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B2B Marketing: What Makes It Special? Around the time of B2B Internationals inception in Monteverdi Musical Works Essay, the 1990s, a key challenge we faced was explaining to potential customers that our skills as business-to-business market researchers and of interest pluralism is, marketers were unique. Monteverdi. There was a frequent dismissal of the idea that business-to-business markets and therefore the techniques used to explore these markets were in any meaningful way distinct from consumer markets. Over the past 15 years, however, business-to-business marketing has emerged as a discipline in its own right and divergences in marketing practice have been accentuated. Colonization. We feel it is Essay worth reiterating the many differences between the two disciplines and, above all, pointing out the implications of mary these differences when it comes to implementing a business-to-business marketing strategy. What Is B2B Marketing ? What Are Business-To-Business Markets? As always, we must be clear about Musical Essay our definitions. Is Urea. What are business-to-business markets and what is B2B marketing? To answer these questions it is useful to consider the value chain that starts with a consumer demand and from which dozens of business products or services are required.

Take the example of the simple shirts that we buy. They do not arrive in Essay, the shops by accident. There is a value chain of enormous complexity that begins with cotton or some other fibre that must then be woven into cloth, which in turn is machined into a garment, packed and in Stabilizing Essay, distributed through various levels until finally we pick it from the shelf. This is illustrated in the diagram below. We call this the chain of derived demand since everything to the left hand of the shirt is pulled through as a result of the demand for the product. Businesses sell cotton to Monteverdi Musical Essay, merchants who sell it to mary whiton calkins, spinners who sell it to weavers who sell it to Monteverdi Works Essay, garment makers and so on. None of the businesses buy the products for pure indulgence.

They buy them with the ultimate aim of adding value in order that they can move the products down the Colonization Essay chain until they finally reach us, the general public. B2B marketing is Musical Works Essay therefore about meeting the needs of Western other businesses, though ultimately the demand for the products made by Works Essay, these businesses is likely to be driven by consumers in their homes. Businesses buy products with the aim of adding value in order to move the products down the in urine chain until they finally reach the general public. We believe that there are ten key factors that make business-to-business markets special and different to consumer markets. These are described below. Musical Works Essay. 1) B2B Markets Have A More Complex Decision-Making Unit.

In most households, even the most complex of decisions is confined to the small family unit while items such as clothes, food and cigarettes usually involve just one person. The decision making unit (DMU) in business-to-business markets is highly complex or at least it has the potential to be so. Ordering products of low value and low risk (such as the ubiquitous paper clip) may well be the responsibility of the office junior. However, the purchase of a new plant that is calkins vital to a business may involve a large team who makes their decision over a protracted period. Monteverdi. The DMU at a criticism of interest group pluralism is any one time is often ephemeral specialists enter and Monteverdi Works Essay, leave to make their different contributions and, of is urea course, over time people leave the company or change jobs far more frequently than they change family unit. This complexity and dynamism has implications for business-to-business markets. The target audiences for B2B communications are amorphous, made up of groups of constantly changing individuals with different interests and Essay, motivations. Turing. Buyers seek a good financial deal.

Production managers want high throughput. Health and safety executives want low risk. And those are just their simple, functional needs. Monteverdi Works. Each person who is party to the DMU will also bring their psychological and of the Bank in Stabilizing, cultural baggage to the decision and this can create interesting variations to the selection of products and Monteverdi Works, suppliers. Figure 2 above divides business-to-business purchases into four categories according to their financial value and the level of business risk associated with the purchase. Each of these categories gives rise to different purchasing behaviour and different complexities. Low-risk, low-value purchases are the least distinct from consumer purchases. They often involve just one, frequently junior person. There is little financial or business risk involved on getting the decision wrong, meaning that relatively little thought goes into the decision. Low-risk, high-value items such as raw materials typically involve a mixture of technical and political affecting business, purchasing personnel, and often very senior people such as board members.

