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Langston Hughes: Poems Theme for English B Summary and

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Theme for English B by Langston Hughes - YouTube

burn homework vocab Key Concept of the Day: Humans have taken up a very small amount of Earth's timeline, and civilized humans have taken up even less time. 1) Test materials. 4) Notes (with a ream of college ruled paper) 5) Supplementary handouts. Day 2-Neolithic Revolution-August 23rd 24th. Turn in theme, your parent contract in the tray at the front of the room. By James Baldwin Essay? We will then practice analyzing documents using the document analysis worksheet in your Unit 1 Packet and the pictures below. Then we will do a map exercise of the domestication of plants and animals.

Next, we will watch a Crash Course History on the Neolithic Revolution. Lastly, we will read together the Jared Diamond article The Worst Mistake in for english, the History of the Human Race , linked below. Homework: #8203;#8203;Do vocab #2. The Terms are listed below. Vocab quiz on next week. Traits? #8203;Chapter 1 guided annotation cancelled. Analyze the three images above using the document analysis organizer handed out (also found in theme for english, a link below and in resources). THEN, watch the crash course video below.

Read Chapter 2, pages 61-90 and do the guided annotation found in the links below. Day 3-Neolithic Revolution, Animal Domestication, and other early breakthroughs-August 29th 30th. Of the three early forms of odysseus traits, society--Hunter-Gatherers, Pastoral Nomads, and Agriculturalists--which one was the theme best lifestyle and call girl jb which one was the worst. Day 4-River Valley Civilizations-August 31st and for english September 1st. From now on, we will be doing an AP word of the day.

Allow for a section of AP-level vocabulary at the end of your unit pack. use a separate sheet of paper. I will grade for this. AS SOON as you come in ad any purple words of the day to this new section. AP Word of the Day : #8203; Sedentary - inhabiting the same locality throughout life; not migratory or nomadic. Blues? Matrilineal -tracing descent through the mother, common amongst pre-agricultural societies. Mini-lecture: River Valley Civilizations. For English? Day 5-River Valley Civilizations continued-September 5th 6th. AP Word of the in Sonny’s Blues Baldwin Essay Day: Hierarchy- a system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority.

Oligarchy -a small group of people having control of a country, organization, or institution. Filial Piety- a virtue of respect for theme one's parents, elders, and ancestors; a major influence in Chinese history. Day 6-Early Trade routes and history bombing Cultural Diffusion-September 7th 8th. Key Concept of the Day: China has a long history and it's geographic and political isolation have allowed it to remain culturally similar over thousands of years. AP Word of the Day: Indentured Servitude: any system of theme for english, unfree labor under which an employee (indenturee) is bound by a contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer, for hero traits a fixed period of theme for english, time.

Elitism : the advocacy or existence of an elite as a dominating element in a system or society. #8203; Agenda: Vocab Quiz Image Analysis: Olmec colossal head River Valley Lecture continued Watch Clip: Ancient Chinese religion in Mulan Watch Clip: First 5 minutes of Crash Course 2,000 years of Chinese History (though you're encouraged and welcome to watch the odysseus traits whole thing) Mapping Exercise: River Valley Civilizations Finish Persia Charts for the River Valley Civilizations Exit Ticket: River Valley T-Chart Homework: Vocab Terms listed below. Continue working on the Civilization Summary and Religion Examination parts of the Unit Packet. The civilizations and religions you should be using are listed in the Unit Packet's table of contents. #8203; Mapping Exercise: River Valley Civilizations. Theme For English? •Title your map “River Valley Civilizations” •Locate the call girl jb 4 River Valley Civilizations on your map and draw an outline of the civilization (you don’t have to theme for english, be exact). Label the continents of Africa, Europe, and Asia, as well as the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans . •Color each civilization a different color and create a key on the map showing Sumer, Egypt, Indus Valley, and China. #8203;Label the rivers associated with each Civilization. •On the back of your map write the names of the four River Valley Civilizations. Then, beneath each River Valley Civilization list 4 contributions (inventions, breakthroughs, etc.) that that civilization contributed to the course of human history. T-Chart Exercise: Living next to rivers. Day 7- Early Trade routes and Cultural Diffusion-September 11th 12th. #8203;Indo-European - A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia. People from around the the Black Sea and the Caspian sea; Between 2500 and odysseus hero traits 2000 BC, they migrated all over Eurasia; known as Hittites or Aryans, became ancestors of Romans and Greeks. Example of Cultural Diffusion: Indo-European language tree. Theme? Trade Routes Mapping Exercise. -outline and draw the following civilizations and most important inventions of the 20th cultures: Nubia, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Indus, and Phoenicia. Theme For English? -outline and show the following trade routes by drawing a line between them. -Draw arrows showing the direction something is call girl jb, being traded between the two cultures and theme for english label what was traded along them.

For example, I could draw a line between the Hide in Your Head Essay United States and Canada, then an arrow pointing in either direction with Ford cars going to Canada from the U.S. and maple syrup and theme for english hockey pucks coming to the U.S. from Canada. #8203;-use your computers to research. -Phoenician Trade Network. Day 8-Trade routes continued and review-September 13th 14th. AP Word of the about The Physician-Assisted Suicide Day: Pastoral - used for or related to the keeping or grazing of sheep or cattle; country life. #8203;Steppe- A sea of theme for english, grass extending from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe which will be home to many many pastoral horse cultures who will come into conflict with Civilizations. Below is hero, a practice Short Answer Question or SAQ. If a man has destroyed the for english eye of Communication by James Baldwin Essay, a member of the for english aristocracy, they shall destroy his eye. If he has broken another man’s bone, they shall break his bone. If he has destroyed the eye of a commoner or broken the bone of a commoner, he shall pay one mina of silver.

If he has destroyed the eye of another man’s slave or broken the bone of a man’s slave, he shall pay one-half of the in Sonny’s Blues by James Essay slave’s value.

Theme for English B by Langston Hughes - Poems | poets org

Theme for english

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Langston Hughes: Poems Theme for English B Summary and

2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on content of this chapter, contact the issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the Division of Management Support, OMA on 301-496-4606, or enter this url: This chapter transmits the NIH policy on the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to theme provide opportunities for developmental training and practical research experience in a variety of disciplines related to biomedical research, medical library research and related fields. Traineeships are designed to provide research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and Communication in Sonny’s Baldwin Essay, which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals. Training must be carried out at a facility of the NIH, but may be supplemented by additional training acquired at another institution which is theme found by the Director to be directly related to Your Bed and in Your Head Essay the purpose of the traineeship and necessary to its successful completion.

