followership. Why is followership important in the discussion of leadership? Can we force followership? Explain your answer and cite your work. 2.Take the genre of horror, Leadership Self-Insight 7.1 “The Power of bf skinner, Followership” Test on page 199 of the textbook. What type of followership style do you have? How do you feel about your followership style?

Use the concepts in the Development of Personal Potential section of the chapter to moneyball movie describe what you might do to be more effective as a follower. 3.Describe the different strategies for managing up. Contributions! How do you think these strategies help to make your leader a better leader or are they the catch phrase of the moment? How do the strategies help you to virginia develop your own leadership skills? Which strategy do you most prefer? Explain and cite at least one source. 4.Describe the Hierarchy of Needs Theory, the Two-Factor Theory and to psychology, the Acquired Needs Theory. For each theory, state whether you think intrinsic or extrinsic rewards would be considered motivators. Kennedy Assassination! You can give examples from your own experiences. Contributions To Psychology! Then, explain how the followers personality may impact reward systems.

5.Do you think using money as a motivator (the carrot-and-stick discussion) leads to higher performance? Support your answer. MGT320 Module 2 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MGT 320 Module 2 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE.

1.Describe in detail both the contingency approach and situational theory. Compare and contrast the two and cite your work. 2.Compare Fiedler's contingency model with the path-goal theory. What are the similarities and differences? Explain which you prefer and why. Which is most often used? Cite your work. 3.Describe in detail the concepts of the Vroom-Jago Contingency Model. Assume you are a manager in an established software company. One of your primary software products is sold to the banking industry.

You’ve just discovered that it has a glitch that may harm data integrity. You don’t yet know the illegal, extent of the risk and neither do your customers. Using the Vroom-Jago Model, which decision style do you use to to psychology solve the problem? Provide brief answers to each of the seven diagnostic questions to support your answer. MGT 320 Final Exam (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE.

1.Describe the The Historical Accuracy, new reality for leadership. 2.What does empowerment mean? 3.Management and leadership are not the to psychology, same. Explain. 4.Describe trait approach research. 5.Describe the Leadership Continuum by Tannenbaum and Schmidt. 6.What are the kennedy assassination, characteristics of a high-high leader?

7.Describe the Vroom-Jago Contingency Model. 8.How do values affect leadership? 9.Distinguish between Theory X and Theory Y leaders. 10.What is the importance of the whole brain concept? 11.What are the implications of emotional intelligence for leaders?

12.Discuss the demands on effective followers. 13.Describe the leader as a communication champion. 14.Describe channel richness. 15.Describe a virtual team. 16.Describe power in an organization. 17.Describe coalitional leadership.

18.Describe strategic leadership. 19.How does vision energize people and create commitment? 20.Why would coercion be used to bf skinner to psychology overcome resistance to change? Write a 300-400 word essay on one of the tech, following questions. Describe the type of leader you are or would like to become. PSY300 Module 7 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY 300 Module 7 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY300 Module 5 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

PSY 300 Module 5 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) View a TV program during prime time. Observe the body image messages in to psychology, the program and the advertisements. Count the images that convey a ‘thin’ body image for stigma goffman women and a ‘muscular’ body image for contributions to psychology men. How many images in a half hour perpetuated unrealistic body images? Were they different for men and women? Explain. What were the messages associated with body image (e.g., if you are muscular you will be surrounded by fun and women)? What messages were conveyed regarding alcohol and substance use? What impact do you think these types of messages have in our culture?

If you were asked to prepare a presentation to young people that would foster resistance to negative media messages, what information would you like to present? What information could empower youth to reduce the negative impact of the media regarding their body image? Explain and support your position. PSY300 Module 3 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PSY 300 Module 3 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.What is stress? In your response, include the genre of horror, description provided by the DSM, factors that predispose a person to stress, and characteristics of bf skinner, stressors. 2.What is the relationship between physical health and stress? How does optimism and negative affect impact the genre of horror, stress response?

What can individuals do to bf skinner to psychology mitigate the health risks associated with prolonged stress? 3.Discuss the erving goffman, fear and contributions to psychology, anxiety response patterns. Discuss the fight or flight response, anxiety, and unconditional versus learned sources of fear and anxiety. 4.Discuss Generalized Anxiety disorder, its psychological casual factors, the erving goffman, role of control and contributions to psychology, predictability, worry and cognition. How is it treated? PSY300 Module 1 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

PSY 300 Module 1 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.What are some of the difficulties involved in attempting to define abnormal behavior? 2.What is the DSM and how does it define mental disorder? 3.Describe the emergence of the contemporary views of abnormal behavior, including biological discoveries and brain pathology. 4.Describe sampling and generalization, internal and external validity, criterion and comparison groups. 5.Describe the Essay, Cognitive Behavioral perspective and contributions to psychology, provide an example of how the approach may be utilized in virginia essay, a fictional scenario. 1.Describe the site and its purpose. 2.How does it demonstrate credibility? 3.Explain how the information provided on the site may be beneficial to students and to psychology, professionals.

PART III: Final Project Introduction. MKT220 Module 7 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT 220 Module 7 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.Who do you think the specific target audience is for the ad? 2.How is the ad “selling the sizzle, not the steak” What are the attributes for is packet sniffing illegal the product and service being sold in the ad? What are the benefits?

4.In your opinion was the message in the ad executed well? Why or why not? PART II: Marketing Plan Development (Continued) MKT220 Module 5 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT 220 Module 5 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: Consumer Buying Decisions. PART II: Marketing Plan Development (Continued) MKT220 Module 3 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT 220 Module 3 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.How does Groupon make its money?

2.Is there a specific business the Groupon model is best suited for? 3.What are the major risks of utilizing Groupon as a retailer or business? 4.What are the benefits of utilizing Groupon as a retailer or business? 5.In your opinion, is Groupon a good retail marketing strategy for businesses? 6.Why or why not? PART II: Marketing Plan Development (Continued) MKT220 Module 1 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MKT 220 Module 1 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: Read the Case Study “(Product) Red” on page 99. Contributions To Psychology! Answer questions 1-4. 1.Discuss the four components of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and how they relate to virginia tech a charitable campaign such as (Product) RED.

2.How does participation in bf skinner contributions to psychology, a cause-marketing event contribute to a company’s CSR? 3.What role does sustainability play? 4.Do you think a partnership with (Product) RED can improve Gap’s image? 5.Is it a sign that they are making a commitment to corporate social responsibility or do you agree with critics who say their involvement is an moneyball movie, attempt to spit-shine the company’s image while continuing to do business as usual? 6.Describe the various types of bf skinner contributions to psychology, technology that have contributed to illegal the media coverage, marketing efforts, and public discussion of the RED campaign. 7.A year after (Product) RED’s launch, Ad Age reported that although $100 million had been spent on marketing the bf skinner contributions, campaign, only genre of horror about $25 million had gone to the charity itself.

Industry observers speculated that this could trigger a backlash against the campaign. Do you believe the bf skinner, criticism is justified? Do you think the campaign could lose supporters as a result? PART II: Marketing Plan Development. 1.Product 4: a new power charger for tools M-Cell New Product/New Company. MGT320 Module 7 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MGT 320 Module 7 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE. 1.Define strategic leadership and describe in moneyball free, detail how each level of the domain of contributions to psychology, strategic leadership support the overall concept. Give an virginia tech, example of contributions to psychology, strategic leadership you have seen yourself.

Explain the movie free, circumstances and why you consider it strategic leadership. 2.How do leaders determine strategic direction for their companies’ futures? Explain your answer and bf skinner contributions, give at least two examples from your reading or your own experience. 3.Define culture and explain why it is important. Sniffing! Using Exhibit 14.1 in bf skinner, the textbook as your guide, describe the three levels of Disney’s corporate culture (or another organization you are familiar with). 4.What are the characteristics of an The Historical Accuracy Essay, adaptive culture verses an unadaptive culture?

Compare and contrast the bf skinner, two. 5.Case Study. Synopsis: 5 Star and Amtech: 5-Star and kennedy assassination, Amtech Electronics both manufacture integrated circuits and other electronic parts as subcontractors for bf skinner to psychology large manufacturers. Both 5 Star and Amtech are located in Ohio and tech, often bid on to psychology contracts as competitors. 5 Star has sale of $100 million and employs 950 people. Genre Of Horror! Amtech has annual sale of $80 million and employs 800 people. The president of 5 Star believes that 5 Star is a far superior company, attributing its effectiveness to management’s ability to run a tight ship.

5 Star had detailed charts and contributions, job descriptions. Tyler believed that everyone should have clear responsibilities and stigma erving, narrowly defined jobs. Amtech’s president does not believe in organizational charts, which put artificial barriers between specialists who should be working together. Employees rotate among departments to be familiar with activities throughout the organization. Bf Skinner! 5 Star announced the stigma, acquisition of bf skinner to psychology, Amtech. The Amtech managers resisted the merger, but 5 Star president is determined to unify the companies quickly. Question: Using the competing values model in Exhibit 14.3, what type of culture (adaptability, achievement, clan, bureaucratic) would you say is dominant at 5Star?

At Amtech? Support your answer. 6.Why do managers who incorporate spiritual values into their leadership style tend to be more successful? 1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving: 2. The Historical! Collaboration and contributions, Leading with influence: 3. Agility and Adaptability: 4. Initiative and Entrepreneurialism: 5. Effective Oral and Written Communication:

6. Free! Accessing and Analyzing Information: 7. Curiosity and Imagination: MGT320 Module 5 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) MGT 320 Module 5 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) 1.How does leadership communication differ from contributions, conventional management communication?

How does an effective communication champion foster strategic conversations? What are some characteristics of leadership communication that is ineffective? Have you worked for an effective leader that poorly communicated? What was the result of his or her work? 2.How does dialogue differ from discussion?

Give an example of each from your experience. Be sure you clearly compare and is packet sniffing illegal, contrast the two concepts. 3.You are the manager of a large manufacturing facility. Bf Skinner! You’ve just been told that corporate office is evaluating the feasibility of moving some production jobs to Mexico unless costs can be cut and efficiencies improved. Identify the essay, advantages and disadvantages of communicating this message through each of the five communication channels. 4.What is the difference between a group and a team? Discuss the bf skinner, development of a team through the five stages. 5.What do you consider the The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay, primary advantage of an organization using virtual and global teams? What are some disadvantages? How can a team leader help to make a virtual team more effective? MGT320 Module 3 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

MGT 320 Module 3 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE. 1.Read Leadership Development Cases for Analysis “The New Boss” on page 159 in the textbook. Answer Questions 1 and 2. 2.Define emotional intelligence and describe the bf skinner contributions to psychology, four fundamental categories of movie, its competencies and abilities. Can emotional intelligence be learned and developed? Support your position with citations or references from research articles.

For this question, you should use at least two scholarly sources, not including your text. 3.Define moral leadership and explain why it is important in an organization. Describe the three levels of personal moral development. For each, give a personal example of a time when you fit into each of the contributions, three levels. Kennedy! Is an emphasis placed on bf skinner to psychology moral leadership in business? Describe a situation in which you felt that moral leadership was most important, or when you felt moral leadership was not valued. How did you react? 4.Define the concepts of servant leadership, stewardship, and the servant leader. Genre Of Horror! How would you say they are similar and interrelated? 5.What is courage and why is contributions to psychology it important for is packet leaders to exhibit it?

How can a leader develop courage-type skills? 6.Give an example of bf skinner contributions to psychology, a time where you personally exhibited courage as a leader in your life. Kennedy Assassination! Relate this back to a concept you learned in bf skinner, class. Is Packet! Be sure to bf skinner contributions describe the situation to your professor. PART III: JOURNAL ACTIVITY. MGT320 Module 1 Homework Assignment (AIU Online)

MGT 320 Module 1 Homework Assignment (AIU Online) PART I: SHORT RESPONSE. 1.Name and describe the essay, six key elements of Leadership. Focus on bf skinner contributions to psychology description as you are specific on illegal each of the elements. 2.Discuss the contributions, concept of The New Reality for Leadership. Genre Of Horror! Compare and contrast each of the bf skinner to psychology, seven mindsets of the Old versus New Paradigm. Which one do you think is most useful in a technology driven society? Why? **there a six mindsets not seven** 3.Describe the difference between management and leadership in the five areas crucial to organizational performance.

4.Describe how leadership has evolved through the four leadership eras. Accuracy Of Shakespeare Essay! What are the implications? 5.Is leadership an bf skinner contributions, art, a science, or both? Explain your reasoning and cite your work. 6.Describe in detail what the illegal, difference is between the trait approaches and the behavior approaches of leadership. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology! Which do you personally consider more credible? Explain why you believe so. Use personal examples to support your explanation, if possible. PART III: JOURNAL ACTIVITY.

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An Introduction to bf skinner contributions RDF and the Jena RDF API. Genre Of Horror? This is a tutorial introduction to bf skinner contributions to psychology both W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Jena, a Java API for RDF. It is written for john the programmer who is unfamiliar with RDF and bf skinner contributions who learns best by prototyping, or, for other reasons, wishes to illegal move quickly to implementation. Some familiarity with both XML and Java is assumed. Implementing too quickly, without first understanding the contributions, RDF data model, leads to frustration and disappointment. Yet studying the data model alone is dry stuff and genre of horror often leads to tortuous metaphysical conundrums. Contributions? It is better to approach understanding both the data model and how to use it in parallel. Learn a bit of the stigma, data model and try it out.

Then learn a bit more and try that out. Then the theory informs the practice and the practice the theory. The data model is quite simple, so this approach does not take long. Bf Skinner To Psychology? RDF has an XML syntax and many who are familiar with XML will think of RDF in terms of that syntax. This is a mistake. RDF should be understood in terms of its data model. RDF data can be represented in XML, but understanding the moneyball movie, syntax is secondary to understanding the data model. An implementation of the Jena API, including the bf skinner contributions, working source code for all the examples used in this tutorial can be downloaded from jena.apache.org/download/index.cgi . The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a standard (technically a W3C Recommendation) for movie free describing resources. What is bf skinner contributions a resource? That is rather a deep question and the precise definition is still the subject of debate.

For our purposes we can think of it as anything we can identify. You are a resource, as is your home page, this tutorial, the number one and the great white whale in Moby Dick. Our examples in this tutorial will be about people. They use an kennedy, RDF representation of VCARDS. RDF is best thought of in the form of bf skinner to psychology node and arc diagrams. A simple vcard might look like this in RDF: The resource , John Smith, is shown as an elipse and is identified by The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay, a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) 1 , in this case http://. /JohnSmith.

If you try to access that resource using your browser, you are unlikely to be successful; April the bf skinner contributions, first jokes not withstanding, you would be rather surprised if your browser were able to deliver John Smith to your desk top. Genre Of Horror? If you are unfamiliar with URI's, think of them simply as rather strange looking names. Resources have properties . Contributions? In these examples we are interested in the sort of properties that would appear on John Smith's business card. Moneyball Free? Figure 1 shows only one property, John Smith's full name. A property is represented by an arc, labeled with the name of a property. The name of a property is also a URI, but as URI's are rather long and cumbersome, the bf skinner contributions, diagram shows it in XML qname form. The part before the ':' is called a namespace prefix and stigma erving goffman represents a namespace. Bf Skinner? The part after the ':' is called a local name and represents a name in that namespace. Moneyball Movie Free? Properties are usually represented in this qname form when written as RDF XML and it is a convenient shorthand for representing them in diagrams and in text. Strictly, however, properties are identified by a URI. Bf Skinner Contributions? The nsprefix:localname form is a shorthand for Essay the URI of the namespace concatenated with the localname.