This complexity is necessary to ensure that price is minimised without impacting upon quality. Works Essay. Purchasing personnel would usually be the is urea in urine key decision makers on a transaction-by-transaction basis, under the general guidance of Works more technical employees, who would review suppliers periodically. Low-value, high-risk items such as office insurance would similarly involve a mixture of specialists and purchasers. As the risk is in the product rather than the price, and as each transaction is likely to be unique, an expert (in this case perhaps an in-house legal expert) would tend to be the key decision maker every time a purchase takes place. High-value, high-risk purchases are the most distinct from consumer purchases, with a large number of senior decision makers evaluating a large range of purchase criteria. In the turing case of Musical Essay plant equipment, we might expect a CFO, RD Director, Production Director, Purchasing Director, Head of Legal Department, CEO and a number of upper-management department heads to be involved. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? Faced with a multifaceted and knowledgeable buyer, it is The Role of the Central in Stabilizing the Economy Essay critical that the B2B marketer demonstrates a high level of expertise in all of its interactions with the target audience. This refers not only to product knowledge, but also to the technical and other back-up that the buyer will receive throughout the life of the purchase. Business-to-business marketers need to fully understand the different needs of decision makers - often within the same customer.

The marketer must also show diligence and Works, patience when negotiating the decision making unit and assuaging the is urea fears of Monteverdi Musical Essay finance, production, technical and of interest pluralism is, other decision-makers. The description of business-to-business buyers as more rational than their consumer counterparts is perhaps controversial, but we believe true. We may not leave our emotions at home when we go to work, but most of us attach them to Monteverdi Musical Works, a tight leash and try to keep them away from our colleagues. The Role Of The Central In Stabilizing Essay. Would the consumer who pays ?3,000 for a leather jacket that is less warm and Monteverdi Essay, durable than its ?200 counterpart in alan, the shop next door make a similar decision in the workplace? What about the person who spends ?1,000 for a season ticket at a football club that has just been relegated and frustrates them every Saturday, or ?6.50 on a packet of cigarettes that excludes them from indoor public places and Monteverdi Musical Essay, puts them at risk of serious disease would the same person choose to buy, for example, a computer that consistently infuriated them or an asbestos roof that risked their own health and that of their colleagues? The truth is that as consumers we are often less well-informed, less accountable to others and far more susceptible to whims, indulgences, recklessness and showing off than is the political factor case when we are in the workplace. We therefore have a tendency to make purchasing decisions that a rational observer (a business-to-business buyer that has to make a profit each month) would regard as ludicrous. As consumers we are far less likely to ask whether the product we are buying has an ROI (return on investment). We buy what we want , not what we need . What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? To some extent the fact that business-to-business buyers are relatively rational makes our job as B2B marketers easier all we need to do is design and manufacture good products, and deliver them on Monteverdi, time and at a good price.

Not quite. It would be disingenuous to claim that business-to-business buyers are entirely rational. Due to the accountability that constrains most B2B buyers, trust and security are key issues. No B2B buyer wants to risk his or her livelihood or reputation buying an unreliable product and service. This makes emotional issues such as trust and security absolutely critical. This in turn places great emphasis on brand, reputation, case studies and whiton, other factors which convey reliability and consistency over the life of the product or service being purchased. 3) B2B Products Are Often More Complex. Just as the decision making unit is often complex in business-to-business markets, so too are B2B products themselves. Musical Works. Where the purchase of is urea a consumer product requires little expertise (perhaps nothing more than a whim), the purchase of an Monteverdi industrial product frequently requires a qualified expert. Where consumer products are largely standardised, industrial products are often bespoke and political business, require high levels of Monteverdi Musical Works Essay fine-tuning. Even relatively complex consumer products tend to be chosen on fairly simple criteria.

A car might be chosen because it goes fast and looks nice, and a stereo might be purchased on the grounds that it is tremendously loud. Even simpler industrial products, on the other hand, frequently have to be integrated into wider systems and as a result have very specific requirements and need intimate, expert examination and modification. It is difficult to imagine a turbine manufacturer or commercial website design buyer having a look at three or four products and then choosing one simply because it looks nice. The choice of turbine will involve a whole host of technical, productivity and political affecting, safety issues, whilst the choice of website might be based on Monteverdi Musical Essay, its integration into a wider B2B marketing campaign, its interactivity with users and the degree to which it draws potential clients via search engines. Buyers of of interest group is consumer products are generally not interested in the technical details of what they are buying.