Training outside of theme NIH must not comprise a majority of the call girl jb, training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and theme, individuals of Blues Baldwin Essay diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the IRTA Program unlike Research and Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the for english, training objective. NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the PHS Act and which is not residency training of hero physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the national research institutes may conduct and theme for english, support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-31.

(6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships. See Appendix 10 (Delegations of Authority) Approval by most important inventions 20th century the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is required for all exceptions to program provisions. Requests for exceptions to program provisions must be fully justified in writing, describing the theme, nature and basis for the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to the availability of space, funds, and preceptors time, and are limited by the number of training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon submission of acceptable proof of U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and a medical evaluation if applicable. In addition, trainees must meet the under Your Essay, requirements of one of the categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the total Traineeship duration, regardless of the number of Traineeships granted by different ICs. The duration of the theme for english, award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend.

All renewals must be in writing and include beginning and termination dates. 1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in bombing 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year.

Traineeships of less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. 1-month to theme for english 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in Hide under Head good standing.

A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation. Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at for english the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in Communication Blues by James Baldwin Essay duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of theme for english pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for call girl jb, part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of for english time and enter the annual prorated stipend in history of suicide bombing the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is for english as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by about Suicide Argument the Foundation for Advanced Education in theme the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans.

NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for by James Baldwin, health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Theme For English! See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for physicians). NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on history, the number of years of postbaccalaureate education completed upon theme, activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule.

Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the degree and amount of relevant experience at activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of Traineeship.

NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. A stipend increase of up to $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at the time of renewal for 10 percent of of the 20th its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the range for the two-year experience level. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 2 may be granted per annum, based on progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for for english, each year the inventions 20th century, trainee remains in for english the program . A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the award is renewed for second (and final) year in history of suicide the program. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on theme, progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of education completed. An additional allowance of up to $10,000 may be added to the initial stipend level of postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the following specialty categories:

Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical); Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or. Fellow entering the fifth year, for whom the Suicide Argument, IC wishes to provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for the fifth year. Stipends are paid in arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an electronic file transfer in the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and approved by the IC Scientific Director prior to the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the annual stipend payment.

The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in arrears in theme for english 12 equal monthly amounts. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the first 5 business days of under Your in Your Head Essay each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by check on or about the 10th business day of each month. If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the award, the final check may NOT be for for english, the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by bombing the balance of the advance. For English! The trainee may owe money to NIH if the time served does not offset the of the, balance of the advance. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to the Office of Financial Management Fellowship Payment Office with a copy of the theme for english, FPS-generated termination notice.

Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to the U.S. Government. Stipends will be made in call girl jb equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for theme, a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for call girl jb, that month until certification is received. Supplemental funding should be granted to theme for english Trainees who wish to come to NIH for a period of research training under the most century, auspices of traineeships or grants awarded by theme for english outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the in Sonny’s by James, funding provided is insufficient to support the for english, Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to Trainees NOT receiving support under the National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at such a rate that the combined level of support will match the stipend rate for a similarly qualified Trainee.

Supplemental funding that would result in a combined amount from NIH and the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for the relevant trainee level and Traineeship program may not be approved. Of Suicide! Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized. Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at the NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility. Traineeship preceptors and Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and theme, recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of most inventions century research goals, official copy of transcript. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable). CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript.

Verification from the theme, university that the applicant is in Hide under Your Bed and Head Essay good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to the student's participation is required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of research goals, and official copy of undergraduate school transcript. Applications must be made online at Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from school verifying academic standing, information on honors and achievements, and statement of interest in for english biomedical research. Applications must be made online at Hide under Bed and in Your The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is available from theme, IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and hero traits, Education Career Services Center and NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is directly related to for english the NIH research experience. Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and under Head, they must complete all NIH mandatory training.

When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to hazardous situations, or in theme for english contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and proper animal care and treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only one rotation of three months or less, is history permitted when such activity can be justified as an theme for english integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of most important 20th century duration or type, must be documented in theme for english the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and of suicide, should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to theme for english the above: ICs are expected to fund training directly related to the purpose of the They under Your Bed and, Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at theme an accredited academic institution. In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and call girl jb, other seminar series designated by the IC. Travel cost to theme NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and temporary storage of household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at the discretion of the odysseus, IC; no allowance for return travel is authorized.

Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an In Kind basis to cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an official duty type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at a scientific meeting), provided there is theme no conflict of interest in the source of the most important 20th century, funds. No honorarium, or compensation for for english, services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the IC Scientific Director in order to They Hide Head Essay accept outside travel reimbursement. The HHS Form 348 is not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees. However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is theme non-federal. For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is odysseus available through an outside sponsor, at its discretion, an IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs.

A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to the Cashiers Office attached to a copy of the travel voucher. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. Use the theme for english, FPS to process terminations of all trainees immediately. Termination of the traineeship may be made prior to They under Your Bed and Head specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of theme misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to call girl jb carry out or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. For English! All termination proposals for cause must be in writing and provide the trainee with an opportunity to make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the case of personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and absent any conduct issues, the history, IC should arrange for theme, transfer of the bombing, trainee to another laboratory.

Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of Financial Management (OFM), NIH for any and all stipend overpayments prior to for english OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to the OFM Fellowship Payment Office with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. They Bed And Head Essay! Government. In addition, if the Foundation for Advanced Education in for english the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is handling the trainees health insurance, it must be provided a Notification of Termination form, obtained from the ICs Administrative Officer.

The FPS-generated Notification of Termination form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. The form must be signed by an FAES representative before the end of the odysseus hero traits, month in which the fellowship is theme terminated to history of suicide bombing avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to another IC within NIH, the losing IC must indicate this in the FPS module and notify the gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and retrieve the theme for english, trainees record. Important Inventions Of The Century! The effective date of transfer must be the theme for english, first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the important inventions of the 20th, subsequent month. Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave.

However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and for english, 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days. Odysseus Hero Traits! For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of for english 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in granting additional short absences (less than a week per year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of a child or other family health care. Bombing! In addition, ICs must excuse absences to accommodate a trainees military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and inactive duty training Not to Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. Theme! Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by Essay about Argument the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and theme for english, OIR. Through the FPS, the IC must enter the effective date to temporarily stop payment and must reactivate the award in call girl jb the FPS to resume payment. For absences of 4-12 months, the theme for english, appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend. Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return.

FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to be absent without stipend for less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the month following the about, start date of the unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is for english not in a pay status on the first day of the month. For example, if the trainee is They Bed and in Your Essay absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the for english, month following the start date of Communication Blues unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month) Should the trainee plan to be absent without stipend for more than 3 months, the theme, trainee may choose to stop coverage and not pay the Essay The Physician-Assisted Suicide Argument, premium. Upon return to for english NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber.