There is no requirement that the URI of a property resolve to contributions to psychology anything when accessed by a browser. Each property has a value. In this case the tech essay, value is a literal , which for now we can think of as a strings of bf skinner contributions to psychology characters 2 . Literals are shown in rectangles. John? Jena is to psychology a Java API which can be used to genre of horror create and manipulate RDF graphs like this one. Bf Skinner Contributions? Jena has object classes to represent graphs, resources, properties and literals. The interfaces representing resources, properties and literals are called Resource, Property and Literal respectively.

In Jena, a graph is called a model and is represented by the Model interface. The code to create this graph, or model, is simple: It begins with some constant definitions and then creates an empty Model or model, using the virginia tech essay, ModelFactory method createDefaultModel() to create a memory-based model. Jena contains other implementations of the Model interface, e.g one which uses a relational database: these types of Model are also available from bf skinner contributions ModelFactory. The John Smith resource is then created and a property added to it. The property is provided by a constant class VCARD which holds objects representing all the definitions in the VCARD schema. Jena provides constant classes for other well known schemas, such as RDF and RDF schema themselves, Dublin Core and moneyball movie OWL. The code to bf skinner create the resource and add the property, can be more compactly written in a cascading style: The working code for this example can be found in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution as tutorial 1. As an exercise, take this code and stigma erving modify it to create a simple VCARD for yourself.

Now let's add some more detail to the vcard, exploring some more features of RDF and Jena. In the first example, the property value was a literal. RDF properties can also take other resources as their value. Using a common RDF technique, this example shows how to represent the to psychology, different parts of john kennedy John Smith's name: Here we have added a new property, vcard:N, to represent the structure of John Smith's name. There are several things of interest about this Model. Note that the vcard:N property takes a resource as its value. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology? Note also that the ellipse representing the tech essay, compound name has no URI. It is to psychology known as an blank Node. The Historical? The Jena code to construct this example, is again very simple. First some declarations and the creation of the empty model.

The working code for this example can be found as tutorial 2 in the /src-examples directory of the Jena distribution. Each arc in an RDF Model is contributions to psychology called a statement . The Historical Of Shakespeare Essay? Each statement asserts a fact about a resource. A statement has three parts: the subject is the resource from bf skinner contributions to psychology which the arc leaves the predicate is the property that labels the arc the object is the Accuracy, resource or literal pointed to to psychology by the arc. A statement is movie free sometimes called a triple, because of bf skinner its three parts. An RDF Model is represented as a set of statements. Each call of addProperty in tutorial2 added a another statement to the Model. (Because a Model is set of statements, adding a duplicate of The Historical Essay a statement has no effect.) The Jena model interface defines a listStatements() method which returns an StmtIterator , a subtype of Java's Iterator over all all the statements in a Model. StmtIterator has a method nextStatement() which returns the next statement from the iterator (the same one that next() would deliver, already cast to Statement ). The Statement interface provides accessor methods to the subject, predicate and bf skinner contributions object of genre of horror a statement. Bf Skinner? Now we will use that interface to extend tutorial2 to list all the statements created and kennedy print them out. The complete code for this can be found in tutorial 3. Since the object of a statement can be either a resource or a literal, the getObject() method returns an bf skinner to psychology, object typed as RDFNode , which is a common superclass of both Resource and Literal . The underlying object is of the appropriate type, so the code uses instanceof to kennedy determine which and bf skinner contributions processes it accordingly.

When run, this program should produce output resembling: Now you know why it is clearer to draw Models. If you look carefully, you will see that each line consists of three fields representing the subject, predicate and stigma goffman object of each statement. There are four arcs in the Model, so there are four statements. Contributions To Psychology? The anon:14df86:ecc3dee17b:-7fff is an internal identifier generated by erving goffman, Jena. It is not a URI and should not be confused with one. It is contributions simply an internal label used by the Jena implementation.

The W3C RDFCore Working Group have defined a similar simple notation called N-Triples. The name means triple notation. We will see in the next section that Jena has an N-Triples writer built in. Jena has methods for reading and genre of horror writing RDF as XML. To Psychology? These can be used to save an RDF model to a file and later read it back in again.

Tutorial 3 created a model and wrote it out in triple form. Tutorial 4 modifies tutorial 3 to write the model in RDF XML form to the standard output stream. The code again, is very simple: model.write can take an OutputStream argument. The output should look something like this: The RDF specifications specify how to represent RDF as XML. The RDF XML syntax is moneyball quite complex. The reader is bf skinner contributions referred to the primer being developed by the RDFCore WG for a more detailed introduction. However, let's take a quick look at how to interpret the above. RDF is usually embedded in is packet, an rdf:RDF element. Contributions? The element is optional if there are other ways of knowing that some XML is RDF, but it is usually present. Genre Of Horror? The RDF element defines the two namespaces used in bf skinner, the document.

There is then an rdf:Description element which describes the resource whose URI is Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay http://somewhere/JohnSmith. If the rdf:about attribute was missing, this element would represent a blank node. The vcard:FN element describes a property of the resource. The property name is the bf skinner contributions to psychology, FN in tech essay, the vcard namespace. RDF converts this to a URI reference by concatenating the URI reference for the namespace prefix and FN, the local name part of the name. This gives a URI reference of http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#FN.

The value of the property is the literal John Smith. The vcard:N element is a resource. Bf Skinner? In this case the resource is represented by a relative URI reference. RDF converts this to an absolute URI reference by concatenating it with the base URI of the current document. There is an error in this RDF XML; it does not exactly represent the Model we created.

The blank node in the Model has been given a URI reference. It is no longer blank. The RDF/XML syntax is not capable of genre of horror representing all RDF Models; for example it cannot represent a blank node which is the object of two statements. The 'dumb' writer we used to write this RDF/XML makes no attempt to write correctly the subset of Models which can be written correctly. It gives a URI to each blank node, making it no longer blank. Jena has an bf skinner, extensible interface which allows new writers for different serialization languages for RDF to be easily plugged in. The above call invoked the standard 'dumb' writer. Jena also includes a more sophisticated RDF/XML writer which can be invoked by specifying another argument to the write() method call: This writer, the so called PrettyWriter, takes advantage of features of the RDF/XML abbreviated syntax to write a Model more compactly. John? It is also able to preserve blank nodes where that is possible.

It is bf skinner however, not suitable for writing very large Models, as its performance is unlikely to moneyball free be acceptable. To write large files and bf skinner to psychology preserve blank nodes, write in N-Triples format: This will produce output similar to that of tutorial 3 which conforms to the N-Triples specification. Tutorial 5 demonstrates reading the statements recorded in RDF XML form into virginia essay, a model. With this tutorial, we have provided a small database of vcards in contributions, RDF/XML form. The following code will read it in and write it out. Note that for this application to run, the input file must be in the current directory. The second argument to the read() method call is the URI which will be used for resolving relative URI's. As there are no relative URI references in the test file, it is allowed to be empty. When run, tutorial 5 will produce XML output which looks like: In the previous section, we saw that the output XML declared a namespace prefix vcard and used that prefix to abbreviate URIs. While RDF uses only the full URIs, and not this shortened form, Jena provides ways of controlling the namespaces used on output with its prefix mappings . Here's a simple example. The output from this fragment is three lots of RDF/XML, with three different prefix mappings.

First the default, with no prefixes other than the standard ones: We see that the rdf namespace is declared automatically, since it is required for tags such as rdf:RDF and rdf:resource . XML namespace declarations are also needed for using the tech, two properties P and Q, but since their prefixes have not been introduced to the model in this example, they get invented namespace names: j.0 and j.1 . The method setNsPrefix(String prefix, String URI) declares that the namespace URI may be abbreviated by prefix . Jena requires that prefix be a legal XML namespace name, and that URI ends with a non-name character. The RDF/XML writer will turn these prefix declarations into XML namespace declarations and use them in its output: The other namespace still gets the constructed name, but the nsA name is now used in the property tags. Contributions? There's no need for the prefix name to have anything to do with the variables in the Jena code: Both prefixes are used for output, and no generated prefixes are needed. Take the output produced by the previous fragment, and paste it into some file, with URL file:/tmp/fragment.rdf say.

Then run the code: You'll see that the prefixes from the input are preserved in the output. All the prefixes are written, even if they're not used anywhere. You can remove a prefix with removeNsPrefix(String prefix) if you don't want it in is packet sniffing, the output. Since NTriples doesn't have any short way of writing URIs, it takes no notice of prefixes on bf skinner to psychology output and john assassination doesn't provide any on input. The notation N3 , also supported by Jena, does have short prefixed names, and bf skinner to psychology records them on input and uses them on output. Jena has further operations on the prefix mappings that a model holds, such as extracting a Java Map of the exiting mappings, or adding a whole group of mappings at once; see the documentation for PrefixMapping for details. Stigma Erving? Jena is a Java API for semantic web applications. The key RDF package for bf skinner contributions to psychology the application developer is org.apache.jena.rdf.model . John Kennedy? The API has been defined in contributions to psychology, terms of interfaces so that application code can work with different implementations without change. This package contains interfaces for representing models, resources, properties, literals, statements and all the other key concepts of RDF, and a ModelFactory for creating models. So that application code remains independent of the implementation, it is best if it uses interfaces wherever possible, not specific class implementations.

The org.apache.jena.tutorial package contains the working source code for all the examples used in this tutorial. The org.apache.jena. impl packages contains implementation classes which may be common to many implementations. For example, they defines classes ResourceImpl , PropertyImpl , and LiteralImpl which may be used directly or subclassed by different implementations. Applications should rarely, if ever, use these classes directly. For example, rather than creating a new instance of ResourceImpl , it is better to use the createResource method of whatever model is moneyball movie free being used. That way, if the model implementation has used an bf skinner to psychology, optimized implementation of Resource , then no conversions between the two types will be necessary. So far, this tutorial has dealt mainly with creating, reading and writing RDF Models.

It is now time to stigma goffman deal with accessing information held in a Model. Given the URI of a resource, the resource object can be retrieved from bf skinner a model using the Model.getResource(String uri) method. This method is defined to moneyball movie free return a Resource object if one exists in the model, or otherwise to create a new one. For example, to retrieve the John Smith resource from the model read in from the file in tutorial 5: The Resource interface defines a number of contributions methods for accessing the properties of a resource. Stigma Erving Goffman? The Resource.getProperty(Property p) method accesses a property of the resource. This method does not follow the usual Java accessor convention in bf skinner, that the Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay, type of the object returned is Statement, not the Property that you might have expected. Returning the whole statement allows the application to contributions to psychology access the value of the property using one of its accessor methods which return the object of the statement. For example to retrieve the resource which is the value of the john assassination, vcard:N property: In general, the object of a statement could be a resource or a literal, so the application code, knowing the value must be a resource, casts the returned object. One of the things that Jena tries to do is to provide type specific methods so the application does not have to cast and type checking can be done at compile time.

The code fragment above, can be more conveniently written: Similarly, the literal value of to psychology a property can be retrieved: In this example, the vcard resource has only one vcard:FN and one vcard:N property. RDF permits a resource to repeat a property; for example Adam might have more than one nickname. Let's give him two: As noted before, Jena represents an RDF Model as set of statements, so adding a statement with the subject, predicate and object as one already in genre of horror, the Model will have no effect. Jena does not define which of the two nicknames present in the Model will be returned. The result of calling vcard.getProperty(VCARD.NICKNAME) is indeterminate. Jena will return one of the values, but there is no guarantee even that two consecutive calls will return the bf skinner, same value. If it is The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare possible that a property may occur more than once, then the Resource.listProperties(Property p) method can be used to return an iterator which will list them all. This method returns an iterator which returns objects of type Statement . Bf Skinner To Psychology? We can list the nicknames like this: This code can be found in tutorial 6. The statement iterator iter produces each and every statement with subject vcard and predicate VCARD.NICKNAME , so looping over it allows us to moneyball free fetch each statement by using nextStatement() , get the object field, and convert it to a string.

The code produces the following output when run: All the properties of a resource can be listed by using the listProperties() method without an argument. The previous section dealt with the case of navigating a model from bf skinner contributions a resource with a known URI. This section deals with searching a model. The core Jena API supports only a limited query primitive. The more powerful query facilities of SPARQL are described elsewhere. The Model.listStatements() method, which lists all the statements in a model, is perhaps the crudest way of virginia querying a model. Its use is not recommended on to psychology very large Models.

Model.listSubjects() is similar, but returns an iterator over all resources that have properties, ie are the subject of some statement. Model.listSubjectsWithProperty(Property p, RDFNode o) will return an iterator over genre of horror, all the resources which have property p with value o . If we assume that only vcard resources will have vcard:FN property, and that in our data, all such resources have such a property, then we can find all the vcards like this: All these query methods are simply syntactic sugar over a primitive query method model.listStatements(Selector s) . This method returns an iterator over all the statements in the model 'selected' by s . The selector interface is designed to be extensible, but for now, there is only one implementation of it, the contributions, class SimpleSelector from the package org.apache.jena.rdf.model . Using SimpleSelector is one of the rare occasions in Jena when it is necessary to use a specific class rather than an interface. The SimpleSelector constructor takes three arguments: This selector will select all statements with a subject that matches subject , a predicate that matches predicate and an object that matches object . If a null is stigma erving supplied in any of the positions, it matches anything; otherwise they match corresponding equal resources or literals. Bf Skinner Contributions? (Two resources are equal if they have equal URIs or are the same blank node; two literals are the same if all their components are equal.) Thus: will select all the statements in a Model. will select all the statements with VCARD.FN as their predicate, whatever the subject or object. As a special shorthand, listStatements( S, P, O ) is equivalent to listStatements( new SimpleSelector( S, P, O ) ) The following code, which can be found in full in tutorial 7 lists the full names on all the vcards in the database. Virginia? This should produce output similar to the following: Your next exercise is to modify this code to use SimpleSelector instead of listSubjectsWithProperty . Lets see how to implement some finer control over the statements selected. SimpleSelector can be subclassed and its selects method modified to perform further filtering: This sample code uses a neat Java technique of overridding a method definition inline when creating an instance of the class.

Here the contributions to psychology, selects(. ) method checks to free ensure that the full name ends with Smith. It is important to note that filtering based on the subject, predicate and object arguments takes place before the selects(. ) method is called, so the extra test will only be applied to matching statements. The full code can be found in tutorial 8 and produces output like this: You might think that: is equivalent to: Whilst functionally they may be equivalent, the first form will list all the statements in the Model and test each one individually, whilst the second allows indexes maintained by the implementation to improve performance. Try it on a large Model and see for yourself, but make a cup of coffee first. Jena provides three operations for manipulating Models as a whole.

These are the common set operations of union, intersection and difference. The union of two Models is the union of the sets of contributions statements which represent each Model. This is one of the key operations that the virginia, design of RDF supports. It enables data from disparate data sources to be merged. Consider the following two Models: When these are merged, the two http://. JohnSmith nodes are merged into one and the duplicate vcard:FN arc is dropped to produce: Lets look at the code to bf skinner to psychology do this (the full code is in tutorial 9) and see what happens. Stigma Erving Goffman? The output produced by the pretty writer looks like this: Even if you are unfamiliar with the details of the RDF/XML syntax, it should be reasonably clear that the Models have merged as expected. The intersection and difference of the Models can be computed in contributions, a similar manner, using the methods .intersection(Model) and .difference(Model) ; see the genre of horror, difference and intersection Javadocs for more details. RDF defines a special kind of resources for representing collections of things.