The vast majority of car buyers are far more interested in what speed the car will reach than in how it will reach that speed. Similarly, the Musical buyer of a chocolate bar is likely to be far more interested in the fact that the item stops them feeling hungry and tastes nice than in the technology and ingredients that make it so. As a result, consumer products are frequently marketed in pluralism, ways that are superficial or even vacuous. Car manufacturers frequently completely ignore not only how a car performs, but often the fact that the car performs at all, and instead seek to apply non-physical attributes such as sex appeal to their products. Business-to-business campaigns, on the other hand, seek to educate their target audience by providing specific factual information. Essay. A corporate vehicle fleet buyer is unlikely to purchase a car for his salesforce on the basis of its colour or sex appeal. Many target companies in mary, business-to-business campaigns are already well-informed on the product area, in which case promotional material may have to go as far as offering product specifications. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The key for the B2B marketer is to Monteverdi Musical Works Essay, be fully informed in relation to the product or service being sold. This understanding must cover not only the Western Essay technical details of the offering, but also the Works Essay extended offer including aftersales service, problem resolution, client management team, etc. As a result, the a criticism of interest group B2B sale is Monteverdi Works Essay often a technical sale, meaning that salespeople in business-to-business markets are often extremely experienced and turing paper, originate from Monteverdi Works, a technical discipline within their organisation.

The success or otherwise of an political factor affecting entire business-to-business product line can be largely dependent on the abilities of a small team of salespeople. 4) Limited Number Of Buying Units In B2B Markets. Almost all business-to-business markets exhibit a customer distribution that confirms the Pareto Principle or 80:20 rule. A small number of customers dominate the sales ledger. Nor are we talking thousands and millions of customers. It is not unusual, even in the largest business-to-business companies, to Musical Essay, have 100 or fewer customers that really make a difference to sales. There is also a matter of scale.

In consumer markets there are reasonable limits to the amount that a single person can buy and use of any product. Certainly there are heavy users of all consumer products but the difference between the light user and the heavy user is a matter of small degree compared with the scale of differences in business-to-business markets. You can fit most buyers of consumer products into a typical spend per month with a few heavy spenders and a few light spenders at the extremes. The range of spend between the largest and smallest buyer in a business-to-business universe is likely to be much, much larger than the political factor range of spend between the largest and Essay, smallest buyers in consumer markets. Small numbers of customers of widely different sizes and alan turing paper, the presence of a few key accounts is a major distinguishing feature of business-to-business markets and Monteverdi Musical Works, this requires a completely different marketing approach to that required for factor, consumer markets. What does this mean for Works Essay, the B2B marketer? Because such small numbers of customers dominate the alan turing paper lives of businesses, database management is a crucial part of business-to-business marketing. Customer relationship management systems now allow databases to be kept up-to-date with personal details of members of the DMU together with every transactional and contact record. It is also critical that the business-to-business marketer be adept at Musical Works key account management with all the is urea manpower, proactivity and responsiveness that this entails. Key accounts not only require the Monteverdi Works Essay product delivered to them when and in the quantities they need it; they also routinely require services such as swift problem resolution and technical advice.

Indeed, key business-to-business accounts are increasingly moving beyond requiring effective products and services and good prices; they are now looking for partnership . They are looking for suppliers that will hold stock on their behalf, provide technical consultancy, calculate product efficiency and added value, and offer long-term on-site support. Mary Whiton Calkins. Above all, the limited number of buying units in business-to-business markets, and particularly the Musical Works concentration of turing paper expenditure amongst a few of those buying units, presents both an opportunity and an expectation that the biggest spenders are provided with dedicated value-added services that reflect their importance to the supplier. If you dont satisfy this expectation, someone else will! 5) B2B Markets Have Fewer Behavioural And Needs-Based Segments. Our experience of over 2,000 business-to-business studies shows that B2B markets typically have far fewer behavioural or needs-based segments than is the case with consumer markets. Whereas it is not uncommon for an FMCG market to boast 10, 12 or more segments, the Musical Essay average business-to-business study typically produces 3 or 4. Part of the reason for this is the smaller target audience in business-to-business markets. In a consumer market with tens of alan turing thousands of potential customers, it is practical and economical to divide the market into 10 or 12 distinguishable segments, even if several of the segments are only Musical Works, separated by small nuances of behaviour or need. Turing Paper. This is patently not the Essay case when the target audience consists of a couple of hundred business buyers. The main reason for the smaller number of segments, however, is simply that a business audiences behaviour or needs vary less than that of a (less rational) consumer audience. Whims, insecurities, indulgences and so on political affecting business, are far less likely to come to Essay, the buyers mind when the purchase is for a place of work rather than for oneself or a close family member. Political Factor Affecting Business. And the numerous colleagues that get involved in a B2B buying decision, and the workplace norms established over time, filter out many of the extremes of Monteverdi Works behaviour that may otherwise manifest themselves if the decision were left to one person with no accountability to calkins, others.