Should the hero, trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. For English! coverage is limited to 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the FPS to include start and end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon call girl jb, trainees return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to theme FAES and of suicide, OFM. All trainees may use the Occupational Medical Service for injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. Theme! 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury. All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in NIH facilities. This requirement may be satisfied by a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in another's name with the important of the century, Trainee identified as a family member. Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of health insurance is for english available through the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES).

FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per call girl jb week and a minimum duration of for english 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for call girl jb, enrolling in FAES health insurance within the first 30 days of the for english, award. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the Essay The Physician-Assisted Suicide Argument, trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into theme, the FPS . Trainees must maintain an existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and Essay The Physician-Assisted Argument, elected health insurance. Funds for individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee.

For a non-FAES policy, NIH will pay or reimburse for a policy issued in the Trainee's name in theme for english an amount not to exceed that of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. Alternatively, NIH will reimburse for any additional health insurance cost, if incurred, as a result of about Suicide Argument being covered under a spouse's plan and identified as a family member in an amount not to theme exceed the cost of the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option. Odysseus Hero! Sufficient documentation verifying health insurance coverage and documenting health insurance costs are required when using a non-FAES policy. When the outside sponsor provides insufficient funding for theme for english, the purchase of health insurance coverage, the IC may provide supplemental funding to traits permit the purchase of a policy equivalent in cost to the FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option, individual or family coverage, as appropriate. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to provide health insurance coverage a stipend of at least $1 per year must also be authorized, even when the outside funding is greater than the applicable stipend. See Section Z, Excused Absence without Stipend if applicable. In cases where: 1) the theme, duration of the Traineeship is less than 90 days and; 2) the personal purchase of a Health Insurance Policy would result in undue financial hardship for the student, the IC may pay the Communication Blues by James, total associated cost. Trainees are not employees and therefore not eligible for Federal retirement benefits. Stipends are subject to for english Federal, state, and local income taxes; however, NIH does not withhold taxes from the Trainees' stipends. The OFM annually prepares and Communication Blues by James, sends appropriate income information to the IRS and to theme Trainees. Trainees may be required to file quarterly estimated Federal and State income tax returns.

Since interpretation and implementation of the Essay about The Physician-Assisted, tax laws are the responsibility of the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) and courts, Trainees should consult their local IRS office and/or tax advisor if they have questions about the applicability of the current tax code to the taxability of Traineeships, the proper steps to be taken regarding tax obligations, and concerns regarding their own situations. Trainees are likely to be eligible for coverage under the Federal Tort Claims Act (28 U.S.C. 2671 et seq.) for damages or injuries that arise from actions occurring within the for english, scope of their assignment and while under the direct control and supervision of odysseus a Federal employee. However, the ultimate decision on issues of liability is made on a case-by-case basis by the courts. Should claims arise from the theme, actions of Trainees acting within the call girl jb, scope of their assignments under the direct control and supervision of a federal employee, NIH would ask that they be defended by the Department of Justice as if they were Federal employees. Outside employment for Trainees must be approved in accordance with NIH Ethics Office policies The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education will periodically evaluate the IRTA Program for representation of women, minorities, and theme for english, disabled persons; to assess its relationship with other NIH Traineeship Programs; and to determine whether it is Your Essay functioning effectively and theme for english, accomplishing the purpose for which it was designed. The results of these evaluations and any recommendations for changes to the Program will be presented to the Office of important inventions of the Intramural Research (OIR), NIH, and the NIH Board of Scientific Directors (SD) for consideration. OIR will periodically review stipend ranges and/or schedules in theme consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Recommended adjustments by OIR and call girl jb, the SD subcommittee on theme for english, trainee stipends will be submitted to history bombing the Scientific Directors for review and concurrence and then to theme for english the Director, NIH for Communication in Sonny’s Essay, final approval.

The publication and theme for english, presentation of most important of the scientific research by Trainees are governed by the same policies as applied to other scientists, either employed by theme or in training at NIH, as described in call girl jb NIH Manual 1183 NIH Publications and Audiovisuals: Preparation, Review, Approval, and theme for english, Distribution. Trainees, like employees and others working at NIH, are bound by all provisions of Executive Order 10096, as amended, 45 C.F.R. Odysseus! Part 7 and any orders, rules, regulations or policies issued thereunder for inventions conceived or first actually reduced to practice while at the NIH, as well as by HHS Technology Transfer Procedure Manual, Chapter 203.1, NIH Procedures Related to Disposition of Rights in Inventions by Non-Employees Working at NIH, Receiving NIH Intramural Training Support or Working On-Site under Research Collaborations (NIH-Access only). Trainees will disclose promptly, to theme for english the appropriate NIH officials, all inventions which they conceive or first actually reduce to practice during their assignment, and will sign and about The Physician-Assisted Argument, execute all papers necessary for conveying to the government the rights to which it is entitled by virtue of Executive Order 10096, as amended. Records must be maintained in accordance with Privacy Act System Notice: 09-25-0158, Administration: Records of Applicants and Awardees of the NIH IRTA Program, HHS/NIH/OD/OIR/OITE (Office of Intramural Training Education) for for english, 5 years. AK. Inventions Of The Century! Retention and theme for english, Disposal of Records.

Records Retention and Disposal: All records (e-mail and non-e-mail) pertaining to this chapter must be retained and disposed of Suicide under the authority of the NIH Manual Chapter 1743, Keeping and theme for english, Destroying Records, Appendix 1, NIH Records Control Schedule, Section 2300 Personnel, 320 Staff Fellowship Programs (all items that apply). NIH e-mail messages: NIH e-mail messages (messages, including attachments, that are created on the NIH computer systems or transmitted over the NIH networks) that are evidence of the activities of the odysseus traits, agency or have informational value are considered Federal records. These records must be maintained in accordance with current NIH Records Management guidelines. Contact your IC Records Officer for additional information. All e-mail messages are considered Government property, and if requested for a legitimate Government purpose, must be provided to the requester. Employees' supervisors, the NIH staff conducting official reviews or investigations, and the Office of Inspector General may request access to or copies of the e-mail messages. E-mail messages must also be provided to the Congressional Oversight Committees, if requested, and are subject to the Freedom of Information Act requests. Since most e-mail systems have back-up files that are retained for significant periods of theme time, e-mail messages and attachments are likely to be retrievable from a back-up file after they have been deleted from an Essay The Physician-Assisted Suicide individual's computer.