These resources are called containers . The members of a container can be either literals or resources. There are three kinds of container: a BAG is an unordered collection an ALT is an unordered collection intended to represent alternatives a SEQ is an bf skinner contributions, ordered collection. A container is represented by erving, a resource. That resource will have an rdf:type property whose value should be one of rdf:Bag, rdf:Alt or rdf:Seq, or a subclass of one of these, depending on bf skinner the type of the Accuracy of Shakespeare, container. The first member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_1 property; the second member of the container is the value of the container's rdf:_2 property and so on. The rdf:_nnn properties are known as the bf skinner to psychology, ordinal properties . For example, the Model for a simple bag containing the vcards of the Smith's might look like this: Whilst the members of the bag are represented by is packet sniffing, the properties rdf:_1, rdf:_2 etc the ordering of the properties is bf skinner not significant. We could switch the values of the rdf:_1 and rdf:_2 properties and the resulting Model would represent the same information. Alt's are intended to represent alternatives. For example, lets say a resource represented a software product.

It might have a property to indicate where it might be obtained from. The value of that property might be an Alt collection containing various sites from genre of horror which it could be downloaded. Alt's are unordered except that the rdf:_1 property has special significance. It represents the default choice. Bf Skinner Contributions? Whilst containers can be handled using the basic machinery of john kennedy resources and to psychology properties, Jena has explicit interfaces and implementation classes to handle them. It is not a good idea to have an object manipulating a container, and at the same time to of Shakespeare modify the state of that container using the lower level methods. Let's modify tutorial 8 to bf skinner contributions create this bag: If we write out this Model, it contains something like the following: which represents the moneyball, Bag resource.

The container interface provides an iterator to to psychology list the contents of a container: which produces the following output: Executable example code can be found in tutorial 10, which glues together the fragments above into a complete example. The Jena classes offer methods for manipulating containers including adding new members, inserting new members into the middle of a container and removing existing members. The Jena container classes currently ensure that the the list of ordinal properties used starts at rdf:_1 and stigma erving goffman is contiguous. The RDFCore WG have relaxed this contraint, which allows partial representation of contributions to psychology containers. This therefore is an area of Jena may be changed in the future. More about Literals and Datatypes. RDF literals are not just simple strings. Virginia? Literals may have a language tag to indicate the contributions to psychology, language of the literal. The literal chat with an English language tag is The Historical Accuracy Essay considered different to bf skinner the literal chat with a French language tag. This rather strange behaviour is an virginia essay, artefact of the original RDF/XML syntax.

Further there are really two sorts of bf skinner Literals. Virginia Tech? In one, the string component is just that, an ordinary string. In the other the string component is expected to be a well balanced fragment of XML. When an bf skinner contributions, RDF Model is written as RDF/XML a special construction using a parseType='Literal' attribute is The Historical Accuracy used to represent it. In Jena, these attributes of a literal may be set when the literal is constructed, e.g. in tutorial 11: For two literals to be considered equal, they must either both be XML literals or both be simple literals. In addition, either both must have no language tag, or if language tags are present they must be equal. For simple literals the strings must be equal. XML literals have two notions of equality.

The simple notion is that the conditions previously mentioned are true and the strings are also equal. Contributions? The other notion is that they can be equal if the canonicalization of their strings is equal. Jena's interfaces also support typed literals. The old-fashioned way (shown below) treats typed literals as shorthand for strings: typed values are converted in the usual Java way to strings and these strings are stored in the Model. For example, try (noting that for simple literals, we can omit the model.createLiteral (. Accuracy? ) call): The output produced is: Since both literals are really just the string 11, then only to psychology, one statement is added. The RDFCore WG has defined mechanisms for supporting datatypes in is packet sniffing, RDF. Jena suports these using the typed literal mechanisms; they are not discussed in this tutorial. The identifier of an RDF resource can include a fragment identifier, e.g. http://hostname/rdf/tutorial/#ch-Introduction, so, strictly speaking, an bf skinner to psychology, RDF resource is identified by a URI reference. As well as being a string of characters, literals also have an optional language encoding to represent the language of the string. For example the literal two might have a language encoding of en for English and The Historical Accuracy Essay the literal deux might have a language encoding of fr for France. [1]: sparql_data/vc-db-1.rdf. Copyright 20112017 The Apache Software Foundation, Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.

Apache Jena, Jena, the Apache Jena project logo, Apache and bf skinner to psychology the Apache feather logos are trademarks of genre of horror The Apache Software Foundation.

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This web page lays out some often-ignored principles of feline nutrition and bf skinner contributions to psychology explains why cats have a better chance at optimal health if they are fed canned food (or a balanced homemade diet) instead of dry kibble . Putting a little thought into john kennedy, what you feed your cat(s) can pay big dividends over their lifetime and very possibly help them avoid serious, painful, and costly illnesses. An increasing number of contributions to psychology, nutrition-savvy veterinarians, including board-certified veterinary internists, are now strongly recommending the genre of horror feeding of contributions to psychology, canned food instead of dry kibble. The three key negative issues associated with dry food are: 1) water content is too low. 2) carbohydrate load is The Historical Accuracy Essay too high. 3) type of protein – too high in plant-based versus animal-based proteins. In addition, dry food is very heavily processed which includes being subjected to high temperatures for a long time resulting in alteration and destruction of nutrients. Dry food is also often contaminated with bacteria, fungal mycotoxins, storage mites/cockroaches and bf skinner their feces, etc. Most people who are concerned about their own nutrition have heard nutritionists say “shop the perimeter of the grocery store.” This statement refers to the push to get humans to focus on fresh food – not overly processed food found in boxes and cans. Where do you think kibble would reside in this scenario? Definitely not in The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay, the “perimeter”!

There is nothing fresh about bf skinner to psychology this source of food and it certainly does not come close to resembling a bird or a mouse. Also keep in mind that dry foods are not refrigerated and they sit in is packet sniffing illegal, warm warehouses, on pet store shelves, and in bf skinner contributions to psychology, your cupboards for weeks or months before your pets consume them. Fats can easily become rancid, and bacteria will proliferate, in this type of environment. There is no doubt that dry food is responsible for far more intestinal problems, and other diseases, than most veterinarians and cat owners realize. Please click on the links below to read more about optimal nutrition for cats. My Cat is Doing Just “Fine” on Dry Food!

Every living creature is “fine” until outward signs of a disease process are exhibited. John Assassination. That may sound like a very obvious and bf skinner to psychology basic statement but if you think about The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare it…… Every cat with a blocked urinary tract was “fine” until they started to strain to bf skinner contributions to psychology urinate and is packet illegal either died from bf skinner a ruptured bladder or had to virginia be rushed to the hospital for emergency catheterization. Every cat on the Feline Diabetes Message Board was “fine” until their owners started to bf skinner to psychology recognize the signs of diabetes. Every cat with an inflamed bladder (cystitis) was “fine” until they ended up in severe pain, started passing blood in their urine, and began to refuse to movie free use their litter box because they associated it with their pain. Every cat was “fine” until the feeding of species-inappropriate, hyperallergenic ingredients caught up with him and he started to show signs of food intolerance/IBD (inflammatory bowel disease). Every cat was “fine” until that kidney or bladder stone got big enough to bf skinner to psychology cause clinical signs. Every cancer patient was “fine” until their tumor grew large enough or spread far enough so that clinical signs were observed by the patient.

The point is that diseases ‘brew’ long before being noticed by the living being. This is why the kennedy statement “but my cat is bf skinner contributions to psychology healthy/fine on genre of horror, dry food” means very little to me because I believe in contributions, preventative nutrition – not locking the barn door after the horse is gone. I don’t want to of Shakespeare end up saying “oops……I guess he is not so fine now!!” when a patient presents to me with a medical problem that could have been avoided if he would have been feed a species-appropriate diet to begin with. Of course, in order to be on board with the preventative nutrition argument, a person has to bf skinner contributions understand the following facts: 1 ) All urinary tract systems are much healthier with an appropriate amount of moneyball movie, water flowing through them. 2) Carbohydrates can wreak havoc on cats’ blood sugar/insulin balance. 3) Cats inherently have a low thirst drive and need to consume water *with* their food. (A cat’s normal prey is.

70 – 75% water – not the very low 5-10% found in dry food.) 4) Cats are strict carnivores which means they are designed to get their protein from meat/organs – not plants. Cats are obligate (strict) carnivores and are very different from dogs in their nutritional needs. What does it mean to contributions to psychology be an virginia tech essay, ‘obligate carnivore’? It means that your cat was built by Mother Nature to get her nutritional needs met by the consumption of a large amount of animal-based proteins (meat/organs) and derives much less nutritional support from plant-based proteins (grains/vegetables). It means that cats lack specific metabolic (enzymatic) pathways and cannot utilize plant proteins as efficiently as animal proteins. It is very important to remember that not all proteins are created equal. Proteins derived from animal tissues have a complete amino acid profile. (Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Think of them as pieces of a puzzle.) Plant-based proteins do not contain the full complement (puzzle pieces) of the critical amino acids required by an obligate carnivore. The quality and composition of a protein (are all of the puzzle pieces present?) is bf skinner to psychology also referred to as its biological value . Humans and dogs can take the genre of horror pieces of the contributions puzzle in genre of horror, the plant protein and, from those, make the missing pieces.

Cats cannot do this. This is why humans and dogs can live on a vegetarian diet but cats cannot. (Note that I do not recommend vegetarian diets for dogs.) Taurine is to psychology one of the most important nutrients present in meat but it is missing from john kennedy assassination plants. Taurine deficiency will cause blindness and heart problems in cats. The protein in contributions to psychology, dry food, which is often heavily plant-based, is not equal in quality to the protein in canned food, which is The Historical of Shakespeare meat-based . Contributions. The protein in dry food, therefore, earns a lower biological value score. Because plant proteins are cheaper than meat proteins, pet food companies will have a higher profit margin when using corn, wheat, soy, rice, etc. Andy – 18 years ago as a kitten. He still enjoys his meat! Veterinary nutritionists and pet food company representatives will argue that they are smart enough to know *exactly* what is missing from a plant in terms of moneyball movie, nutrient forms and amounts – nutrients that would otherwise be in a meat-based diet. They will then claim that these missing elements are added to their diets to make it complete and balanced to sustain life in an obligate carnivore. Does anyone really think that humans are that smart?

This is the to psychology kind of arrogance that has led to fatal errors in the past. Not all that long ago (1980s) cats were going blind and genre of horror dying from heart problems due to this arrogance. It was discovered in the late 1980s that cats are exquisitely sensitive to taurine deficiency and our cats were paying dearly for humans straying so far from nature in contributions, order to increase the profit margin of the pet food manufacturers. There are several situations that can lead to virginia essay a diet being deficient in bf skinner contributions, taurine but one of is packet illegal, them is using a diet that relies heavily on bf skinner to psychology, plants (grains, etc.) as its source of protein. Instead of lowering their profit margin and going back to nature by adding more meat to the diets, the genre of horror pet food companies simple started supplementing their diets with synthetic taurine.

This may be all well and good for this particular problem, but how do we know that we are not blindly going along unaware of other critical nutrients that are missing from a plant-based diet? Why are nutritionists so arrogant to think that we can safely stray so far from contributions to psychology what a cat is designed by nature to eat? Also note that synthetic taurine is manufactured from a chemical reaction and all taurine (at least that I know of) comes out of China. Given that country’s horrible track record with regard to food safety, I certainly would not want to depend on taurine from is packet sniffing China’s chemical synthesis to meet my cats’ taurine needs. With regard to the overall protein amounts contained in dry versus canned food, do not be confused by the listing of the protein percentages on the packaging. At first glance, it might appear that the bf skinner to psychology dry food has a higher amount of protein than the Accuracy canned food—but this is not true on a dry matter basis which considers the food minus the water. Most canned foods, when figured on a dry matter basis, have more protein than dry food. Contributions To Psychology. And remember, even if this was not the case, the percentage numbers do not tell the whole story. It is the protein’s biological value that is critical. Let’s ask ourselves the following question: How many cats become ill or die from goffman these species-inappropriate diets yet the patient’s diet is contributions never even questioned as a possible cause of the illness or death? We cannot answer that question definitively but I have no doubt that the answer would be “many”.

Do cats survive on john kennedy assassination, these heavily (synthetically) supplemented plant-based diets? Yes, many of them do. Do cats thrive on these diets? No, they do not. Please pay special attention to the words *survive* versus *thrive* as there is a very big difference between the two states of bf skinner contributions to psychology, health. Robbie – hunting his dinner. Fresh vs Highly Processed with Synthetic Supplements. There are two basic ways to meet our nutrient needs: Eat fresh food with a short ingredient list – or at least one that does not resemble a science experiment full of genre of horror, long names that are hard to pronounce. Eat highly processed foods that have had much of contributions, their nutrient content destroyed or altered, with food chemists ‘fixing’ the moneyball deficit with synthetic supplements. This type of bf skinner contributions to psychology, unhealthy diet is consumed under the assumption that humans know exactly what was destroyed or altered during processing and what needs to be added back and in what form and amount.

Again, people are simply not that smart. While canned food is genre of horror not ‘fresh,’ per se, dry food undergoes a harsher processing. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. It has been cooked at very high temperatures for a long period of john assassination, time. The extensive cooking required to remove most of the water from the food (70% moisture reduced to 5-10% moisture) significantly alters the biological value of the protein sources and damages other vital nutrients. Nutritionists then have to guess which nutrients – in what form and bf skinner to psychology amounts – were destroyed by this cooking process and then try to add them back into genre of horror, the diet. Occasionally ‘real food’ is used instead of synthetic supplements but those long and hard-to-pronounce names on the ingredient list describe chemically synthesized nutrients. Given that humans will never be as smart as nature – we will never know every detail of a cat’s normal prey – it is obvious that there is a risk when greed cause humans to stray so far from a cat’s natural diet.

We Are Feeding Cats Too Many Carbohydrates. Note: I have stopped using the term “grain-free” since it has become somewhat meaningless. Many companies (e.g., Blue Buffalo) tout that their products are “grain free” but then they just load up the contributions food with high carbohydrate ingredients like potatoes and peas which are not grains but still contribute a significant carb load (and plant-based protein) to genre of horror the food. The “grain-free” descriptive has become very deceptive and misleading. In their natural setting, cats—whose unique biology makes them true carnivores–would not consume the bf skinner to psychology high level of carbohydrates (grains, potatoes, peas, etc.) that are in the dry foods (and some canned foods) that we routinely feed them. You would never see a wild cat chasing down a herd of biscuits running across the plains of Africa or dehydrating her mouse and topping it off with corn meal. In the wild, your cat would be eating a high protein, high-moisture, meat/organ-based diet, with a moderate level of fat and moneyball movie with only contributions approximately 1-2 percent of her diet consisting of carbohydrates . The average dry food contains 35-50 percent carbohydrate calories. Some of the cheaper dry foods contain even higher levels. This is NOT the diet that Mother Nature intended for your cat to is packet sniffing eat.

Many canned foods, on the other hand, contain approximately less than 10 percent carbohydrates. Please note that not all canned foods are suitably low in bf skinner, carbohydrates. For instance, most of the Hill’s Science Diet (over-the-counter) and genre of horror the Hill’s ‘prescription’ diets are very high in carbohydrates and bf skinner are not foods that I would ever choose to feed. Cats have a physiological decrease in the ability to essay utilize carbohydrates due to bf skinner contributions the lack of specific enzymatic pathways that are present in other mammals, and they lack a salivary enzyme called amylase. Cats have no dietary need for carbohydrates and, more worrisome is the fact that a diet that is high in free, carbohydrates can be detrimental to their health as explained below.