It is noticeable that the Monteverdi behavioural and needs-based segments that emerge in business-to-business markets are frequently similar across different industries. Needs-based segments in Colonization, a typical business-to business market often resemble the following: A price-focused segment, which has a transactional outlook to doing business and does not seek any extras. Companies in this segment are often small, working to Works Essay, low margins and regard the Colonization product/service in question as of low strategic importance to their business. Essay. A quality and brand-focused segment, which wants the best possible product and is prepared to pay for it. Companies in this segment often work to high margins, are medium-sized or large, and regard the product/service as of high strategic importance. A service-focused segment, which has high requirements in terms of mary whiton product quality and range, but also in Musical, terms of aftersales, delivery, etc. These companies tend to work in time-critical industries and can be small, medium or large. They are usually purchasing relatively high volumes. A partnership-focused segment, usually consisting of key accounts, which seeks trust and reliability and regards the supplier as a strategic partner. Such companies tend to of interest group pluralism, be large, operate on relatively high margins, and regard the product or service in question as strategically important. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer?

The fact that business-to-business markets have relatively few segments makes the Musical job of the paper B2B marketer easier than it might otherwise be. Nevertheless, skills in recognising which customers fit which segments, and how to appeal to Monteverdi, each of a criticism group is these segments, are not easy to come by. Key challenges in Musical Works Essay, establishing a behavioural or needs-based segmentation are as follows: Obtaining a consensus on a criticism of interest group pluralism, exactly what the segments are, and what characterises them, usually requires investment in quantitative market research. Once a segmentation has been achieved, identifying which companies are in which segment is extremely difficult. Behavioural and needs-based segments usually transcend firmographic segments, meaning that there are often no immediately manifest indicators (such as country, industry sector) of the Monteverdi Musical Works segment to which a company belongs. Training sales teams, marketing teams, customer relationship and other departments must implement the segmentation by adjusting their approach to Colonization, often intangible criteria. This requires huge effort and Monteverdi Essay, investment horizontally and vertically within an The Role of the the Economy Essay organisation.

Given the limited size of business-to-business target audiences, many marketers find the most simple approach is to tier the target audience by Monteverdi Musical Essay, size and Western Colonization, split it by geography, with accounts receiving the attention they deserve according to their strategic value to the supplier. 6) Personal Relationships Are More Important In B2B Markets. Monteverdi. An important distinguishing feature of business-to-business markets is the importance of the personal relationship. A small customer base that buys regularly from the business-to-business supplier is relatively easy to talk to. Sales and technical representatives visit the customers.

People are on first-name terms. Personal relationships and political factor affecting business, trust develop. It is not unusual for a business-to-business supplier to have customers that have been loyal and committed for many years. The importance of personal relationships is particularly pronounced in emerging markets such as China and Russia, which have little culture of Musical Essay free information, historic quality problems with local suppliers, and in markets where the concept of branding is still emerging little other than their trust in of the the Economy Essay, the salesperson on which they can judge the provenance of the product or service they are buying. What does this mean for Musical Essay, the business-to-business marketer? The consequences of this emphasis on relationships for marketing budgets are a relatively high expenditure on people (sales and technical support) and Colonization, a more modest expenditure on other forms of promotion.

Advertising budgets for Musical, business marketers are usually measured in thousands of pounds (or Euros or dollars) and not millions. The B2B salesperson is alan turing also a different animal to the consumer salesperson, in that the Monteverdi Works Essay focus is on listening and cultivating a limited number of relationships rather than the more quantity-driven and transactional approach seen in a criticism is, consumer markets. This places emphasis on face-to-face contact and, as already mentioned, this salesperson must have an in-depth technical understanding of whatever he or she is selling. Musical Works. Trade shows therefore become far more important in B2B markets indeed, they are the of interest group is number one promotional tool of American business-to-business companies ($17.3 billion per annum spent, Source: Business Marketing Association). 7) B2B Buyers Are Longer-Term Buyers. Whilst consumers do buy items such as houses and cars which are long-term purchases, these incidences are relatively rare. Long-term purchases or at least purchases which are expected to be repeated over a long period of time are more common in Monteverdi Musical Works, business-to-business markets, where capital machinery, components and continually used consumables are prevalent. Furthermore, the long-term products and services required by businesses are more likely to require service back-up from the supplier than is the The Role of the in Stabilizing case in consumer markets.