The back-up files are subject to the same requests as the original messages. The purpose of this manual issuance is to provide policies and procedures for the implementation of the NIH Intramural Research Training Program. The Office responsible for internal controls relative to this manual issuance is the Office of theme Intramural Research (OIR). Through this issuance the OIR is accountable for the method used to ensure that internal controls are implemented and working. Frequency of Review: Periodic review of the inventions of the 20th, fellowship process will be completed to determine if ICs are in for english compliance with policy.

Reviews will be conducted every 3-5 years. Method of Review: The OIR will initiate and lead reviews consisting of a random sampling of fellowship files/documentation using a checklist that will monitor the ICs compliance with various important aspects of the policy. Most Inventions Of The 20th Century! Review reports are sent to the Deputy Director for Intramural Research and to the Deputy Director for Management, NIH. Reports should indicate that controls are in place and working well or indicate any internal internal control issues that should be brought to theme the attention of the report recipient (s). Questions on how to of the 20th century obtain these forms should be directed to the designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Fellowship Request (FPS-generated) Fellowship Activation (FPS-generated) Election of Health Insurance Choice 1, 2, or 3 (FPS-generated)

Absence without stipend and reactivation (FPS-generated) These documents (or copies) (in printed paper version) should be retained by the ICs as official system records for the IRTA Program. Fellowship Termination Notice (FPS-generated) Since all IRTA Traineeships are considered awards for training and theme, not wages for service or employment, neither Social Security nor Medicare is deducted from stipends. Call Girl Jb! Although definitive determinations regarding Social Security obligations and coverage must be made by the Internal Revenue Service and for english, the courts, it is the opinion of the NIH Legal Advisor that Trainees are not self-employed but in important of the 20th training for purposes of coverage under the Social Security Act and therefore, can not make Social Security or Medicare payments on their own behalf. Trainees are encouraged to discuss this with their tax advisors.

* If you require a 508 compliant PDF version of a chapter please contact Office of for english Management Assessment, National Institutes of Health, 6011 Executive Blvd., Suite 601, MSC 7669, Rockville, MD 20852.

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Top 10 Things Job-Seekers Need to Know about Submitting and theme for english Posting Your Resume Online. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. In the early days of Internet job searching, e-resumes, or electronic resumes, were distinguished from traditional print resumes. Traits? Today, since most resumes are transmitted electronically, the theme term e-resume is not used much anymore. Online resume submission has become so pervasive that resume is nearly synonymous with electronic resume. Job-seekers today submit their resumes via e-mail, post or submit them on Internet job boards, or publish them on their own Web page. To learn more about the many forms of most of the century resumes used online, see our accompanying article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. In the meantime, stay right here to learn the theme 10 things you truly must know about submitting and Essay The Physician-Assisted Suicide posting your resume online. 1. You absolutely MUST have a version of your resume that is optimized for online posting and submission. A job-seeker simply cannot succeed these days with just the traditional formatted resume intended to theme be printed out as a visually pleasing marketing piece.

The formatted print resume is still important, but it can no longer be the 20th only resume tool in your kit. More than 90 percent of employers place resumes directly into searchable databases and an equal percentage of employers prefer to receive resumes by e-mail. Theme? More than 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies post jobs on call girl jb, their own Web sites and expect job-seekers to respond electronically. Thus, you need at least one other version of your resume that can go directly into theme for english a keyword-searchable database with no obstacles. Formatting that needs to be removed before the resume can be placed in Essay The Physician-Assisted Suicide Argument a database is an example of such an theme, obstacle. Sending your resume in text-based format directly in odysseus hero traits the body of an e-mail message removes all barriers to an employers placing your resume right into theme a searchable databases. Some employers still prefer the formatted document version of your resume attached to an e-mail message (so they have the option to print it out, for example), while others wont open attachments because of concerns about viruses and incompatibilities among word-processing programs. The formatted print resume is still vital because the employer may wish to visually review your resume, especially once the database search has narrowed down the candidates, and the formatted, print version will be more reader-friendly than the call girl jb text-based version. Youll also want to have a print version of your resume on hand for networking, to take to interviews and career fairs and for the rare occasions when employers request resumes in theme for english old-school ways by mail or fax.

At the bare minimum, you need a formatted, print version of your resume and a text-based (ASCII) e-resume. To cover every contingency, you might also want to have a Portable Document Format (PDF) version, and a Web-based (HTML) version. The nuances of these versions are explained in our article, Your E-resumes File Format Aligns with its Delivery Method. 2. Your resume must be loaded with keywords. Much of job-hunting today revolves around the mysterious world of keywords.

Employers dependence on keywords to find the job candidates they want to interview has come about in recent years because of technology. Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on placing resumes in bombing keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for specific keywords that relate to job vacancies. Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, most employers search the databases of theme third-party job-posting and call girl jb resume-posting boards on the Internet. The bottom line is that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for keywords, and theme your resume doesnt have the keywords the company seeks for odysseus traits the person who fills that job, you are pretty much out of luck. Read more about the importance of keywords in our article Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resumes Effectiveness and theme for english how you can identify the best keywords in Resources for Identifying Keywords and most important of the Researching Keywords in Employment Ads. Consider using our Resume Keywords Worksheet.

3. Your resume must be accomplishments-driven. Accomplishments are the points that really help sell you to an employer much more so than everyday job duties. Theme For English? In fact, theres a direct relationship between keywords and accomplishments in that keywords can be tied to accomplishments rather than job duties, so a good way to bombing make the leap from keyword to a nice, contextual bullet point is to take each keyword youve identified as critical to the job and theme for english list an accomplishment that tells how youve used the skill represented by that keyword. For more about maximizing your accomplishments in an e-resume, see our article, For Job-Hunting Success: Track and Leverage Your Accomplishments and consider using our Accomplishments Worksheet. 4. Call Girl Jb? Technically speaking, a resume for for english online posting and Essay about Suicide submission is not too difficult to for english create. Its surprisingly easy to create an e-resume once you get the hang of it. Theres more than one way to create a text-based e-resume, but the most common method involves saving your word-processed (usually Word) resume in text (.txt) format, re-opening it in a text editor program, such as Wordpad, Notepad, or Text Wrangler, TextEdit for Mac OS, and then making a few adjustments in it. Important Of The 20th Century? One good resource that can walk you through this process include this part of How to Upload or Email a Resume from theme for english Susan Ireland. Even a Web-based HTML resume is not that hard to craft. Learn everything you need to know in our article, A Web-Ready Resume Can Be a Major Advantage in Your Job Search.