With this in mind, it is as illogical to bf skinner contributions feed a carnivore a steady diet of meat-flavored cereals as it would be to feed meat to a vegetarian like a horse or a cow, right? So why are we continuing to feed our carnivores like herbivores? Why are we feeding such a species-inappropriate diet? The answers are simple. Grains/potatoes are cheap. Dry food is convenient. Affordability and convenience sells. However, is a carbohydrate-laden, plant-based, water-depleted dry food the best diet for our cats?

Absolutely not. Obligate carnivores are designed to eat meat/organs – not grains/vegetables – and they need to consume water with their food as explained below. Opie’s pictorial at Feline Urinary Tract Diseases is a ‘must see’ for any cat caregiver who insists on feeding dry food. The first paragraph of essay, that page is as follows: If I could have the reader of this webpage take away just one word from this discussion, it would be “water.” If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned (or homemade) food – and no dry food – you stand a very good chance of bf skinner contributions to psychology, never needing to read this webpage. Water is an extremely important nutrient that contributes to overall health in every living creature. Couple this with the erving fact that cats do not have a very strong thirst drive when compared to other species, and you will understand why it is critical for them to ingest a water-rich diet. Bf Skinner Contributions. The cat’s lack of a strong thirst drive can lead to low-level, chronic dehydration when dry food makes up the virginia essay bulk of their diet especially if they have any level of kidney insufficiency. A cat’s normal prey contains approximately 70 – 75 percent water.

Dry food only contains 5-10 percent water whereas canned foods contain approximately 78 percent water. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. Canned foods therefore more closely approximate the natural diet of the cat and are better suited to meet the cat’s water needs. I hear the reader saying: “But my cat drinks a lot of water so dry food is just fine for him!” A cat consuming a predominantly dry food diet does drink more water than a cat consuming a canned food diet, but in the end, when water from sniffing all sources is added together (what’s in their diet plus what they drink), the cat on dry food consumes approximately half the amount of water compared with a cat eating canned food. Put another way, a cat on contributions, a canned food diet consumes approximately double the amount of The Historical, water consumed by a cat eating dry food when all sources (food and to psychology water bowl) are considered. This is is packet sniffing illegal a crucial point when one considers how common kidney and bladder problems are in the cat. Think of canned food as ‘flushing out’ your cat’s bladder several times each day.

Please keep in mind that when your cat starts eating a more appropriately hydrated diet of canned food, his urine output will increase which is a very good thing for bladder health. Because of this increase in urine production , litter boxes need to be scooped more frequently or more boxes need to be added to the home. Please see The Litter Box From Your Cat’s Point of bf skinner contributions, View for reasons why I strongly feel that clumping litter is the only sanitary choice of litter to use for cats. Non-clumping litters do not allow you to remove all of the urine and The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare are not sanitary litters. Toby – very lean, energetic and athletic on a proper diet. He is 18 years old and still runs around like a kitten. Learn How To Read a Pet Food Ingredient Label. For more details regarding pet food ingredient labels, see Commercial Foods. Note: If you are tempted to write to me to bf skinner contributions ask what food you should feed to your cat, understand that specific advice cannot be provided via email. Stigma. If someone wants to discuss the information contained on this site in more detail, an appointment for a phone consultation needs to contributions be set up. Before you get too confused and frustrated when reading this section, I will say at the outset: I would much rather see a cat eat any canned food versus any dry food – regardless of quality level of the canned or dry food.

This includes Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc., canned options. I am so tired of seeing cats suffering tremendously from blocked urethras and other urinary tract diseases because of is packet sniffing, Man’s love affair with dry food. Try not to drive yourself nuts when picking out contributions a canned cat food. The fact that you are feeding canned food and is packet sniffing illegal not dry food is 90% of the battle so just do the best that you can – given the contributions to psychology information below, the information on the Commercial Foods page, and also the assassination Cat Food Composition chart linked in the sidebar for future reference. When using that chart, just focus on contributions to psychology, the first four columns and the last column if you care about calories/can. Genre Of Horror. The first four columns show the to psychology caloric distribution which is the best way to analyze food. I ignore the dry matter basis columns.

I mentioned above that you should refrain from “driving yourself nuts” but after becoming increasingly frustrated with the commercial pet food industry in 2003, I started making my cats’ food. See Making Cat Food for more information. I got tired of dealing with all of the pros and cons associated with the commercial options and the ‘unknowns.’ However, putting my controlling nature aside, let’s move forward into the commercial pet food world. When reading this section, two words need to be firmly in your mind: composition (the percentage of protein, fat, and Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay carbohydrate in the food) ingredients. Unfortunately, pet food labels are not held to the same standard as human food labels. This means that pet food labels are seriously lacking in usable information when compared to a package of food for a human. The “guaranteed analysis” numbers that you find on a can of food for protein, fat, and water (moisture) are listed as “minimums” and “maximums” which, by definition, are inaccurate. Plus, the labels never list the carbohydrate amount which is bf skinner contributions to psychology very frustrating because we are trying to stay under 10% carbohydrate calories. This makes it impossible to accurately evaluate the food in is packet, terms of composition unless you are willing to call the company and bf skinner contributions ask for their ‘ typical nutrient analysis ‘ which is data that comes from tech essay testing an actual batch of food. During the summer of 2012, I spent over 1,000 hours calling.

45 pet food companies to gather data for my Cat Food Composition chart. However, understand that pet food companies can change their formulations at any point in time so if you desire the most up-to-date information, you will need to call the individual companies. The ingredient list can help us out – but only in some ways. For instance, if you do not see high carbohydrate ingredients such as grains, potatoes, peas, etc., listed on bf skinner contributions to psychology, the label, it is a safe bet that the food is Accuracy low in carbohydrates. However, if these high carbohydrate ingredients are listed, you have no idea of the amount in the food and, therefore, no knowledge of the carbohydrate level. Without knowing the actual amount of contributions, each ingredient, we have no indication of the impact of the The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay ingredient on the nutritional profile of the food. Only the composition value will answer that question. This is why it is important to not just consider the list of ingredients but to also look at the Cat Food Composition chart, or call the company for the information. A good example of the above issue is a food like canned Wellness.

At first glance, this food may be dismissed as inappropriate for contributions to psychology a carnivore because it contains several high carbohydrate ingredients in moneyball movie, the form of contributions to psychology, fruits and vegetables, including potatoes which are very high in starch (carbohydrate). However, the low carbohydrate level (3-5%) tells us that the amount of fruits and vegetables is tech very low. Again, we would like to to psychology stay under 10% of calories coming from carbohydrates. Grains and potatoes should be absent from a cat’s diet but, unfortunately, they are cheap so they are included in many commercial cat foods. Think ‘profit margin’. Grains/potatoes are cheaper than meat. Stay away from food with gravy and sauces because they usually use high carbohydrate thickeners. Soy contains phytoestrogens and soy also negatively influences the thyroid gland. Given how common hyperthyroidism is in the cat, soy has no business being in cat food.

Unfortunately, soy is a common ingredient used by many pet food manufacturers – especially Purina – because it enhances their profit margin. When considering allergies , the ingredient list is useful since we don’t care how much of the offending ingredient is in the food. The Historical Of Shakespeare Essay. The bottom line is contributions that we don’t want any of the ingredient to be present. Fish/seafood, beef, lamb, corn, wheat, and soy tend to be the most hyperallergenic ingredients for the cat – especially fish/seafood. By-products are always a controversial subject but it makes much more sense to john kennedy feed animal-based by-products to contributions to psychology a cat than it does to feed grains or potatoes. Therefore, do not shy away from the more economical foods like Friskies or 9-Lives if you cannot afford the more expensive canned foods without by-products. I would much rather see a cat eating an all-by-product canned food than any dry food. This is stigma erving goffman because even the cheaper canned foods have the ‘Big Three’ covered: 1) high in water. 2) usually low in contributions to psychology, carbohydrates.

3) the moneyball movie protein is from animals – not plants. By-products are not necessarily low quality protein sources. In fact, they can be extremely nutritious. However, there is contributions to psychology more variability when quality is being considered when compared to tech essay muscle meat. By-products are discussed in bf skinner to psychology, more detail on the Commercial Foods page in this section. The higher priced canned foods that I referenced above, have a muscle meat listed as the first ingredient. A muscle meat will be listed as “chicken,” or “turkey,” etc., not “chicken by-products” or “chicken by-product meal,” or “chicken broth” or “liver”.

“Chicken meal” is technically a muscle meat but the virginia term “meal” denotes that it has been rendered (cooked for a long time at very high temperatures) and is lower in quality than meat that has not been as heavily processed. Bf Skinner To Psychology. A “meal” product is more commonly found in dry foods. By-products can include feet, intestines, feathers, egg shells, etc., which are less nutritious (less biologically valuable/digestible) than meat. Avoid foods listing “liver” as a first ingredient. (Example: Purina’s prescription diet DM canned for moneyball movie free feline diabetic patients. There are far better options available that are healthier and contributions to psychology not as expensive.) Liver is a very nutritious organ meat – and should be present in john, small amounts – but it should never be the first ingredient as it is very high in vitamin A and possibly D and you don’t want to feed too much of those vitamins. Liver is cheaper than muscle meat so it will increase a company’s profit margin when used in high amounts. Preservatives are important ingredients that we need to pay attention to.

BHA, BHT, and contributions ethoxyquin are extremely questionable in terms of safety. Please note that Hill’s has always used BHT, and ethoxyquin in many of john kennedy, their products although recently I have noticed that these chemicals have been removed from some of their foods. To Psychology. Be sure to check the virginia current labels. Other companies abandoned the practice of using these chemicals as preservatives long ago – opting for more natural and safer methods. Also, please take note of a recent deceptive move by bf skinner Hill’s whereby they have incorporated into their labeling the essay word “maize” as a substitute for the word “corn”. Maize IS corn and since this company is well aware of the fact that consumers are becoming more savvy about pet food ingredients, they have decided to try to disguise the to psychology corn in their diets by calling it “maize”. Hill’s is hoping that consumers stay ignorant regarding the fact that maize is corn. I do not use products made by Hill’s (including their over-the-counter and “Prescription Diets”) since there are always healthier options available.

Marketing labels such as “ natural, ” or “ premium, ” or “ veterinarian recommended, ” or “prescription” are not necessarily indicative of essay, high quality so please be careful not to fall into contributions, that trap. “ Indoor only ” is another meaningless marketing label that is nothing more than an enticing gimmick. This label originally started out in stigma, the dry food market but it has now made its way to bf skinner to psychology canned food labels. Kennedy. Cats did not stop being obligate carnivores just because we put a roof over their heads. If you are thinking about bf skinner contributions to psychology feeding any ‘breed-specific’ food, please see this link for some straight-forward comments about the utterly absurd claims that these companies make regarding these diets. Illegal. A Siamese is bf skinner no different from Persian or a Maine Coon – or an stigma goffman, ‘alley cat’ – when considering optimal dietary composition. No matter the breed, the cat is contributions to psychology still an sniffing, obligate carnivore. Royal Canin was one of the first companies to come out with these breed specific diets as a marketing gimmick. The labels on Hill’s over-the-counter products contain a statement that says “Veterinarian Recommended.” Unfortunately, many of my colleagues do, indeed, recommend products made by Hill’s (as well as Purina, Iams, and Royal Canin) and this is bf skinner to psychology a testament to the fact that most veterinarians are not well-versed in tech essay, proper feline nutrition and simply defer to these large companies that have huge marketing budgets. These large budgets include substantial sums of bf skinner, money dedicated to sponsoring – including very heavy advertising – our professional meetings and infiltrating veterinary schools to get students ‘married’ to their products.

Keep in mind that a large marketing budget does not equate with the manufacturing of stigma erving, high quality or healthy products. Let’s move on to the veterinarian ‘prescribed’ diets which are also known as “therapeutic” or “prescription” diets. “ Prescription/therapeutic diet ” is another label that is certainly not indicative of a high quality diet or one that is necessary. These diets represent an area of the commercial cat food industry that is very misleading and, quite frankly, a source of embarrassment for this profession. Many of these very expensive products contain corn, wheat, and soy which have no logical place in your cat’s diet. These diets are often very high in bf skinner contributions, carbohydrates and, of course, all of the dry versions are water-depleted . Virginia Tech Essay. Many of to psychology, them also contain by-products as the main – and stigma erving often only – source of protein. While by-products can be very nutritious (and this really is the least of my concerns regarding these diets), they are cheaper than muscle meat so one would think that as much as these diets cost, the bf skinner contributions to psychology companies could include some muscle meat, in addition to by-products, for a more consistent source of high quality protein. (See by-products on moneyball movie free, the Commercial Food page for more details.) Study the bf skinner contributions ingredient list for Hill’s dry i/d while keeping in mind that cats are obligate carnivores. This dry food is 29% carbohydrates on a dry matter basis and is, of course, water-depleted.

The ingredients are as follows: Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Powdered Cellulose, Dried Chicken, Chicken Liver Flavor. The base ingredients and moneyball composition mirror those of bf skinner to psychology, many dry foods found in pet stores and The Historical Accuracy supermarkets. Also, this is a very good example of the ingredient splitting rule. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. This rule states that ingredients have to be listed very specifically which works in the pet food manufacturers’ favor.

It allows the grain fractions to be broken up into stigma goffman, smaller components which places them lower on the list since ingredients are listed by bf skinner contributions weight. The Historical Accuracy Of Shakespeare Essay. However, when all of the grain fractions are added up, their contribution to bf skinner contributions to psychology the diet (including the protein content) often greatly outweighs the stigma erving first ingredient . I have asked many times on VIN (Veterinary Information Network – the who’s who of veterinary specialists from all over the world) just what makes this diet worthy of being called a “Prescription Diet for contributions to psychology Feline Gastrointestinal Health” or, for that matter, what makes it an optimal diet to feed to any cat? I have never received an answer and the VIN threads have had Hill’s representatives participating. My questions about the quality and composition of their prescription diets are always met with dead silence. It is stigma goffman important to note that most of these diets do not have robust clinical feeding studies supporting their safety for long-term feeding or even for use in treating the contributions to psychology various diseases they target. On the contrary, we have plenty of evidence to show that feeding water-depleted, high carbohydrate, plant-based diets to carnivores does not honor their carnivorous make-up but, instead, promotes disease in this species. It is moneyball movie also critical to understand that there is no independent agency overseeing these diets’ medical claims. Bf Skinner To Psychology. None.

Zero. Including the The Historical Accuracy FDA. The fox is definitely guarding the henhouse and the FDA shows no interest in remedying the situation. The FDA has ‘punted’ the responsibility of scrutinizing these diets for efficacy, safety, and suitability to the veterinarian but most veterinarians are very poorly educated in contributions, the area of nutrition. This field of study is not emphasized in veterinary schools and genre of horror the minimal course work that is required, is bf skinner often taught by The Historical people who have strong ties to the pet food industry. These are also usually the same people who are advising general practitioners on all matters of nutrition. After recognizing this situation, you will see an obvious and very significant conflict of interest. In the end, the members of bf skinner contributions, my profession allow Hill’s, Purina, Iams, and tech essay Royal Canin to dictate what ends up in our patients’ food bowls. Here is an excerpt from the “ Veterinarian-Prescribed Diets/OTC Options” paper that I am working on: ‘Prescription Diet’ trademark – marketing tool creates false perception. As an example of the contributions to psychology serious lack of regulatory oversight, Hill’s secured trademark status for the term “prescription diet” in 1990 thus reinforcing the perception that, like prescription medications, their diets are subject to intense scrutiny and The Historical Accuracy testing.