A computer network, a new item of machinery, a photocopier or a fleet of vehicles usually require far more extensive aftersales service than a house or the single vehicle purchased by a consumer. Businesses repeat purchases (machine parts, office consumables, for example) will also require ongoing expertise and services in terms of delivery, implementation/installation advice, etc that are less likely to be demanded by consumers. Finally, business customers tend to be regarded as long-term customers more than consumers do for Monteverdi Works Essay, the simple reason that there are fewer business customers about, and the ones that do exist are more valuable! The benefits of retaining a B2B customer are often enormous, and the consequences of losing them very serious. Alan. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The longer-term focus in Monteverdi Musical Essay, business-to-business markets reiterates two key points for the B2B marketer to bear in mind: first the importance of relationship-building in business-to-business markets, particularly with key customers; and second the importance of a technically focused sales team.

8) B2B Markets Drive Innovation Less Than Consumer Markets. A look at the derived demand diagram (Figure 1) demonstrates that most innovation is driven by consumer markets. B2B companies that innovate usually do so as a response to an innovation that has already happened further upstream. B2C businesses tend to be less risk averse, as they have to of interest group pluralism, predict and respond to the whims and irrational behaviour of consumers rather than the more calculated decision-making of businesses. B2B companies have the comparative luxury of responding to trends rather than seeking to predict or even drive them. This is not to say, of course, that companies in Musical Works, B2B markets are worse innovators than those in consumer markets. Indeed, the opposite is repeatedly the is urea in urine case, as innovations are often more carefully planned and successfully commercialised in the B2B world, in which audiences are more clearly defined and trends more easily identified. Monteverdi Essay. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? Business-to-business marketers have both the time and the indicative data from Essay, upstream to carefully assess their options before making a decision. As competitors are in Monteverdi, the same position, this makes gathering good quality intelligence absolutely critical. Mary. B2B marketers are advised to undertake detailed market research, combining this with upstream information in order to Works, build up a complete market intelligence picture.

9) Consumer Markets Rely Far More On Packaging. Factor Affecting Business. There has been a huge growth in Musical Essay, the packaging of consumer products in recent years, as marketers seek not only to is urea in urine, protect and preserve their products, but also to Monteverdi Works Essay, use the packaging as a vehicle through which aspirations and desires are transmitted to the customer. Consumers being less rational than business-to-business buyers, this approach has proved enormously successful at adding perceived value to products. Adding value through packaging making packaging a key part of the extended offer is far more difficult to mary whiton, achieve in business-to-business markets, where product is judged primarily on Works, technical criteria and the extended offer is whiton calkins built around relationships rather than dreams, aspirations or appearances. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The implications for Monteverdi Works, business-to-business marketers are clear packaging, like product, plays a primarily functional role. Resources are far better directed towards developing relationships and expertise. 10) Sub-Brands Are Less Effective In B2B Markets. Is Urea In Urine. We have frequently argued that the most neglected B2B marketing opportunity is the building of a strong brand.

In a world where it is becoming increasingly difficult to distinguish one product from Monteverdi Musical Works Essay, another, it is even more important to have the political factor affecting support of a powerful brand. The role of brand in the B2B buying decision is Monteverdi Musical Works Essay thought to of the Central Bank Essay, have increased over the past decade (it used to be said that its influence was 5% of the B2B buying decision against 30-40% of the consumer buying decision) and there is plenty of scope for Essay, B2B companies to differentiate themselves further through effective branding strategies. It must be said, however, that B2B companies are generally far worse at both developing and implementing branding strategies than are B2C companies. B2B companies tend to in urine, be bad at recognising that branding strategy should envelop every customer touchpoint and aspect of the business an unknowledgeable technical sales-team can undo the work of a branding communications campaign instantly. In their rush to Monteverdi Musical, embrace branding strategy, many B2B companies have over-compensated and developed huge numbers of sub-brands for every aspect of their product range. This kind of approach can be effective in consumer markets, where diversified companies such as Unilever recognise the need to build relationships with segments and sub-segments of Western Colonization numerous target audiences.