5. Text-based resumes are the ugly ducklings of the bombing resume world, but you can dress them up a bit. Job-seekers and resume writers have strived for years to develop ways to theme make resumes visually appealing and odysseus traits graphically interesting through font choices, bold and for english italic type, rule lines, bullets, centering, indents, and Communication Baldwin Essay more only to theme for english have all that formatting thrown out the window in the e-resume world. The Physician-Assisted Argument? Text-based resumes are the theme for english antitheses of the gorgeous documents that job-seekers hand to employers at interviews and under Your in Your Essay career fairs. The fact is that most online resumes arent intended to be visually attractive because their main function is not to be seen but to be searched in keyword-searchable databases. Still, they may be seen at some point.

Employers may see the resume youve posted on an online job board. Their primary interest is for english, whether the content of call girl jb your resume (indicated largely by keywords) shows you to be qualified for theme the opening youve applied for and/or for which the employer is searching the database. But once the match has been made, the employer may actually look at your resume. So, even though without formatting you cant make it look as fetching as your print version, you can still ensure that it looks decent. For example, you can use keyboard characters, such as equal signs (=====), plus signs (++++++) and tildes ( ) to make rule lines. Essay The Physician-Assisted Suicide? You can use asterisks (*****), hyphens (), lower-case letter os (ooooo), and carats () to make bullets. For English? You can use UPPER CASE for Hide under Your Bed and Head emphasis in theme headings. See how some of these techniques are used in this sample text chronological resume. Now, one type of e-resume that is meant to look good is the HTML or Web-based resume. This type of resume resides on a Web page, in part, so it can be seen, so it should be visually pleasing.

While its not too difficult to make an HTML resume look attractive, the more you know about Web design, the better you can make the resume look. History? You can also transform your Web resume into a Web portfolio that extensively shows off your skills and accomplishments. If youre not confident of your skills, you might want to enlist a Web designer or resume writer in theme this process. Communication In Sonny’s Baldwin Essay? A number of services have emerged in recent years that enable you to create Web-based and multimedia resumes that usually reside on a services site. Theme? See examples of these in our article New Web-Based Twists On Resumes: Best Ways to Construct a Resume?

6. Essay About The Physician-Assisted Suicide? Text resumes are highly versatile. Once you have a text-based resume, you can do a lot with it, including: Post it in for english its entirety on many job boards. Paste it piece-by-piece into the profile forms of under Head Essay job boards, such as, that have a rigid setup and dont allow resumes to theme for english be posted as is. Paste it into the body of an e-mail and send it to employers. Convert it to a Web-based HTML resume. 7. You must tailor the Communication in Sonny’s Baldwin Essay use of your resume to each employers or job boards instructions. As you might have guessed from what youve read so far in this article, there is no universally accepted way to submit your e-resume to an employer. Some employers want your resume as an attachment, usually as a Word document.

Others want your resume as text pasted into the body of an e-mail message. Still others want you to paste your resume into an online form. If you absolutely cannot find out an employers preference, the following is a fairly safe bet: A formatted, print resume in theme for english document (.doc because some older versions of Word cannot open .docx files)) form sent as an attachment to an e-mail message to the employer. Hide Under Your Bed And Head Essay? And heres a bit of theme for english common sense: Can you imagine how many resumes employers receive with files entitled resume.doc? Use your name as part of the file name for your resume. Essay Suicide? Example: JaySmithResume.doc.

A text-based e-resume stripped of most formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Since the employer has this text-based resume, he or she can choose whether or not to open the for english attached version, based on compatibility, virus protection, and company policy on opening attachments. For a truly complete e-mailable, electronic package, add a text-based cover letter stripped of formatting and pasted directly into the same e-mail message into which your print resume is attached. Pat Kendall and Susan Whitcomb note in a book about online resumes that your cover letter can contain verbiage that points out the options youre providing: I have attached an MS Word version of of suicide my resume, as well as pasted a plain-text version below. (If the plain-text version is theme for english, sufficient for inventions of the 20th century your database, it is not necessary to theme download the formatted attachment.) The same lack of universality goes for job boards. Some enable you to paste your resume into about The Physician-Assisted Argument a form in any format, but the board automatically converts it to theme for english text. Others require that the resume be in text format to begin with before you can paste it into the form. These variations underscore the importance of Blues by James Essay having a text-based e-resume. While researching this article, the Quintessential Careers staff experimented with posting resumes to several sites. We learned that a text-based e-resume is not only vital for boards with a text-resume requirement but also extremely helpful when the boards convert any resume to theme for english text.

Just because a job board turns your resume into Communication in Sonny’s Blues by James Baldwin text doesnt mean it will look decent; its better to have a text resume to begin with so you know it will look appropriate when pasted in. Also note that some job boards/employers limit the number of words or the size of the file that you can paste into any one field. 8. Take advantage of job-board features to protect yourself and get the most out of theme for english posting your e-resume on the boards. Most reputable job boards have features that enable you to protect your own privacy and confidentiality, control who sees your resume, mask the Blues Baldwin Essay identity if your current employer (so your employer doesnt know youre looking), and easily edit and delete your resume or change it from for english active to inactive. These privacy and confidentiality issues are more important than ever given news reports about identity theft of resume information. A good article to help you protect yourself is Privacy Tips for Online Job Seekers.

Many boards also enable you to create multiple profiles for about The Physician-Assisted Suicide Argument yourself so you can look for various types of jobs. Some permit you to submit a list of your top skills. Resume submission forms generally have questions in addition to a place to submit the actual resume. Some questions are mandatory; others are optional. When a question is optional, consider whether it is to your advantage to answer it. Theme For English? Answering questions about salary or location requirements, for They Hide under Your example, may be too limiting. 9. A few finishing touches can increase your e-resumes effectiveness. Here are a few tips from the experts for getting more out of your e-resume: Use the Properties feature in MS Word to boost the keyword searchability of your attached Word resume. This feature, found under Words File menu, enables you to insert keywords, comments, and a link to your Web-based resume if you have one. You can use the Comments field to enter geographic and relocation preferences.

A similar trick applies to theme using HTML commands called meta tags in creating a Web-based resume. The description command, for example, gives you up to 150 characters to Essay Suicide provide a description of your document. Make sure you use words that highlight your e perience and skills. The keywords command gives you limited spa e to enter critical eywords. Theme For English? Be sure to use keywords that you think employers and recruiters might use in searching for the position you are seeking and make sure those keywords are also listed at least once (perhaps in a key accomplishments section) in your resume. Read more about most important inventions of the 20th century, meta tags and helping your Web resume to be found in search engines in our article, Resume Found: Keys to for english Successful Search Engine Registration. Do some test runs of the formatted print resume you intend to send to employers as an about Suicide, attachment by sending it to the computers of theme for english a few friends to see if the formatting remains consistent from odysseus hero computer to computer. Try to theme for english find testers who each have different versions of Windows, as well as a tester or two using Mac OS. Use a specific subject line in your e-mail when transmitting your e-resume. The subject line might include the reference n. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives.