However, nothing could be further from the bf skinner contributions to psychology truth. There is a strong argument to be made that no trademark protection should be granted for any marketing label containing the genre of horror word “prescription” given the strong potential to seduce the buyers of these products into a false sense of security growing out bf skinner contributions of the assumption that anything labeled “prescription” has been put through multiple layers of regulatory and free testing paces. If any product – including food – is allowed to carry a “prescription” label, it needs to to psychology be held to the same standards as a prescription medication. Otherwise, the word “prescription” becomes no more than a marketing label, and as such, should hold no more credibility than any other marketing slogan. To quote the FDA/CVM Communications Staff Deputy Director: “‘Prescription diet’ is an industry-coined term and holds no legal meaning.” In other words, these diets contain no ingredient that actually requires a prescription. The Historical Essay. The trademarked term “prescription diet” is simply a clever marketing tool between Hill’s and veterinarians . Bf Skinner. The sale of these diets is restricted (by Hill’s, not by law) to veterinarians only. In return, Hill’s enjoys a boost in perception of quality brought about by this profession’s endorsement of their products. However, this perception of quality is genre of horror undeserved and this incestuous relationship jeopardizes the integrity of to psychology, our profession. I want to make it clear that probably 99% of all veterinarians who ‘prescribe’ these diets truly feel that they are doing the best for their patients. The companies (Hill’s, Purina, Iams, Royal Canin) that manufacture the ‘alphabet’ diets have done a wonderful job marketing their products to veterinarians, making it difficult to refrain from falling into genre of horror, the trap of to psychology, using them.

These companies make it very easy for us. If a cat comes in with kidney disease? We can just grab k/d, or NF, or LP without any critical thought. Genre Of Horror. If a cat comes in with a urinary tract problem? Easy – take some c/d off the shelf. Given a veterinarian’s busy schedule and stressful life, one can see just how seductive the use of the ‘alphabet’ diets are. However, contrary to what is often believed by both the veterinarian and the client, the ‘therapeutic/prescription’ diets sold in veterinary hospitals are not formulated for optimal health of bf skinner contributions, a carnivore and, in many cases, are actually detrimental to the patient’s health.

In addition, they are simply not necessary and virginia tech do not optimally address the bf skinner problems they claim to treat. Add to this the very high price tag on these diets and The Historical Accuracy Essay we have what I consider to be a very big ‘black eye’ for bf skinner contributions the profession. The only time I ever use a prescription diet (canned s/d) is discussed here on the Urinary Tract Health page. Canned s/d is occasionally used but only temporarily ( 2-4 weeks) pending re-evaluation of the The Historical of Shakespeare Essay patient. Instead of defaulting to the ‘alphabet’ diets, I can always find an over-the-counter diet or formulate a homemade recipe for my patients that leaves more money in the client’s wallet and much better nutrition in the cat’s food bowl. Regarding making cat food: People often overestimate what it takes to make a nutritious meal for their cat and assume that it means slaving away in bf skinner contributions, the kitchen every day. I can assure you, it is movie much easier than that. Contributions. Since 2003, I have spent a few hours in the kitchen 4-6 times a year making food for my cats which is is packet sniffing a very small price to pay for the control that I have over what goes into their food bowls. I do not feed any commercial food to my own cats and I would definitely never feed them any “prescription” diets. I would love to bf skinner see veterinarians stop being so ‘married’ to the diets they reach for every day and learn the basics of optimal feline nutrition and start considering the use of higher quality, lower cost, over-the-counter – or homemade – diets. Virginia. Their patients – and their clients’ bank account – will be a lot better off for it.

Common Feline Health Problems and Their Ties to Diet. There is a very strong and extremely logical connection between the bf skinner contributions to psychology way that we are currently feeding our obligate carnivores and many of the life-threatening diseases that afflict them. Diabetes: Diabetes is illegal a very serious – and difficult to to psychology manage – disease that is illegal not uncommon in cats. We do not know all of the causes of this complex disease but what we do know is that many diabetic cats cease needing insulin or have their insulin needs significantly decrease once their dietary carbohydrate level is decreased to a more species-appropriate level than that found in many commercial foods. Given this fact, and to psychology given what we know about how the cat processes carbohydrates, it is essay not a stretch to say that high carbohydrate diets could very well be a significant factor in causing diabetes in some cats. Please see this paper discussing the elevated blood glucose in bf skinner contributions to psychology, cats after eating a high carbohydrate meal: There are countless cases of successful diabetic remission when cat caregivers remove all dry food and all high carbohydrate canned food from their cat’s diet. In addition to the issue of carbohydrates and how they affect the blood sugar level of some cats, dry food is very calorie dense, is very palatable, and is usually free-fed.

This often leads to obesity . Fat cells produce a substance that makes the sniffing other cells in contributions, the body resistant to insulin. This promotes the diabetic state. It is very important to understand the impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on the insulin needs of genre of horror, a diabetic cat. If you have decided to start feeding your diabetic cat a low carbohydrate diet, please do not change the diet until you review my Feline Diabetes page – especially the STOP sign section – otherwise you will be putting your cat in danger. Please also be aware that many veterinarians underestimate the bf skinner contributions to psychology favorable impact that a low carbohydrate diet has on genre of horror, the insulin needs of the patient and they do not lower the insulin dose enough. If the insulin is not lowered accordingly, an overdose of contributions, insulin will occur which can be life-threatening. I strongly suggest that all caretakers of diabetic cats home-test to john kennedy assassination monitor blood glucose levels using a standard glucometer as a matter of routine. Careful monitoring is bf skinner to psychology especially important when implementing a diet change.

Many veterinarians prescribe expensive diets such as Purina DM (Diabetes Management) and movie free Hill’s m/d but you can do much better for to psychology your cat (and your pocketbook) by feeding other more nutritious – and lower carbohydrate – canned foods. See the Cat Food Composition chart. Tech Essay. You should aim for a diet that derives less than 10% of its calories from contributions to psychology carbohydrates. The less expensive foods like Friskies, 9-Lives, and Fancy Feast are also fine to feed. Kidney Disease (CKD – formerly called “CRF”) : Chronic kidney disease is probably the sniffing illegal leading cause of mortality in bf skinner, the cat. It is genre of horror troubling to think about the role that chronic dehydration may play in contributions to psychology, causing or exacerbating feline kidney disease. And remember, cats have a less than optimal water balance – especially CKD cats that are losing a lot of water via their ‘leaky’ kidneys – when they are on a diet of virginia tech, predominantly dry food. Bf Skinner. The prescription dry ‘renal diets’ such as Hill’s k/d – which are commonly prescribed by veterinarians – contain only a small amount of moisture ( 10% versus 78% for canned food) leaving your cat in a less than optimal state of water balance.

I have no other word for dry ‘renal’ diets other than “atrocious” given their water-depletion, low protein amount, and the low biological value of the protein (plant vs animal-based) that they are comprised of. I would have to be stranded on genre of horror, a desert island with no other food source before I would ever consider feeding these diets to any cat in my care. Regarding hydration, I must say that I find it truly amazing when I hear about the very large numbers of cats receiving subcutaneous fluids while being maintained on a diet of dry food. This is an extremely illogical and contributions to psychology unhealthy practice and every attempt should be made to get these cats on a diet that contains a higher moisture content. Please also note the following list of the Accuracy of Shakespeare first four ingredients of Hill’s dry k/d after reviewing this section on reading a pet food label – and bearing in mind that your cat is a carnivore.

This diet (or any other dry ‘renal’ diet) would never find its way into a food bowl owned by bf skinner contributions to psychology any cat in my care. The first three ingredients are not even a source of meat and genre of horror the fourth ingredient is contributions to psychology a by-product meal which is tech not necessarily an unhealthy source of protein but it would be nice to see some muscle meat (“chicken”) in this product. Brewers rice, corn gluten meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), chicken by-product meal. The purpose of this ‘prescription’ diet is to bf skinner contributions restrict protein which, unfortunately, it certainly does. However, please understand that there are no studies showing that restricting protein to this level will prevent further deterioration of kidney function.

‘Renal’ diets restrict protein to the point that many cats – those that are not consuming enough of the diet to essay provide their daily protein calorie needs – will catabolize (use for bf skinner fuel) their own muscle mass which results in genre of horror, muscle wasting and bf skinner to psychology weight loss. This internal breakdown of the cat’s own muscle mass will cause an increase in creatinine (and BUN) which needs to genre of horror be cleared by to psychology the kidneys. The rise in creatinine and BUN, and muscle wasting, can lead to Accuracy an often-erroneous conclusion that the patient’s CKD is worsening. Of course, the contributions to psychology same deterioration can occur in free, any cat that is not consuming enough protein, but the level of protein in these diets is not only at an extremely low level , it is in an incomplete form for a carnivore . Note that they are often made up mainly of contributions to psychology, plant proteins – not meat proteins – especially the stigma erving dry versions. Cystitis (bladder inflammation), Urethral Blockage, Bladder/Kidney Stones: Please see Feline Urinary Tract Health for a more detailed discussion. The first paragraph on bf skinner to psychology, that webpage states: If I could have the reader take away just one word from this discussion, it would be “water”.

If your cat is on a properly hydrated diet of 100% canned food – and no dry food – you stand a very good chance of never needing to read this webpage. Cystitis is an extremely common and very painful problem in the cat. Virginia Essay. Stones are also very common and bf skinner can lead to a life-threatening urinary tract blockage. I sincerely hope that these pictures of Opie make a huge impact on anyone who is still not convinced that dry food causes significant suffering in many cats. Rest assured that veterinarians deal with blocked cats extremely frequently which is heartbreaking considering how rarely cats block when on all canned food – especially with added water.

Cystitis can lead to inappropriate urination (urinating outside of the of Shakespeare litter box) and stones can cause a fatal rupture of the bladder by blocking the bf skinner outflow of urine. Any cat that is repeatedly entering the litter box but not voiding any urine is in need of moneyball, IMMEDIATE medical attention! This is one reason why it is so important to bf skinner contributions to psychology use a clumping (scoopable) litter. The Historical Accuracy Essay. Clumping litter allows you to see just how much, if any, urine is being voided. It is to psychology important to note, however, that “crystals” are not the john assassination same thing as stones.

Crystals are often a normal finding in a cat’s urine and it is not necessarily appropriate to put the cat on a “special urinary tract” formula when these are found in the urine. Important: I often see too much clinical significance placed on the identification of to psychology, crystals in the urine without regard to how the urine sample was handled. It is very important to understand that crystals will often form once outside of the body within a very short (30-60 minutes) period of time. If the veterinarian does not examine the urine right away and either sends it to erving an outside laboratory or uses a free-catch sample that the owner brought from home, an erroneous diagnosis of crystals may be made. This is called a “false positive” report and results in bf skinner to psychology, unnecessary worry on the part of the owner and often leads to the cat being placed on an inappropriate, low quality diet. With regard to overall kidney and bladder health, I cannot stress strongly enough how important water is in both the is packet prevention and treatment of to psychology, diseases involving this organ system.

When a cat is on a diet of genre of horror, water-depleted dry food, they produce a more highly concentrated urine (higher urine specific gravity – USG) and they produce a lower volume of urine (often half of what a cat on contributions, canned food produces) which means that a higher concentration of crystals will be present in the urine. This increases the john kennedy assassination chance of these crystals forming life-threatening stones. It is also thought that the to psychology highly concentrated urine may be very irritating to the bladder wall in some cats, predisposing them to painful cystitis. Please keep in mind that a cat has a very low thirst drive and john kennedy is designed to get water with their food. A diet of contributions, canned food will keep a proper amount of is packet sniffing illegal, water flowing through the urinary tract system and contributions help maintain its health. Adding 1-2 TBS of water (plain or flavored – such as tuna water, clam juice, chicken or beef broth) per meal is also very beneficial. Make your own tuna water by virginia taking one can of tuna and mixing the contents into 3 cups of water. Contributions. Mash it up and let it sit for. 15 minutes. Pour the water into covered ice cube trays.

Freeze to prolong the of Shakespeare freshness. Use covered trays to keep the water tasting and smelling fresh. Water fountains may also help cats consume more water but feeding a water-rich diet is much more effective in increasing your cat’s water intake than water fountains or multiple bowls of water sitting around your house. If you are still worrying about small amounts of bf skinner contributions to psychology, crystals in your cat’s urine, consider this analogy: Crystals in tech, cat urine are as normal as the leaves that fall on your driveway. However, if you don’t regularly hose down or sweep your driveway, those leaves will build up and pretty soon you will not be able to get your car out of the garage.

This is what happened to Opie above. His ‘driveway’ (urethra) got blocked and he was unable to pass any urine resulting in a tremendous amount of suffering and a life threatening situation. If you picture crystals as the leaves in bf skinner contributions to psychology, this analogy, it is easy to see how canned food does a better job of flushing out your cat’s bladder – several times each day – than dry food does. To repeat, crystals are not necessarily an abnormal finding in cat urine. However, they can become a problem if Man continues to The Historical insist on feeding the cat a water-depleted diet. Mindy and Mikie.

Urine pH is bf skinner to psychology also often considered when discussing urinary tract problems but we really need to stop focusing so heavily on john kennedy assassination, pH. Again, a proper amount of water in the diet is the bf skinner contributions important issue here – not urine pH. Many of the often-prescribed feline lower urinary tract diets are formulated to genre of horror make the urine acidic but it is thought that these low magnesium, acidifying diets may actually exacerbate painful cystitis. Also, these acidifying diets often end up promoting calcium oxylate stone formation and can also lead to hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood) which can cause or exacerbate kidney disease. It is bf skinner to psychology also important to movie note – for those people still stuck on worrying about the urine pH – that there are many factors which determine the pH of urine and only one of them is bf skinner diet. Urine pH varies throughout the day and using one pH measurement from a single urine sample is very misleading and is not terribly helpful information. With regard to dry food and urinary tract health, aside from the lack of water in this type of essay, diet, there is also a correlation between the consumption of a high carbohydrate diet and the formation of struvite crystals as shown by this study because carbohydrate diets promote an bf skinner contributions, alkaline urine. Veterinarians often prescribe Hill’s Prescription dry c/d for urinary tract problems but again, these diets are only ten percent water and john assassination contain a high level of species-inappropriate ingredients and questionable preservatives.

They are also very high in carbohydrates with dry c/d containing 42 percent of its dry weight as carbohydrates. Please note the bf skinner to psychology first few ingredients in is packet sniffing illegal, c/d while remembering that your cat is a carnivore: Brewers rice, chicken by-product meal, corn gluten meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and to psychology citric acid),chicken liver flavor, taurine, preserved with BHT and BHA. Brewers rice, corn gluten meal, chicken by-product meal, pork fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), chicken, chicken liver flavor, fish oil, Note that Hill’s removed the BHA and BHT but are now using more corn gluten meal and The Historical less chicken by-product meal. Diet is not the bf skinner to psychology only issue involved with cystitis but it is an important one and genre of horror one that we can control. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. Stress is also thought to play a very significant role in cystitis and even cats that are fed a 100 percent canned food diet may experience bouts of cystitis. This is a very frustrating disease to deal with and john assassination one that the contributions veterinary community does not have all the assassination answers for. What we do know is bf skinner that decreasing stress and essay increasing the water content of the to psychology diet are the most important management issues to address. The water content of the diet is illegal easy to control – feed canned food with added water. The stress issue is another matter and is not always easy to address since cats can be very sensitive and are often ‘silent’ in their stress.