In business-to-business markets, however, target audiences are smaller and as explained above place more emphasis on relationships than brand when it comes to making the purchase decision. Most importantly, business-to-business buyers are generally more informed than consumers and tend to regard multiple brands and sub-brands as pointless and confusing, perhaps even insulting. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer? The key learning here for business-to-business marketers is to ensure that their branding strategies are properly researched and painstakingly implemented. Essay. Brand strategy research should encompass every customer touchpoint within the business, and beyond, acting as a framework through which the companys values are transmitted. Above all, business-to-business marketers should recognise that less is more when it comes to branding far better to have one coherent brand which customers, stakeholders and employees alike can relate to, rather than a confusing raft of sub-brands, which hinder rather than promote meaningful choice and amount to Central the Economy, little more than product identifiers. Conclusion: B2B Buyers Are More Demanding. The final distinguishing factor of B2B buyers is a suitable conclusion to this paper: simply that business-to-business buyers are more demanding . They have a responsibility to make the right decision when purchasing on behalf of Monteverdi their companies.

They take less risks and therefore need quality to be absolutely right. They have the political affecting expertise to recognise a bad offering when they see one. They are used to getting what they want. Monteverdi Works. They are often paying more than they would as a consumer and therefore expect more in political factor affecting, return. Monteverdi Works. They are likely to regard themselves as interacting with the product or service supplied to them, rather than playing the role of passive recipient. Mary. What does this mean for the business-to-business marketer?

The implications for business-to-business marketers are clear. It is our job to meet the target audiences needs; we must therefore raise our game to Musical Works Essay, ensure that our product, services and intangibles meet and exceed customers requirements. In our favour is the is urea in urine fact that business-to-business buyers are more predictable than their consumer counterparts. This means that good quality market intelligence and close attention to our target markets needs place us in a strong position to meet the needs of the market. Readers of this white paper also viewed: Publications by Theme. Publications by Type. Speak to an expert. Read more about. Heathrow Airport Holdings Limited.

B2B International showed diligence, professionalism, resilience and adaptiveness. As a result they delivered highly valuable insights that are influencing how we will be taking this new service to the market. Everyone here has been impressed by the detail and quality of the Monteverdi Musical Works report and the level of knowledge, insight and understanding of our sector displayed by the team. Calkins. Privacy Policy Copyright 2017 B2B International. All Rights Reserved. Monteverdi Musical Essay. Copyright 2017 B2B International.

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long proposal sample Sample Proposals for the Undergraduate Engineering Review. Before an article, report, or brief is accepted into Musical Works Essay, the Undergraduate Engineering Review, the author must first submit a proposal that specifies the importance of the research, the scope and limitations of the mary calkins, research, and the methods for the research. Submitters should read the journal's Request for Proposals before submitting. A Proposal to Musical Works, Research the Storage Facility. for Spent Nuclear Fuel at Yucca Mountain. There are many questions regarding the safety of the Yucca Mountain waste repository. Researchers at The Role of the Central in Stabilizing the Economy Essay, Los Alamos National Laboratory disagree over the long-term safety of the proposed high level nuclear waste site located in Nevada. In 1994, Charles Bowman, a researcher at Los Alamos, developed a theory claiming that years of Monteverdi, storing waste in the mountain may actually start a nuclear chain reaction and explode, similar to in urine, an atomic bomb [Taubes, 1995]. The stir caused by theory suggests that researchers have not explored all sides of the safety issue concerning potentially hazardous situations at Yucca Mountain.

Bowman's theory that Yucca Mountain could explode is based upon the idea that enough waste will eventually disperse through the Musical Works, rock to create a critical mass. A critical mass is an amount of fissile material, such as plutonium, containing enough mass to in urine, start a neutron chain reaction [Murray, 1989]. Bowman argues that if this chain reaction were started underground, the Monteverdi Essay, rocks in the ground would help keep the is urea, system compressed and Monteverdi Essay speed up the of interest is, chain reaction [Taubes, 1995]. A chain reaction formed underground could then generate huge amounts of energy in Monteverdi Works Essay a fraction of a second, resulting in a nuclear blast. A nuclear explosion of this magnitude would emit large amounts of The Role Essay, radioactivity into Monteverdi, the air and ground water. Another safety concern is the possibility of a volcanic eruption in Yucca Mountain. The long-term nuclear waste storage facility needs to remain stable for at least 10,000 years to allow the radioactive isotopes to decay to natural levels [Clark, 1997].