Since 2005, LiveCareers team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to by James Essay help land the job you want. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and theme for english blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. Odysseus? Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from theme Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by in Sonny’s Blues by James Baldwin, Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and for english with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiots Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at By James Baldwin Essay? Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. Youll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the theme for english process alone or [] Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog.

Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and scoops for odysseus hero traits job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an theme for english, archive of our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and inventions improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job [] The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to theme for english the job/career/employment section of a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and The Physician-Assisted Argument employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the [] Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of theme Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employers Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on call girl jb, their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to theme the career and employment section of the [] Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service.

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Three Day Road Response Questions + Q#9 Essay/Paragraph. 1. For English! Elijah has a dream in which three of his dead fellow soldiers tell him: Do what you can. There is nothing sacred any more in a place such as this. Dont fight it. Do what you can (p. 282).

How does Elijah interpret this? How does this create parallels between the French trapper and Elijah? The dream that Elijah had in which three of his dead follow soldiers tells him to just go for it and go for everything he can. With that, he started to have an obsession with killing others and by James without killing it leads him to theme for english, boredom. History Of Suicide! This created parallels between the French Trapper and Elijah because they were both not thinking of what theyre doing and gone with their first instincts.

Both the French trapper and Elijah later on believes that what they have been doing are wrong but in their heads, it seemed right. 2. While Elijah was learning to theme, be a hunter in the bush, Xavier-as Elijahs mentor-was much more competent in traditional bush skills. In this context, Elijah followed Xavier and Xavier was more prominent. Once in Europe to odysseus hero, fight in theme the war, however, Elijahs sense of confidence grows. Even though both Elijah and Xavier become expert snipers and in Sonny’s soldier, Elijahs reputation is for english more recognizable and Xavier finds himself living in Elijahs shadow. At one point Xavier observes that Elijahs shadow has become part of me. How does this power shift between them affect Xavier? How is it both ironic and in Sonny’s Baldwin Essay symbolic that Xavier kills Elijah but then finds himself being assigned Elijahs identity? Xavier feels as if hes being used by Elijah because Xavier made who he is today.

Xavier was the one who taught Elijah all he knows about skills and how to kill and hunt. Xavier was also the one who brought him to Niska who she grew up with and made his childhood. During the war, he is acknowledged for his good sniper skills and his power of killing as well as his skills in speaking English. He shows of his talents not mentioning how he got it from and who he was taught by. It is ironic because when Xavier killed Elijah, Xavier was mistaken as being Elijah and theme finally gets the credit for what he deserves even though they didnt know that who he killed was actually Elijah.

It is call girl jb symbolic because it showed how and where Xavier got his skills which are from Niska. It shows that he has the ability to be a windigo killer. 3. The French trapper says to Niska that Its too late you are nothing special, just another squaw whore. I took your power away in this place and sent it to burn in hell where it belongs (p. For English! 174). Explain why the trapper believed that by having sex with Niska in the church, at the altar, he would be taking her ahcahk (her spirit) and destroying her power as a shaman? What was it about important 20th century, Niska that he feared and felt compelled to destroy? Niska believes that having sex in the altar would destroy her powers and for english take her spirit away from her because she feels as if God is watching him sin in front of him. It is really bad since its against the religion and its in a holy place. Odysseus! The French trapper freaked out because she ran away from her and he feared that he was going to theme, be haunted by the demons or he wouldve been cursed since he knows that shes a windigo killer.

He eventually kills himself because he had gone mad and he got too frustrated. 4. How is about Chapter 15 (Betrayal, pages 164-176) NOT a story about sex? Just because Niska and the Caucasian male had sex, it doesnt mean that the whole story is about them just having sex. There is meaning behind it. Theme! Niska was already worried about him and how he should not be trusted. She feels that her divining powers are lost because he is in a relationship with this man. Bombing! Even though she feels this way, she still goes on theme, and meets him. At the Moose Factory, she finds out that everyone knows about her relationship with the They Hide Your Bed and in Your Head, man. That means that the theme for english, man has been telling everyone about their relationship. It would be very uncomfortable for since sex is something that is talked about privately.

She is also warned by Kokum as she said, Be careful of that one. They say he has a taste for odysseus hero traits, red meat that he cant satisfy. She is warned but she does not listen. When the man took her to theme for english, the church to Suicide, have sex, it had a really big significance on Niska. For English! She was betrayed by him since he had sex with her at the altar and she feels that her spirit was destroyed and he said, I took your power away in this place and sent it to burn in history bombing hell where it belongs. She feels guilty since its against for english her religion and especially that they had it in the altar. It was really bad so she ran off. Call Girl Jb! She tried to purify herself by going the theme, lynx, her strongest spirit, to go out and find the source of my hurt and extinguish it It was a good idea for her to leave that man because all he did was betray him, hence, the title. The man had gone mad and committed suicide. Odysseus Hero Traits! The man wouldve been a sign of the devil testing her temptations and her wrong doings. She gave in to the devil and made the theme for english, wrong choices. The story was mostly about how Niska felt rather than them having sex. 5. What is the significance in hero the story of each of the following motifs:

(A motif is for english a theme, character, verbal pattern or element that recurs in important of the century literature.) Grey eyes represented influence since he got Xavier hooked into the drug. He was the for english, one that said it could bring joy yet sorrow to his life. Grey eyes was the happy side of hero traits Xavier because every time hes with him, he takes the drug and they go to a happy place The fire symbolized the war. The trees showed that they were the soldiers standing and being brave and helping the country. The forest fire represented the fighting soldiers fighting for their country. The red flowers after the fire was shown represented the blood marks left on the ground.

Since the beginning, Elijah always wanted to for english, fly. When he got the chance to fly, it wasnt the feeling he was looking for but rather the odysseus hero traits, after effect of the morphine that gave him that flying effect. Elijah says that by taking the theme, morphine, he can see everything thats beneath him. Its Elijas way of escape from the Communication Blues Baldwin, war. Morphine was everyones way of escaping from the war.

They were all taken to for english, a happy place when they take this drug. They use it not for call girl jb, medical use but for the use of escaping life. Since theyre not in a good situation, they try to escape life and everything thats going on theme for english, around them. Call Girl Jb! Morphine was also a symbol of connection. The morphine was like the chain that connected everyone together. Theme! Without the morphine, they wouldnt really know each other. It is Communication Blues something that kept them all together. 6. Theme! What does assimilation (in the context of the story) mean?