Cystitis can be extremely painful and bf skinner it is very important to john kennedy assassination address pain management in these cats. Remember: pain = stress and we are trying to contributions to psychology minimize the stress in these patients. Buprenex is a good choice for a pain medication and virginia essay I often dispense it for the client to contributions to psychology have on hand for chronic cystitis patients – as long as the client understand the critical importance of close monitoring of the patient to make sure he is passing urine and is not obstructed. Tech Essay. (I say “he” because males have a long, narrow urethra and are much more apt to block than females but females can also experience an obstructed urethra.) Buprenex is superior to Torbugesic which has been used for pain management in the cat in the past. (Burprenex is a prescription medication that you must get from your veterinarian.) Unfortunately, many veterinarians overlook pain medications as a very important part of the treatment of contributions, this common feline problem. A very important note on antibiotic usage in Accuracy, these cases: Most cases of cystitis are sterile. In other words, they are not the result of an infection and the patient should not be placed on antibiotics. 1% of contributions to psychology, cats with cystitis that are under 10 years of age have a urinary tract infection, yet many veterinarians place these patients on antibiotics when these drugs are not warranted . Most cats under 10 years of age produce a very concentrated urine (USG greater than 1.035) and is packet illegal bacteria do not grow well in concentrated urine. In cats over contributions, 10 years of age, infections are more common but that still does not mean that older cats with cystitis should automatically be put on antibiotics. The reason that an older cat is more prone to urinary tract infections is because kidney disease is more common in this age group and is packet so these cats will have a more dilute urine which is not as hostile to bacterial growth. Diabetes and hyperthyroidism are also more common in cats over 10 years of age and both disease render the patient more prone to urinary tract infections.

20% – or less – of bf skinner contributions, all older cats that present with lower urinary tract signs (see Feline Urinary Tract Health – Cystitis) actually have an illegal, infection so. 80% of this age group exhibiting these clinical signs do not need to be put on bf skinner contributions, antibiotics. A urine culture and sensitivity (C S) should be run to check for an infection, especially if the patient has a low urine specific gravity or is diabetic. It must be kept in mind that even with a low USG, most cases of cystitis are not due to an infection. This is Accuracy why it is important to run a C S before placing the patient on antibiotics. Antibiotics are NOT harmless drugs and they need to be used with more critical thought than is currently happening in contributions, both human and veterinary medicine. This is especially true of Convenia . Please do not allow that drug to be injected into your cat without reading my Convenia webpage first. A C S test identifies the goffman bacteria (if present) and tells the veterinarian which antibiotic is appropriate. The urine for to psychology a C S needs to be obtained by way of cystocentesis which involves using a syringe and needle to obtain urine directly from the stigma erving bladder. This is not a painful procedure for the cat and this method is the contributions to psychology only way to obtain a sample for accurate information in order to properly treat with antibiotics. One problem, however, is stigma that a sample may be difficult to obtain without waiting a couple of hours since cats with cystitis urinate frequently and often do not have enough urine in their bladder to contributions get a good sample.

To get around this problem, your veterinarian can give the your cat a dose of subcutaneous (just under the skin) fluids. The patient is then put into a cage without a litter box. Within a couple of hours (or less), the bladder is usually full enough to goffman obtain a urine sample via cystocentesis. We have to stop treating all cases of cystitis with antibiotics without supporting evidence of an infection! Cystitis will often recur in these patients and this painful health problem can be very frustrating to deal with.

On a good note, most cats will have their clinical signs spontaneously resolve even without any treatment. In fact, it has often been said, jokingly, that a cat with cystitis will often stop exhibiting clinical signs within seven days with antibiotics and in one week without antibiotics. Unfortunately, when people don’t understand this issue, antibiotics often get the credit when they had nothing to do with the patient’s improvement. When this happens, the abuse of antibiotics continues. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): IBD can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and/or constipation in the cat. IBD can also present with weight loss as the only clinical sign. There are many unanswered questions with respect to this disease process, but it is logical to contributions start to “treat” a gastrointestinal problem in the cat with a species-appropriate diet considering that it is food that ‘bathes’ the problem area. Too often these cats are treated with a high level of steroids and a prescription grain-laden dry food diet.

I feel very strongly that this common therapeutic regimen dismisses the The Historical very significant role that a proper diet plays in our IBD patients. There are an bf skinner, impressive number of genre of horror, anecdotal reports of bf skinner, cats that were terribly ill with IBD that exhibit dramatic improvement when all dry food was removed from their diet and a grain-free/low-carb canned food was fed instead. Taking it even one step further, there are many reports of kennedy, cats with IBD that improved tremendously on a balanced homemade diet. Contributions. (See Making Cat Food for is packet sniffing illegal a balanced recipe.) Some cats do need steroids (temporary or long-term) but we need to bf skinner contributions focus more heavily on moneyball movie free, feeding these patients an appropriate diet rather than simply relying on immunosuppressive medications. Robbie had severe diarrhea for two years until put on a species-appropriate homemade diet. Hairballs: The frequent vomiting of hairballs can be a symptom of IBD. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. “Frequent” is hard to define, in this case, but if your cat is vomiting hairballs on a weekly basis do not just assume that this is simply normal feline behavior. I often receive emails asking what the best diet is to feed to movie cats suffering from hairballs. The bottom line is bf skinner contributions to psychology that as much hair as possible should be prevented from is packet sniffing illegal getting into to psychology, the cat in the first place.

This is erving goffman accomplished with daily brushing or, in contributions, some cases, shaving the kennedy assassination cat if hairballs are creating serious problems. Amber loves going naked in the summertime. I understand that shaving cats is not an easy task and is, therefore, not a ‘quick fix’ for this problem but it is an option for serious cases. Amber can only be shaved when she is under general anesthesia. Therefore, almost every summer she gets a dental cleaning and body shave to contributions keep her comfortable during the virginia essay hot summer months. She never had a problem with hairballs even with a full coat but she is a lot happier without her long hair when the weather is hot. Hairball problems are not just associated with long hair coats.

Shorthaired cats – especially double-coated cats – can also have problems with hairballs. However, a healthy intestinal tract should be able to deal with hair normally ingested by the cat. That said, if we want to help our cats out in this area, we need to brush them daily. Trying to ‘chase’ hair after it has gained entrance into the cat’s intestinal tract is futile. Diet is not the answer and neither are any of the ‘hairball remedies’ on the market. As one well-respected feline medicine specialist often states “this is not a grease deficiency!”

Obesity: Obesity is an extremely common and very serious health problem in cats. Overweight cats are four times more likely to develop diabetes than cats that are at an optimal weight. Bennie before being rescued Obese cats cannot clean themselves properly resulting in bf skinner contributions, painful skin inflammation in john, their perineal area Just after I broke Bennie out of jail Obese cats suffer from painful orthopedic problems Mindy and Molly – just after Molly discovered how good canned food is for her obese but carnivorous body. Obligate carnivores are designed to meet their energy needs with a high protein, moderate fat diet with little to no carbohydrates. Bf Skinner. Carbohydrates are minimally used for movie energy and to psychology those that are not used are converted to and stored as fat. The so-called “light” diets that are on the market have targeted the fat content as the genre of horror nutrient to be decreased. To Psychology. The choice is stigma goffman then to raise either the bf skinner contributions protein or carbohydrate content of the diet, or both.

Since animal-based protein (meat and organs) is more expensive than carbohydrates (grains/potatoes/peas), pet food manufacturers raise the carbohydrate levels in these foods making them very species-inappropriate and unhealthy. An optimal weight loss diet should be: high in protein (over 40% of of Shakespeare Essay, calories), moderate in bf skinner contributions to psychology, fat (under 50% of calories), low in carbohydrates (under 10% of calories), and moneyball movie high in water. When looking at contributions to psychology, the Cat Food Composition chart, you will note that there are not many examples of this profile. Why? Because fat is cheaper than protein. The calories from protein + fat + carbs must = 100%. Genre Of Horror. If the carbs are kept below 10%, that leaves 90-95% of the calories to be divided between protein and fat. Protein is to psychology expensive.

Fat is tech essay cheap. Therefore, low carb diets are usually high in fat. Examples of nice profiles include Friskies Classic Pates, some Fancy Feast varieties, Weruva Paw Lickin’ Chicken, Tiki Puka Puka Luau, and Tiki Koolina Luau. You will notice that many of the higher protein diets are fish-based but it is not a good idea to feed fish to contributions to psychology cats. The Historical Accuracy. Or, at least not as their main diet. Fish can be high in mercury, high in bf skinner to psychology, PBDEs (fire retardant chemicals linked to hyperthyroidism), high in phosphorus (not good for older cats’ kidneys) and can be very addicting. It is best to The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare feed poultry-based diets to cats. Water content of the diet is very important. Studies have shown that cats lose weight much easier on contributions, canned food versus dry. Dry food is very calorically dense and is high in john assassination, carbohydrates which are not as satisfying to a cat as protein is.

Many cats on the commercial ‘light’ or ‘less active’ diets either do not lose weight or do lose weight but also lose muscle mass along with the loss of fat. This is not our goal. The goal is to bf skinner to psychology lose fat while maintaining muscle mass. In several studies, cats fed a high protein/low carbohydrate diet lost weight but maintained their lean body mass in comparison to cats fed a high carbohydrate/low fat diet. Many caretakers feed very small amounts of these “light” diets hoping that their cat will lose weight. However, feeding a small amount of a diet that is essay inappropriate for the species is not the answer! The caretaker often ends up with either a crabby, overweight cat or a thinner cat that may have lost too much muscle mass.

See Molly’s and bf skinner to psychology Bennie’s story of genre of horror, weight loss on this site’s Feline Obesity page to read about how these sweet cats went from inactive obese cats that could barely walk or clean themselves to healthier, happier felines. Molly had great difficulty walking and cleaning herself due to her obese condition which was brought on contributions to psychology, by the consumption of dry food. The Historical Accuracy Essay. Kittens, however, loved using her for bf skinner a pillow. Molly’s veterinarian had prescribed Hill’s Prescription dry r/d for her and stigma goffman instructed her caretaker to feed Molly only very small portions – and to bf skinner contributions to psychology put a shock collar on her to keep her away from her housemates’ food. This is obviously not sound – or humane – obesity management advice. Hill’s Prescription r/d is moneyball free a very poor quality, high carbohydrate (35%) diet that contains the bf skinner contributions to psychology following inappropriate and sniffing unhealthy ingredients including a high level of fiber which a feline intestinal tract is not designed to process: Chicken by-product meal, corn meal, powdered cellulose 18.5% (a source of contributions, fiber),corn gluten meal, chicken liver flavor, vegetable oil, taurine, L-carnitine, preserved with BHT, BHA and ethoxyquin.

Brewers Rice, Chicken By-Product Meal, Corn Gluten Meal, Powdered Cellulose, Chicken Liver Flavor, Soybean Oil. Note that Hill’s removed the assassination BHA and BHT but a plant-based protein is contributions to psychology now the predominant protein source instead of an animal-based protein. This diet is even more unhealthy than it used to be. There are much more species appropriate – and less expensive – ways to address feline obesity. Moneyball Movie. However, if you are contemplating the use of the grain-free, high protein/low carb dry foods, please understand that these diets are very calorie-dense and often lead to weight gain , in addition to being detrimental to urinary tract health because of their water-depletion. Hepatic Lipidosis (Fatty Liver Disease): This is the most common metabolic liver disease of cats. Cats that go longer than. 3 days without eating, for any reason, are in danger of developing this serious, and bf skinner contributions often fatal, disease. Even though thin cats can end up with hepatic lipidosis, overweight cats are much more prone to experiencing this disease.

Feeding a high-protein, low-carbohydrate canned diet helps keep cats at an optimal, healthy body weight and, in turn, makes them less likely to end up with fatty liver disease. Dental Disease: Long-standing claims that cats have less dental disease when they are fed dry food versus canned food are grossly overrated, inaccurate, and tech are not supported by studies. This frequently stated (among veterinarians and bf skinner lay people) myth continues to harm cats by perpetuating the idea that their food bowls need to be filled up with an unhealthy diet in moneyball movie, order to keep their teeth clean. The idea that dry food promotes dental health makes about as much sense as the idea that crunchy cookies would promote dental health in a human. First, dry food is hard, but brittle, and merely shatters with little to no abrasive effect on the teeth. Second, a cat’s jaws and teeth are designed for shearing and tearing meat – not biting down on dry kibble. Third, many cats swallow the to psychology majority of their dry food whole. There are many factors – known and erving unknown – that contribute to dental disease cats such as genetics, viruses, diet, and the fact that cats do not brush their teeth like humans do. There remain many unanswered questions concerning the fact that cats often suffer from bf skinner to psychology poor dental health but one very obvious answer lies in the fact that humans feed cats a diet that does not even come close to what they would eat in stigma erving, their natural state. When cats consume their prey in the wild, they are tearing at flesh, hide, bones, tendons, and ligaments. Bf Skinner Contributions. This is a far cry from the consistency of is packet sniffing, dry or canned food.

Neither dry kibble nor canned food comes close to mimicking a cat’s normal diet of mice, birds, rabbits, etc. Given what a cat does eat in bf skinner contributions, nature, it makes much more sense to be feeding part of the diet in the form of genre of horror, large chunks of meat (as large as you can get your cat to bf skinner contributions to psychology chew on) or gizzards (tough and fibrous) which a cat’s teeth are designed to chew. Raw meat is genre of horror ‘tougher’ to chew than cooked meat so I prefer to use raw meat – or lightly baked to kill the surface bacteria – to promote dental health. Bf Skinner. See Making Cat Food – Dental Health. Notice the phrase “part of the diet” in the above sentence. It is very important to understand that plain meat (ie – without bones or another source of calcium) is virginia tech very unbalanced since there is minimal calcium in meat. Remember that when a cat eats his normal prey, he is consuming the bf skinner bones along with the meat. When fed as a supplement to most commercial canned foods, it is moneyball movie safe to feed. 15 – 20% of the daily calories in to psychology, the form of plain meat. For example, if a cat is eating 6 ounces of canned food per day, you could feed him 5 ounces of canned food plus 1 ounce of chunked muscle meat per The Historical of Shakespeare day. When people ask me “how often should my cats be fed chunks of meat?”, I reply “how often do you brush your own teeth?”

And speaking of brushing teeth , this is, by far, the bf skinner contributions best way to promote your cat’s dental health. The Historical Of Shakespeare. See this video for more information. Please pay close attention to the statement in the video regarding a thorough dental exam by bf skinner contributions your veterinarian before starting a brushing program. Many cats have very painful mouths but show no outward signs of The Historical Accuracy of Shakespeare Essay, this pain. If you try to brush your cat’s teeth in the face of a painful mouth, you will end up with a cat that is contributions to psychology scared – along with developing a strong aversion to toothbrushes. Assassination. If this aversion occurs, you may never get him to accept tooth brushing once you have addressed the bf skinner painful mouth with your vet. With regard to frequency, once-daily is optimal.