There are at least a dozen young volcanoes within 40 kilometers of the proposed Yucca Mountain waste site [Weiss, 1996]. The proximity of Yucca Mountain to is urea in urine, these volcanoes makes it possible to have a volcanic eruption pass through the spent fuel waste repository. Such a volcanic eruption could release damaging amounts of radioactivity to the environment. (1) explain the criteria for a suitable repository of high-level radioactive waste; and. (2) determine whether Yucca Mountain meets these criteria. According to the Department of Energy (DOE), a repository for high-level radioactive waste must meet several criteria including safety, location, and economics [Roush, 1995]. Safety includes not only the effect of the repository on people near the site, but also people along the transportation routes to the site. Musical Works Essay! In my research I will consider both groups of people. Turing! As far as location, a waste site cannot be in an area with a large population or near a ground water supply.

Also, because one of the Monteverdi Musical Works Essay, most significant factors in determining the life span of a possible repository is is urea how long the waste storage canisters will remain in tact, the waste site must be located in a dry climate to eliminate the moisture that can cause the waste canisters to corrode. Essay! The economics involved in selecting a site is another criterion. At present, the Department of Energy (DOE) has spent more than 1.7 billion dollars on the Yucca Mountain project [Taubes, 1995]. For that reason, much pressure exists to select Yucca Mountain as a repository site; otherwise, this money would have been wasted. Other costs, though, have to be considered. For instance, how economical is it to transport radioactive waste across several states to whiton calkins, a single national site?

I will try to account for Works Essay, as many of these other costs as possible. After explaining the paper, criteria, I will assess how well Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. In this assessment, I will not assign a numerical score for each criterion. Rather, I will discuss qualitatively how well Yucca Mountain meets each criterion. In some situations, disagreement exists among experts as to how well Yucca Mountain meets a criterion. In such cases, I will present both sides. In this assessment, only Yucca Mountain will be considered as a possible site.

Although many sites in the United States could meet the DOE's established criteria, I will consider only Monteverdi Musical Works, Yucca Mountain because the DOE is considering only Yucca Mountain [Taube, 1995]. The first goal of my research is to explain the criteria for determining whether a nuclear waste repository is suitable. For example, will the a criticism, rock structure be able to withstand human invasion in Musical Essay the future [Clark, 1997]? What will happen if the is urea in urine, waste containers corrode and do not last as long as predicted? Will the Essay, natural setting contain the waste?

To achieve this goal, I will rely on Background on 40 CFR Part 197 Environmental Standards for Yucca Mountain [Clark, 1997], the DOE Yucca Mountain home page [1997], and the book Understanding Radioactive Waste [Murray, 1989]. A second goal of my literature review is to evaluate Yucca Mountain meets those criteria. I will base my evaluation on political business, the sources mentioned above as well as specific Environmental Protection Agency standards. I also intend to research the validity of possible environmental disasters, such as the explosion theory. To accomplish this goal, I will rely on the paper presented by Monteverdi Musical, Clark [1997], and on the book Blowup at Yucca Mountain [Taubes, 1995]. Because engineering students are the primary audience for is urea, my proposed research topic and Musical may not be familiar with the in urine, history of nuclear waste, I will provide a background on past methods used for waste storage. People in Monteverdi Musical Works the nuclear field with some knowledge of the waste problem facing the industry may be a secondary audience. Figure 1. Schedule for completion of the factor business, literature review. Works! The formal presentation will be on October 27, and the formal report will be completed by December 5. Given that all my sources are available through the University of Wisconsin library system, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this review, unless one takes into consideration the amount of calkins, tuition spent on maintaining the university libraries. The only other minor costs are photocopying articles, creating transparencies for my presentation, printing my report, and binding my report.

I estimate these expenses will not exceed $20. I am a senior in the Engineering Physics Department at the University of Works, Wisconsin at Madison, majoring in nuclear engineering and physics. I have taken several classes related to nuclear waste, economics, and alan paper environmental studies. Monteverdi! I believe that these courses will aid me in preparing the in urine, proposed review. For further information about my qualifications, see the attached resume.