How did Rabbit, by choosing to go to residential school and Hide under Your in Your Head accept a new, non-aboriginal name, symbolize this? What do Rabbits choices represent to her mother in terms of for english culture? The Caucasians thought that Rabbits name was weird. In order for her not to be seen as the weird one, they must change her name. She is now seen more western with a western name rather than being aboriginal.

Assimilation meant that she loses her culture and beliefs. This symbolizes assimilation because Rabbit is willing to change her name to Communication in Sonny’s by James Essay, Anne and let go of her culture. This shows that she doesnt like their culture and she doesnt want to have anything relating to theme for english, it therefore showing that she wants a better or a different lifestyle. Most 20th Century! Even though Rabbit changes her name and her mom was betrayed, she still supported her since shes her child and hoped for the best. 7. Discuss the idea that Xavier has inherited Niskas gifts and become a windigo killer too. The book showed that Xavier had inherited Niskas gifts of becoming a windigo killer as well as Niska, after Xavier killed Elijah. Theme For English! After a while, Elijah was turning into hero, a windigo himself, metaphorically. Xavier had to kill Elijah because he thought that it was whats best for for english, both of them. Of Suicide Bombing! Xavier knew that it was time to theme for english, kill them when he had too much pleasure in killing and Communication in Sonny’s by James Essay he was too close with the theme for english, Caucasians. Leaving Xavier alone and ignoring the fact that Xavier has been there for him this whole time.

8. The novels ending is not considered satisfying (it is unresolved). How did you feel about the ending? What questions were still left unanswered in your mind? Why do you think the author wrote the ending this way? In your response to question 9, consider the They under, question carefully and look up the meaning of the theme for english, term redemption (as it applies to this novel) . Respond to the idea of redemption using specific examples from the novel. History! Your answer should be in the form of theme a short expository essay with a distinct introduction, topic/thesis statement, body paragraphs, and conclusion. Make sure to follow a logical sequence and have smooth transitions.

I agree that the novel was unsatisfying. Its true that there was a lot of questions left unanswered. About The Physician-Assisted Suicide Argument! Did Xavier actually die? It seems like Xavier had a hard time without morphine by the end of the book. Will he tell Niska about what happened to Xavier and why he didnt come back?

I also wondered if Xavier will actually go back into hunting and how will he live his life IF he didnt die? Even though there are questions left unanswered, I think that the author made the ending blurry because he wants us to make our own ending and to see how creative we will get. It also makes us sit in the edge of our seats finding out what will happen next. 9. How is this novel a story of redemption? Xavier was saved from dying in sorrow. Since Xavier came back from for english, war, finding out that hes safe, he still had a chance to see Niska. Even though he only had three days to live, he had Niska and hero traits Elijah by his side.

Redemption comes in this story because Niska used her stories to for english, inspire Xavier and to let him know what shes gone through in life. She makes it seem as if Xavier is a hero and what he has gone through may be bad but it symbolizes a lot, such as success. It also makes it seem like hes not a failure. Since he came back in a wheelchair, he may think that he has not finished his business at war. Essay About The Physician-Assisted! Niska uses those three days to for english, make him happy, to let him know that his life was a success and it was worth it so that Xavier will die happily.

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is for english presented that is illustrative of odysseus traits, cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful. Complementary and alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and not to be enticed by theme, expensive ones of little benefit.

A determinant of the treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. While there is no term for most century, ADHD in for english, the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an hero #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to theme for english, bad spirits or punishment by God. Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to call girl jb, determine the unnatural cause. Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from theme, herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine. Immigrants often lack support of extended families in an environment not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician bias can all be barriers to care for immigrant families.

Primary care and behavioral integration are useful in managing families from other cultures. More than ever in the United States, it is nearly impossible to Communication in Sonny’s Baldwin Essay, find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. While this reality is for english broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. These challenges may be due in Essay, part to cultural differences in understanding and for english interpreting illness. Of Suicide Bombing! The importance of cultural issues on mental health care was highlighted in 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on mental health. 1 National efforts at education in cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of childhood. ADHD has a large genetic component to its etiology, 2, 3 and alterations in the noradrenergic and dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and for english executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the world.

Prevalence studies for Essay about The Physician-Assisted Suicide, many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in theme, China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and about Suicide Mexico. 5 Although the signs and symptoms of ADHD are basically the same in these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in which the theme for english, condition is interpreted and responded to by patients, their families, caring professionals, and others. Bombing! 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in 40#x00025; to 70#x00025; of children, ADHD persists into adulthood. 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in children worldwide, the subtler question of how the interpretation of symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive. Studies describing the interpretation of ADHD symptoms in different cultures are extremely limited. African American parents have been shown to be more unsure of the potential causes and treatments of ADHD and less likely to connect the for english, school system to most inventions, ADHD issues than white parents. 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to receive evaluation, diagnosis, and theme for english treatment, and history bombing the threshold of parental recognition and for english seeking of of suicide bombing, services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.

12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in standardized tapes of theme for english, white and They Hide Essay Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the clinical cutoffs for ADHD. 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to ethnic differences in behavior, limitations in the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in raters' assessments of behavior is theme for english uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. The following case study of a young Haitian American illustrates the cultural issues that can influence the care of call girl jb, a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and families.

Mr. A is a 25-year-old man with a history of theme for english, ADHD. Important! He was an overactive child from early infancy, and theme his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to Essay about Suicide, the natural tendencies of for english, his sex. Of Suicide! Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by corralling him in for english, his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr. A was 3 years of age, his parents became increasingly aware of his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions.

Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from school and was forced to move from one school to the next. In his community, he developed a reputation for being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on under Your Bed and Essay his parents within their extended family and theme for english community. At age 5, Mr. A was diagnosed by a specialist as having ADHD. His parents accepted counseling to of suicide, help manage their son's condition, but declined the use of medication. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. A into a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of appetite. When Mr. A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report.

Mr. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on the defensive all the time and began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on theme #x0005b;Mr. A's#x0005d; condition, but on our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to attend to Mr. A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the home. Unable to navigate the different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school.

Neither environment had an 20th century effect on his behavior. Two years later, when he returned to theme, live with his parents in the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to tutor, mentor, and supervise Mr. They Your Bed And Head! A's school activities. Theme For English! Mr. A eventually graduated from high school, but was unfocused and performed poorly in the classroom. After graduation, Mr. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one.

He continues to be hyperactive and Suicide unfocused. At work, he is known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. For English! A refuses to take medications and call girl jb denies his disorder. WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for theme, the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at least 6 of 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and (3) combined (has at least 6 of Communication by James Baldwin, 9 for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the inattentive subtype of ADHD tend to be the easiest group to manage and for english are the least likely to have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to 8 years, and decrease greatly by important inventions 20th, adolescence.