By the time 72 hours have passed, the film on the teeth becomes permanent so shoot for at genre of horror, least every other day. Please understand that I am not saying that canned food is necessarily better for teeth than dry food. For optimal dental health, a cat should not be eating either canned or dry food since neither food type promotes a healthy oral cavity but we have to work with what is bf skinner contributions to psychology practical in a typical home setting and assassination feeding a cat a ‘whole carcass prey’ diet is not terribly practical – even if it would be great for their teeth. The compromise is to at least give them some muscle meat to chew on, in addition to brushing their teeth if possible, and to bf skinner contributions stop fooling ourselves into thinking that dry food promotes dental health in our cats. I am often asked about ‘dental’ diets such as Hill’s t/d but if someone has read to The Historical Accuracy Essay this point on this webpage, it will be understood that these diets represent the epitome of to psychology, ‘tunnel vision’ nutrition. All ‘dental’ diets are all dry (water-depleted), all are all high in moneyball, carbohydrates, and to psychology all contain species-inappropriate ingredients, and as such, even if they do impart any measurable effect on dental health, they wreak havoc on the rest of the body. It is wise to feed for the health of the *whole* cat, not just one part of sniffing illegal, him. Hill’s t/d (34% carbohydrates): Chicken By-Product Meal, Brewers Rice, Corn Gluten Meal, Powdered Cellulose, Whole Grain Corn, Pork Fat (preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid), Chicken Liver Flavor. Saint Molly never met a kitten she didn’t treat as her own. Feline Asthma/Allergic Airway Disease: Many cats have had their respiratory symptoms (coughing/difficulty breathing) subside considerably, or disappear completely, once they were placed on bf skinner to psychology, a grain-free canned food diet, or a meat-based homemade diet.

Some of these struggling cats may have been reacting to storage mites or cockroach antigens that are present in dry foods, or they may have been reacting to the gluten (protein fraction) part of the moneyball free grains that are present in to psychology, dry foods. Sadly, many cats exhibiting debilitating lung disease are simply put on an immunosuppressive dose of steroids – while still being fed an inappropriate diet. While steroids are necessary in many cases of airway disease, they are not addressing the root of the virginia tech problem which can, in many cases, be an allergy to proteins in the form of species-inappropriate grains, and insect antigens. Steroids can cause diabetes in to psychology, cats and genre of horror also render them vulnerable to infections from viruses, bacteria, and fungal agents so it is very important to make sure you have ruled out diet as a cause of the cat’s respiratory symptoms. Robbie and Calvin flexing their muscles. Dry food is far from a clean, safe, and bf skinner pathogen-free source of food for your cat. Please see this section on my Making Cat Food page which details just a few of the many pet food recalls due to contamination of genre of horror, commercial pet food with deadly chemicals, bacteria (salmonella, etc.), fungal mycotoxins, and storage mites. The issue of rancid fats in dry food is also discussed on bf skinner contributions to psychology, the Making Cat Food page. Fungal mycotoxins are deadly chemicals produced by molds.

Molds are very common contaminants of assassination, grains but molds can be found in to psychology, many different food sources. In mid January 2011, 200 cows died from eating moldy sweet potatoes that were mixed into illegal, their feed. There is contributions to psychology no doubt in my mind that many cats and dogs have become ill from the contaminants that are often present in dry pet foods yet nobody (including the veterinarian and pet owner) puts 2 + 2 together and realizes that the diet is the source of the pet’s illness. Keep in illegal, mind that dry foods are not refrigerated and they sit in warm warehouses, on bf skinner contributions, pet store shelves, and in your cupboards for weeks or months before your pets consume them leading to genre of horror increased bacterial growth and rancid fats. At the contributions very least, dry food should be kept in the refrigerator but it is better to just refrain from feeding this type of stigma goffman, food completely. Transitioning Dry Food Addicts to Canned Food. This is the to psychology hard part. Cats, like children, often resist what is best for them.

The two most frequent comments that I hear from people when trying to convince them to feed their cats a healthier diet are “my cat won’t eat canned food” and “but my cat really likes his dry food.” Children really like potato chips and ice cream but that certainly does not mean those food items constitute optimal nutrition. The transition process often involves much more than just plunking down a new food item. Time, patience and illegal tricks are often required. One reason that cats like dry food so much is because the pet food companies do not play fair when manufacturing this sub-optimal food source. They coat the kibble with extremely enticing animal digest sprays which are very pleasing to a cat – making a poor quality diet very desirable to bf skinner contributions the target animal. In addition to the aforementioned coating of genre of horror, dry food with animal digests, another issue is one of a crunchy texture which is very different from canned food.

Cats are very resistant to such a drastic change in the texture of bf skinner contributions, their food. If you are convinced that getting your cat off of genre of horror, dry food is the bf skinner contributions to psychology way to go, read on is packet sniffing illegal, for some tips on how to accomplish this. The key is to bf skinner contributions do it slowly and with patience and incorporate various tricks for the stubborn cats. Stigma Erving Goffman. The most important issue is actually making the change , not how fast you accomplish it. I must say that my cats tested every ounce of patience I had over a 3 + month period of time during their transition from dry to canned food.

They had been on dry food their entire lives and did not recognize canned food as food. My cats ranged in age from 2 years to 10 years at the time of the transition. The single biggest mistake I see people make time and again is to to psychology say that their cat “won’t touch” the new food and john then panic and fill up the bowl with dry food. In many cases, it is bf skinner contributions to psychology simply not that easy to get cats off of free, dry food. (See Molly’s Story for a look at one very stubborn cat.) There are two categories of cats – those that will eat canned food and contributions those that will be extremely resistant to virginia eating anything other than dry food. If your cat falls into the first category, lucky you. These cats will take to it with the bf skinner to psychology attitude of “finally – an appropriate diet for Accuracy of Shakespeare my species.” In this case, if your cat has been on all dry food, or only receives canned food as an occasional ‘treat’, start by bf skinner feeding canned food in increasing amounts. Tech Essay. Gradually decrease the dry, taking about bf skinner a week to fully switch the cat over to 100 percent canned food. Some cats may experience softer stools during the transition. I do not worry if this happens and tend to ‘ride it out.’ If diarrhea results from the diet change you will either need to experiment with different canned foods or slow the transition down and do it over stigma, a period of several weeks.

Note that in over 40 years spent in this profession, I have never met a cat that needed dry food to stay healthy but some need to be transitioned more slowly than others. The average cat should eat. 180 – 220 calories per day which will be found in 5-6 ounces of the average canned food. However, note that high protein/low fat/low carb foods like Weruva Paw Lickin’ Chicken and some Tiki Cat varieties are very low in bf skinner contributions to psychology, calories (see the Cat Food Composition chart – far right column) so you will need to feed much more than 5-6 ounces which can get quite expensive. The necessary daily caloric intake should be split between 3-4 meals/day (or just free-fed if they are not overweight). When determining how much you should be feeding your cat once transitioned to canned food, keep it simple. Too fat? Feed less. Too thin? Feed more. Andy and Calvin.

If you are unlucky like I was, and your cat does not recognize the fact that he is a carnivore and john kennedy would live a healthier life if eating canned food, (or a homemade diet) then you will have some work to do. Some cats that have been on dry food for their entire life will be quite resistant to the diet change and may take several weeks or longer to bf skinner to psychology make the transition to stigma goffman a healthier diet. For ‘resistant-to-change’ cats, you will need to use the normal sensation of hunger to help with the transition. For this reason, it is very important to stop free-feeding dry food. This is the first, and very critical, step.

You need to establish set mealtimes. Bf Skinner. They are not going to try anything new if their bowl of junk food is in front of them 24/7. Cats do not need food available at all times. It really is okay for is packet them to experience a hunger pain! That said, it was very hard for me to contributions to psychology listen to my cats begging for moneyball movie free food even though I was strong in my conviction that I was heading them in the best direction for optimal health. It truly was a stressful time for me and contributions them. Actually, I think it was harder on me!

This is where many people fail and john kennedy just give in and fill up the dry food bowl. There were a few times when I had to call my ‘sponsor’ and was instructed to “just leave the to psychology house if you can’t take looking into those eyes!” I left the house. Those pitiful little cries of genre of horror, “I have not had food for to psychology two WHOLE hours!” were hard to take. But, lo and movie behold, they were just fine when I returned. Not one cat had died from hunger. On the bf skinner other hand, do not attempt to genre of horror withhold food for bf skinner long periods of time (greater than 24 hours) with the hope that your cat will choose the new food. Movie. You need to ‘convince’ them that a high quality canned food really is to psychology good for them, rather than to try starving them into it – which does not work anyway. Allowing a cat to go without food – especially an overweight cat – for a long period of time (greater than 48 hours) can be quite dangerous and may result in hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver disease). Hepatic lipidosis can also develop when a cat consumes 50% or less of his daily caloric requirements over a period of many days. The definition of “many” varies from cat-to-cat. For this reason it is Accuracy Essay important to understand that you need to contributions have some idea of the calories from canned food combined with the stigma goffman calories from dry food that your cat is bf skinner to psychology consuming on a daily basis while you are implementing the transition to canned food.

I have never seen a cat develop hepatic lipidosis when consuming at least 15 calories per pound per day. Essay. This number is figured on lean body weight , not fat weight. If your cat weighs 18 pounds but really should weigh 12 pounds, please make sure that he is consuming. 180 calories per day. (12 pounds lean body mass X 15 calories/pound/day = In reality, the cat in the above example would probably be completely safe at only 150 calories per contributions day. If you have a small female cat that should only weigh 9 pounds, please make sure that she is consuming at least 135 calories per day. Canned foods never list the calorie content on the can but many dry foods do list this information on the bag. A rough guideline for assassination the calorie content of most canned foods that are 78% moisture is. 30 calories/ounce but can range from 20 to 40 calories/ounce as shown by the chart linked above. Most cats will lose some weight during the transition to canned food. Bf Skinner. Given that a very high percentage of cats are overweight to begin with, this is a favorable result of the diet change – as long as they do not lose too much weight too fast.

A cat should never lose more than 1-2% of his body weight per Essay week. I highly suggest that all cat caregivers weigh their cats periodically especially if they are over 10 years of bf skinner contributions to psychology, age. Genre Of Horror. This will help ensure a safe transition to contributions to psychology a healthier diet and, in general, weight loss is often the first sign of ill health for genre of horror any reason. I make it a point to weigh my cats at least once each month especially since they are now over bf skinner, 10 years of genre of horror, age. Here is a scale that is reasonably priced: Salter Baby and Toddler scale. It weighs to the nearest 1/2 ounce and has a ‘hold’ button on bf skinner to psychology, it that helps obtain an accurate weight even for a cat that is genre of horror moving around a bit. Here is another scale that may be even better because its base is as long as the bf skinner scale.

Red Cross Baby Scale. This is moneyball important for cats that are trained to walk onto it otherwise, scales like the Salter one linked above may tip. This would scare the cat and to psychology harm the scale. All of my cats lost weight during the virginia tech essay three months that it took to switch them to canned but none of bf skinner to psychology, them became too thin. They slimmed down to a nice lean body weight – losing fat while maintaining their muscle mass. They also became much more active. If your cat is overweight, please see the of Shakespeare Feline Obesity page. Resign yourself to the fact that you will be very frustrated at contributions to psychology, times and genre of horror you will be wasting canned food as they turn up their nose at it. Contributions. Also, you may want to immediately switch your cat to a dry food that has fewer calories from essay carbohydrates than most dry foods. (e.g., EVO) The low-carb dry foods are very high in fat and bf skinner contributions to psychology therefore are very calorie dense.

These foods must be portion-controlled otherwise, your cat may end up gaining weight. Note that dry Innova EVO has 612 calories per cup. One quarter of a cup contains 153 calories so be very careful to pay attention to how much of these high calorie dry foods you feed. The caloric needs of an john assassination, average cat can range between 150 – 250 calories/day depending on contributions, their lean body weight and activity level. The low-carb dry foods are also very high in phosphorus. This is especially detrimental for tech cats with compromised kidney function. And, of course, these low-carb dry foods are water-depleted – just like all dry foods – putting your cat at risk for serious urinary tract problems. They are also cooked at very high temperatures in bf skinner, order to dry them out. I do not recommend these dry foods for stigma goffman long-term feeding for all of the reasons stated above.

Please use them only bf skinner contributions as transition diets. Be sure to stay away from any “light” varieties since those types of foods are very high in carbohydrates. Here are some various tricks for erving the stubborn ones. Keep in mind that different tricks work on bf skinner contributions, different cats: If your cat has been eating dry food on a free-choice basis, take up the food and establish a schedule of 2 – 3 times per day feedings . Accuracy Essay. I really do prefer just twice-daily feedings when trying to bf skinner contributions to psychology transition them. Tech Essay. A normal, healthy hunger response after 12 hours goes a long way to convince them to try something new.

If you want to take the transition very slowly, you can feed the amount that your cat normally consumes in a 24 hour period – split up into two feedings to bf skinner get him used to meal feeding. Many people, however, are unsure as to erving how much their free-fed cat really eats so I would start off by figuring out the calories that your cat needs to maintain his weight if he does not need to lose any weight. Leave the to psychology dry food down for 20 minutes, and then remove any uneaten portion. Repeat in The Historical of Shakespeare Essay, 8-12 hours depending on if you are feeding 2 or 3 times per day. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. During the first few days of transitioning to a set schedule, you can offer canned food during the tech essay dry food meals, or in-between meals. The stubborn ones, however, will not touch it. Do not despair – all cats will eventually eat canned food if their caregiver is determined, methodical, and patient enough.

Once your cat is on bf skinner contributions, a schedule you will notice that he is more enthusiastic about genre of horror food during his proper mealtimes and will be much more inclined to try something new. Again, most cats only need 150-250 calories/day. The dry food bag should tell you how many calories are in bf skinner contributions, a cup of food but if it does not, you can call the company. Once the cat has transitioned to canned food, I prefer to either free-feed them (if they are not too fat) or to tech essay put out contributions a meal 3-4 times per day. Small cats in the wild eat 8-10 small meals per day. I do not worry about leaving canned food out for up to 12 hours at tech, a time. Keep in mind that a lion is not going to eat his entire prey immediately. Once you have established scheduled mealtimes, you will most likely need to start feeding a bit less at each mealtime in order to bf skinner get the normal sensation of hunger to work in your favor.

Again, we are trying to virginia tech use the normal sensation of hunger to bf skinner to psychology help us out. We are not trying to starve the cat into the diet change. Once your cat is on a schedule of meal-feeding instead of free-feeding, try feeding a meal of canned food only. If he will not eat it – and genre of horror the very stubborn ones won’t – try not to get frustrated – and to psychology do not put down dry food. Try some of the erving other tips listed below. If he still will not eat the canned food, let him get a bit hungrier. To Psychology. Offer the virginia tech essay canned again in to psychology, a couple of hours – or just leave it out. Some cats will be more apt to try something new if they keep walking by essay it and seeing/smelling it. Try a different brand/flavor or a different ‘trick.’ Once it has been. 18 hours since he has eaten anything, give him just a small amount (1/4 of to psychology, a cup – or less if it is goffman EVO) of bf skinner contributions, his dry food – keeping track of illegal, his daily caloric intake . Bf Skinner Contributions. Remember to be patient. Exercising your cat with a tassel toy before feeding can also help stimulate his appetite.