Impulsive behaviors follow the for english, same early course, but rather than declining in adolescence, remain a problem for life. 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in adolescence may result in problem drinking and drug use, and Communication in Sonny’s impulsive spending in adulthood. In contrast to hyperactivity and theme for english impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of symptoms must occur before the age of 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in Communication in Sonny’s by James, more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and for english be excessive for the development level of the child. Call Girl Jb! In addition, an theme individual's behaviors should affect at least 1 aspect of life, such as the school, family, or work environment. As with Mr.

A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in ADHD includes emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). History Of Suicide Bombing! For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at for english an age beyond that commonly encountered by American clinicians. Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to Essay Argument, behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to for english, define in recent immigrants. 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of experience with the American school environment, inadequate language skills, and child abuse or neglect.

18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in evaluating children (see; however, most of these have been validated in referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to bombing, immigrant populations. Theme! These scales include ones for use by clinicians, parents, and teachers. Also, collecting information from They Hide under Your Bed and in Your, other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from theme, a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to gather their childhood histories.

For example, clues to onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to of suicide, control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of false positives and cannot be relied on for diagnosis without supportive evidence from clinical assessment. Theme For English! 23. Treatment approaches to of suicide bombing, ADHD include an for english array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and most important inventions 20th century psychological treatments, and complementary and for english alternative medicine approaches. Medications are generally the call girl jb, preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Stimulant medications and psychosocial treatment have been the major foci of clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the literature on long-term treatment is sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and psychosocial treatments are efficacious. For English! 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is odysseus hero traits superior to psychosocial treatment. Theme! 26.

Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants. While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Studies have found that stimulants improve the call girl jb, defining symptoms of ADHD and associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in symptoms leads to theme for english, improvement in academic achievement or social skills. 28, 29.

Aside from studies suggesting the efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in overdose. Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the only medication approved by century, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the potential for severe liver injury, based on 2 reports (1 of a teenager and theme for english 1 of an adult).

Psychosocial treatments of ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is Essay about Suicide Argument taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to use contingency management procedures). 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to for english, be helpful in children with ADHD. 35, 36. Complementary and alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to about, families from other cultures. 37 Such therapies include special diets and supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in clinical trials. 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in less than 1#x00025; of children. 39 One role in which the primary care physician can be helpful is to help families assess alternative treatments and not be enticed by theme for english, expensive treatments of little benefit. The treatment of Blues Baldwin, ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of therapy: initiation and theme for english titration, maintenance, and termination. 40 During the initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for in Sonny’s, examples of for english, parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the patient and family, and treatment should be initiated. If medications available in short- and odysseus long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for response and side effects.

This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Starting and adjusting medications on a weekend provides opportunity for parents to observe effects and theme side effects directly. During the history of suicide bombing, maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of growth, efficacy, and side effects are appropriate. The duration and approach to termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and families to support adherence to treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. For English! Stimulant medications and Essay The Physician-Assisted atomoxetine may be stopped at theme once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to be tapered. Trials off therapy, for instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial. In summary, although there are a range of treatment modalities that have been tried in the treatment of ADHD in children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Of note, in one large study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, there was no difference in response to treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is no corresponding term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in They Your Head, the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the following:

Among Haitians, the theme for english, interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from family to family depending on religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for Baldwin Essay, immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. Whether the cause is natural or unnatural is extremely important in theme for english, the Haitian belief system. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by call girl jb, God. These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of ADHD and their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the United States, as in many other countries, the diagnosis of ADHD is mainly a medical one and for english involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and important inventions of the century psychologists. However, for theme for english, most of the population in Haiti, a child would not be brought to a primary care physician for care of a behavioral problem. Doctors are generally seen only for physical illness and emergency care; access to primary care is limited and traits generally available only to theme, the most affluent.

ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is handled by parents, extended family, and Hide under Head Essay school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Verbal discipline includes preaching to the child, comparing the child to others, begging the child to behave, and humiliating the child. Corporal discipline and punishment can be inflicted by any member of the family, neighbors, and schoolteachers, all of whom are given full authority to educate and #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to theme for english, raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the hero traits, support of the extended family, in theme for english, an environment that is call girl jb not supportive of for english, their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style.

Like many Haitian American parents living in the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr. A's parents chose to history of suicide bombing, send him back to Haiti with the hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of for english, discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and removal of the interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. Mr. A went to live with his grandmother first and most important inventions of the 20th century then off to a boarding school, a setting seen by many Haitian parents as the ultimate answer to a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the for english, use of psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for terminating medication and be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and even religious leaders. Mr.

A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and of suicide some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to for english, determine the unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and having access to both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to treat illness. Examples of odysseus traits, folk treatments for ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in the doctor-patient relationship is essential in theme, obtaining their participation in the development of a treatment plan to odysseus hero traits, which they will adhere. Clinicians should work to disarm or to gain acceptance with parents and family members. It may be helpful to theme for english, learn a few words of Creole or tidbits of Haitian history, to be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to find ways to Communication by James Baldwin Essay, show respect for the family's heritage. Engaging families in theme for english, supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of inventions of the 20th century, control and for english involvement that will help build adherence to other treatments recommended.

Cultural sensitivity is Communication in Sonny’s by James Baldwin Essay essential in dealing with not only Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. One definition of cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from theme, their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for some patients, culture is only one factor in about The Physician-Assisted Suicide Argument, their understanding of their illness. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is complex, it is theme a useful context for examining the integration of psychiatric and primary care. While there are a number of models of such primary care and behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is bombing particularly useful in managing families from other cultures.

The goal of for english, this approach is to resolve problems within the primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is most inventions 20th century designed to support the ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider. This model of behavioral health care is consistent with the philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of primary care. Theme For English! This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and history bombing allows for behavioral health and primary care comanagement of for english, patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Both consultative and hero traits condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for theme, assisting Mr. A and his family and other Haitian children and adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and history of suicide bombing others), imipramine (Tofranil and others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and for english others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the Haitian Health Institute at Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in preparation of the case and for commitment to the special needs of the Haitian people. Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the practices of clinicians caring for patients and families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the mainstream of society. At times, those very clinicians will be in the position to provide rich insights afforded by inventions, their own unique cultural backgrounds.

These case reports and commentaries provide knowledge and strategies helpful in the clinical encounter with patients from other cultures. This article is based on a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of theme, Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on Sept. 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article. Dr. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly.

Drs. Prudent, Johnson, and Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this article.