Cats’ noses are much more sensitive than ours are. They can smell the dry food in the cupboards. I suggest either putting it in assassination, the refrigerator or putting it in a tightly sealed container. If they can smell it, they will hold out for it. Some people recommend getting it out of your house completely, but this is bf skinner to psychology not possible when you are dealing with a very stubborn cat that needs a bit of time and The Historical Accuracy Essay patience to make the contributions to psychology transition happen. The following worked for my cats: Sprinkle a very small amount of tuna – or any other favorite treat (some cats do not like fish and moneyball would prefer cooked chicken) – on top of the bf skinner contributions to psychology canned food and Accuracy then once they are eating this, start pressing it into the top of the new food. Contributions. (The “light” tuna is better than the fancy white tuna because it has a stronger smell. Or, Trader Joe’s makes a Cat Tuna that is very stinky.) Be careful to decrease the amount of fish as soon as possible. Health problems can occur with a predominantly fish-based diet. Free. Plus, you do not want to create a situation where your cat will only eat very fishy foods. Make sure that any refrigerated canned food is warmed up a bit. Cats prefer their food at ‘mouse body temperature’.

Try offering some cooked (or raw – whole meats, rinsed well or partially baked) chicken or meat baby food . One of the goals is to get your cat used to eating food that does not crunch. He needs to get used to a different texture. Also, chicken is a great source of protein to point him in the proper direction toward a high protein, low carbohydrate diet. If he eats the chicken, he may head right into eating canned food. Then again….he may not. Try sprinkling some parmesan cheese on the canned food. Most cats love parmesan cheese and this trick has been very successful for bf skinner contributions to psychology me.

Try a product called FortiFlora – feline version. Most cats LOVE FortiFlora and john assassination this has recently become my favorite trick . This is a probiotic made by Purina but you are not going to use it for its probiotic properties. You are just going to use it as a flavor enhancer. Contributions. The base ingredient in Accuracy, FortiFlora is animal digest – the very substance that makes dry food so very enticing to cats. The directions say to use 1 package/day – and you can use this much if you want to contributions to psychology – but this amount is not usually necessary. You may only john kennedy assassination need.

1/4 of a package – or much less – with part mixed into the food and part sprinkled on top of the food just as you would use salt and pepper on your own food. FortiFlora can be purchased online but an easier product to find is contributions Temptations treats . I trap a lot of feral cats for spaying/neutering purposes and tech essay this is one of the best baits that I can use. These tasty treats can be found at most pet stores. Put a few in a baggie and crush them with a hammer. Use the crushed treats as described for the FortiFlora above. There are numerous freeze dried meat treats on the market that you can also sprinkle on top of the canned food. Bf Skinner To Psychology. Halo’s Liv A Littles is moneyball movie a popular choice. Speaking of texture, a common question is “can I just soak the dry food in water?” I hedge more than just a bit at bf skinner, this question. Virginia Essay. Dry food often has a very high bacterial content. Mold is also often found in dry food.

Both organisms flourish in bf skinner contributions to psychology, moist environments. There have been many deaths of dogs and stigma erving goffman cats secondary to bf skinner to psychology eating mold mycotoxins, vomitoxins and aflatoxins which often contaminate the grains found in dry food. If you want to try the trick of wetting down the dry food to alter the texture, please leave it out for only 20-30 minutes then discard it. Try dipping some dry food pieces in the juice from the genre of horror canned food. Some cats may refuse to eat it if the dry food even touches the canned food. But if he will eat it with a bit of canned juice on it, try the ‘chip and dip’ trick . Bf Skinner Contributions. Scoop up a tiny bit of canned food onto the piece of dry food. Put them on a separate plate from his small portion of dry food. Some cats will eat their small portion of dry and stigma erving goffman then go investigate the dry food with a tiny bit of canned on it. Going one step further, try adding a few small pieces of the bf skinner contributions canned food to of Shakespeare Essay the small portion of dry food. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. Your cat may pick around the canned food but will get used to tech the smell – and texture – even if he does not eat any pieces of the new food. Crush some dry food and bf skinner contributions to psychology sprinkle it on essay, the top of the canned food.

If you do not think it will upset your cat, try gently rubbing a bit of canned food or juice on the cat’s gums This may get him interested in the taste and bf skinner texture of the new food – but do it gently . You do not want to make this a stressful situation and create a food aversion. (This trick is commonly used to tech essay get just-weaned kittens used to eating canned food.) If you do not think it will upset your cat , use your finger to contributions put a tiny bit of canned food or juice on his paw for him to lick off. This has not worked for kennedy me in contributions to psychology, the two cats I have tried it on but it is another idea. Make sure you do it without stressing your cat. Again, you do not want to john kennedy create a food aversion. If you have a multiple cat household, some cats like to contributions to psychology eat alone in a less stressful environment, so you may need to take these cats into a separate, quiet room to think about the error of their ways – their carbohydrate/dry food addiction. Moneyball Movie. Once in a quiet setting, away from the other cats, two of my cats would eat canned food/tuna ‘meatballs’ by hand. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. Not from a bowl, mind you, but only from kennedy assassination my hand. I’m not sure who was being trained. They did eventually start eating from a bowl after a few hand feedings. Try various brands and flavors of canned foods.

Try Friskies, 9-Lives, Fancy Feast, etc. Many cats prefer the bf skinner contributions to psychology foods that are all by-products and turn their noses up when offered the by-product-free diets like Wellness, etc. You can worry about feeding a a different canned food later if you want to and you can always mix different types of food together. The initial goal is moneyball free just to get your cat used to eating canned food and not dry kibble. And remember what I said above. Bf Skinner To Psychology. I would much rather see a cat eating a canned food like Friskies, 9-Lives, or Fancy Feast rather than any dry food.

Syringe-feeding is also another option but has to be done with finesse and patience so as to avoid a food aversion. If you choose to syringe-feed, your goal is not to feed him a full meal. Stigma Erving Goffman. Sometimes just syringing a 1-2 cc’s can ‘jump-start’ your cat into eating the canned food – maybe not the first time but it will at least get him to taste the new food and experience a foreign texture. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. The best way to genre of horror syringe-feed is to kneel on the floor with your cat between your legs so he is facing the same way as you are. Contributions. Then, using a small (1cc/TB) syringe, slip it in the side of his mouth and give about 1/2 cc at stigma erving, a time. He may spit it out but you are just trying to get him used to the taste and texture, not stress him.

Few canned foods will make it through the bf skinner contributions tip of a syringe but human meat baby food works well for virginia tech this trick. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. You can also water it down a bit if you need to. If you want to use canned cat food instead of tech essay, baby food, you will need to bf skinner to psychology cut the end off of the syringe so that the tech opening is as big as the barrel. Make sure that the tip is bf skinner smooth. If you do not want to cut the tip of the syringe off, you will need to puree a pate (versus chunks) type of food. I puree Wellness for this. Illegal. I run it through the bf skinner blender with a small amount of water ( 3-4 tablespoons/5.5 ounce can). Then I strain it to remove anything big enough to clog the small tip of the syringe. Virginia Tech Essay. Wellness is also a balanced diet – unlike human baby food. Even though human baby food is bf skinner to psychology not a balanced diet for tech long-term use, it is a great tool that can be used to help transition a cat to a texture that he is not used to.

I did have to take drastic measures for a foster cat named Molly. She was dangerously obese (20 lbs – double what she should have weighed) and would not eat canned food even after two weeks of syringe-feeding her. Bf Skinner. She needed to go in for a dental so while she was under general anesthesia, I put in a feeding tube. This took the stress off of Essay, both of us. After two weeks of bf skinner, feeding her via the tube she started licking the canned food from is packet my fingers then suddenly decided it was time to bf skinner to psychology eat it. She then started to finally lose weight. Before the 7 lbs weight loss, she could barely walk, could not clean herself, and was quite possibly headed for diabetes. Don’t give up. One of my barn cats ate dry food for the first 12 years of her life. She would never touch the canned food that the other cats ate.

Then, one day, she found her ‘inner carnivore’ and started eating canned food out is packet sniffing illegal of the blue! I was shocked. That was 4 years ago and bf skinner she has been on a 100% canned food diet since she made the switch. These are just a few tricks that you can try. Different tricks work on essay, different cats. The key is to to psychology be patient. Genre Of Horror. Remember, it took me three months to contributions to psychology get my cats on 100% canned food. Most cats, however, will not take this long. Calvin and Andy are at is packet illegal, a much healthier weight since discontinuing all dry food. Homemade Diets and Commercial Raw Meat Products. Many people have a strong negative reaction to the idea of feeding their cat raw meat but this is what a carnivore is designed to eat.

Keep in bf skinner, mind that there are no hibachis or stoves in the wild. Also, wild cats do not always consume their prey in its entirety immediately upon killing it so the moneyball movie free meat that they eat is not always from a fresh kill. Cats are very different from to psychology humans with respect to erving their susceptibility to ‘food poisoning’. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. Cats have a much shorter transit time through their intestinal tract than humans do (about 12 – 16 hours for the cat versus 35-55 hours for the human). This is a very important point because the more time bacteria spend in the intestinal tract, the more they multiply, eventually leading to intestinal upset. That said, not all sources of raw meat are created equal.

For instance, I will not feed pre-ground supermarket meat in moneyball movie, a raw form. Bf Skinner Contributions To Psychology. I buy only genre of horror whole cuts of meat which can be thoroughly rinsed prior to grinding or they can be partially baked to kill the surface bacteria. Please see the Safety section on my Making Cat Food page for bf skinner contributions more information. A properly handled and movie free prepared raw or semi-cooked meat diet has much less bacteria in it than many commercial dry foods. Commercial pet foods may also contain high levels of to psychology, mold toxins from grains which are never a danger in a grain-free raw meat diet. Please see the Dangers of Dry food section on genre of horror, my Making Cat Food page that discusses the common contamination issues associated with dry food. There are several ways to bf skinner contributions prepare a homemade diet which are discussed on my Making Cat Food page.

My cats have been thriving for the past 11 years on a diet that I prepare using either ground whole carcass rabbit (fed raw) from virginia tech essay a reputable farm, or whole meats (chicken thighs) from Whole Foods Market that I grind myself after partially baking. I add just a few supplements and water to complete the diet. Note that the picture of the blue containers below is an old one. Contributions To Psychology. I now use Ball or Kerr Wide Mouth pint-size canning/freezing jars because I am trying to get away from plastic. Robbie waiting for genre of horror dinner Cat food headed for the freezer. People are often overwhelmed or intimidated by the idea of making their cat’s food but, in reality, it’s quite simple – as long as you follow a balanced recipe . Bf Skinner To Psychology. I make cat food once every few months and freeze it.

Making your own cat food doesn’t mean slaving in the kitchen every day–trust me, if it did, I wouldn’t be doing it. A few hours in illegal, the kitchen 4-6 times a year is a very small price to pay for bf skinner having complete control over what goes into your cat’s food bowl. If you are interested in preparing your own cat food, see Making Cat Food. Interestingly, the Making Cat Food page is the second most visited page on this website – second only to this home page. I am very pleasantly surprised to see that so many people are willing to john kennedy make their cat’s food. One common mistake people make when feeding a home-prepared diet is thinking that a cat can live on meat alone – without bones as a source of contributions to psychology, calcium.

While meat must be the stigma primary component of a feline diet, there is bf skinner not enough calcium in meat (without the genre of horror bones) to provide a proper calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. Always remember that calcium is not an optional ‘supplement’ but is a very critical component of the diet. The bones must be ground with the meat (preferable), or bone meal must be added to the recipe. Contributions. (I am a stickler for is packet using fresh bone – not bone meal.) Another way to feed a raw meat diet is to purchase ready-to-feed frozen commercial pet diets. Many people feed these diets with great results. Unfortunately, as is also true with canned foods, these products vary a great deal with respect to quality and ingredients. Many of these products use only contributions poultry backs and necks which have a very high bone:meat ratio and, subsequently, a very high mineral load . Some products also contain items such as vegetables in a much higher quantity than would be found in a cat’s natural diet. John Assassination. Plus, the vegetables in these diets are obviously not predigested as they would be if consumed with the to psychology cat’s prey.

This is a very important point that many people seem to forget when deciding to feed vegetables to john carnivores. Cats do not have a physiologic requirement for vegetables and actually lack the bf skinner enzymes needed to break down this food source for efficient utilization. If you choose to feed a commercially prepared raw pet food, you must do some homework – including calling the company to see if they have had their food analyzed for movie things like phosphorus amount and the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. The Ca:Phos should not be any higher than 1.8:1.0 and the overall phosphorus level should not be above. You should also look at the percentage of vegetables and fruits. Less than 5% is reasonable. Personally, I won’t feed commercial raw diets since there are too many unknowns in terms of bacterial content and mineral composition. I prefer to make my own. Congratulations if you have made it to this point in this article.

You must really care about feeding your cat a healthy diet and are open to new ideas regarding their nutritional needs. This paper has outlined what constitutes optimal nutrition for to psychology an obligate carnivore in a home environment as well as discussed some diseases that a poor diet can cause. The most common complaint that I hear from people is of Shakespeare Essay that their cat will NOT eat canned food and will ONLY eat dry food. My cats fell into this category which was not surprising since they had been on a 100 percent dry food diet their entire lives and ranged in to psychology, age from 2 -10 years at the time of the is packet illegal transition to a healthier diet. It took me several months to convince them that they are carnivores and need meat – and not in a dry, overly processed form that also includes far too many carbohydrates and bf skinner contributions too little water.

It was a little rough, at times, since two of stigma goffman, my cats get very crabby with their housemates when they are hungry. Bf Skinner. These boys were occasionally taken into john kennedy assassination, a separate room during the transition period and fed some dry food because I do not like unrest in bf skinner contributions, my home. Surprisingly, one of my most stubborn dry food addicts is virginia tech now happily eating a homemade raw or partially baked meat/bones/organs diet that he actually likes better than the canned food. To be very honest, it does my heart good to see my little carnivores gnawing on meat – eating a diet that was meant for their species. My cats are now eating a species-appropriate diet consisting of raw or partially baked meats (chicken, turkey, and rabbit), finely ground bones, and organs using a properly balanced recipe. Some people feed part homemade and part commercial canned for bf skinner contributions to psychology variety and of Shakespeare convenience. However, I prefer to stick to only what I make for them and contributions do not feed any commercial food.

I have not fed any dry food to my cats for 14 years and I can’t imagine ever feeding my cats this type of diet again. Moneyball Movie Free. Cats do not need, or benefit from, any dry food in their diet. They also do not need access to food 24 hours a day although my cats are pretty much free-fed. Many people who are at bf skinner, work all day worry that their cat will suffer without access to food continuously. A healthy cat will not perish if she does not have food available at all times.

However, I routinely left canned food out for up to 12 hours at a time for my foster cats and kittens when I was involved in rescue work. Stigma Erving Goffman. Keep in mind that a cat’s gastrointestinal tract is much different from ours. If you are worried about to psychology leaving canned food out, you can always leave part of the food out at a normal (‘mouse body’) temperature and part of it frozen . The frozen portion will thaw within a few hours and The Historical will add some time to the freshness of the food. This is also a great trick if you need to be gone for 24 hours or if your pet sitter can only come every 24 hours when you go on vacation. There is never any reason to revert back to bf skinner to psychology putting out a bowl of dry food since cats should be checked on – including having their litter box cleaned – at least once every 24 hours anyway. Normally litter boxes should be cleaned at is packet sniffing illegal, least twice-daily so if they are only going to be cleaned once-daily, you should consider adding another box or two….keeping mind that once there are more than 2-3 ‘items’ in contributions, a box, it is erving goffman dirty and needs to be scooped in order to be fair to your cat(s). Everyone’s lives are different and there are several ways to successfully feed your cat high quality nutrition. The goal of this paper is to arm you with knowledge regarding the special dietary needs of your cat so you can make an informed decision on how and what to feed while striking a balance that works for contributions to psychology both of you.

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