Kerr, R., New Way to Ask the Experts: Rating Radioactive Waste Risks, Science, vol.274, (November1996), pp. Works Essay! 913-914. Murray, Raymond L., Understanding Nuclear Waste (Battelle Press, 1989). Roush, W., Can Nuclear Waste Keep Yucca Mountain Dry-and Safe? Science, vol.

270, (December 1995), pp. 1761-1762. Taubes, G., Blowup at Yucca Mountain, Science, vol.268, (June 1995), pp. 1836-1839. A Proposal to Review How Geophysical Precursors. Can Help Predict Earthquakes. Throughout the world, devastating earthquakes occur with little or no advance warning. Some of these earthquakes kill hundreds of people. Alan! If the times, magnitudes, and locations of these earthquakes could be accurately predicted, many lives could be saved. This document proposes a review of how monitoring geophysical precursors can help in the short-term prediction of earthquakes. The proposed review will discuss the physical principles behind the monitoring of three common precursors and evaluate how accurate each monitoring is in predicting earthquakes.

Included in this proposal are my methods for gathering information, a schedule for Monteverdi Musical Essay, completing the review, and my qualifications. On the morning of April 18, 1906, the population of San Francisco was awakened by violent shaking and by the roar caused by the writhing and collapsing of buildings [Hodgson, 1964]. The ground appeared to be thrown into alan paper, waves that twisted railways and broke the pavement into great cracks. Many buildings collapsed, while others were severely damaged. Monteverdi Essay! The earthquake caused fires in fifty or more points throughout the city. Calkins! Fire stations were destroyed, alarms were put out of commission, and water mains were broken.

As a result, the fires quickly spread throughout the city and Musical Works Essay continued for three days. The fires destroyed a 5 square-mile section at the heart of the city [Mileti and Essay Fitzpatrick, 1993]. Even more disastrous was the Kwanto earthquake in Works Japan that devastated the cities of Yokohama and Tokyo on September 1, 1923 [Hodgson, 1993]. In Yokohama, over 50 percent of the buildings were destroyed [Bolt, 1993], and as many as 208 fires broke out and spread through the city [Hodgson, 1964]. When the disaster was over, 33,000 people were dead [Bolt, 1993]. Mary! In Tokyo, the damage from the earthquake was less, but the resulting fires were more devastating.

The fires lasted three days and Monteverdi Works Essay destroyed 40 percent of the city [Hodgson, 1964]. After the fire, 68,000 people were dead and political factor affecting business 1 million people were homeless [Bolt, 1993]. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the Kwanto earthquake were two of the most famous and devastating earthquakes of this century. These earthquakes struck without warning and with disastrous results. Monteverdi Musical Works! If earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to evacuate from buildings, bridges, and overpasses, where most deaths occur. Some earthquakes have been successfully predicted. One of the alan paper, most famous predictions was the Haicheng Prediction in China.

In 1970, Chinese scientists targeted the Liaoning Province as a site with potential for a large earthquake. These scientists felt that an earthquake would occur there in Monteverdi Works 1974 or 1975. On December 20, 1974, an earthquake warning was issued. Two days later, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck the Liaoning Province; however, further monitoring suggested a larger earthquake was imminent [Mileti and others, 1981]. On February 4, 1975, the Chinese issued a warning that an earthquake would strike Haicheng within 24 hours [Bolt, 1993].

The people in Haicheng were evacuated, and about 5.5 hours later, a magnitude 7.3 earthquake shook the city of Haicheng. If the people hadn't been evacuated, the death toll could have exceeded 100,000. Using geophysical precursors, the Chinese have predicted more than ten earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 [Meyer, 1977]. For example, the Chinese predicted a pair of earthquakes of magnitude 6.9 that occurred 97 minutes apart in Yunnan on May 19, 1976 [Bolt, 1993]. Despite these successes, the Chinese failed to predict the is urea in urine, earthquake that struck the city of Tangshan on July 27, 1976; this earthquake killed 250,000 people and injured 500,000 more [Bolt, 1988]. This earthquake wasn't completely unexpected, but the Chinese believed it to be a few years away. Other earthquakes have been predicted, but the predictions didn't have enough precision for warnings to be issued.

For example, in 1983, a young geophysicist predicted that an Musical earthquake of magnitude 8 would strike Mexico City within four years [Deshpande, 1987]. Two years later, an Colonization earthquake of magnitude 8 did strike Mexico City. Monteverdi Works Essay! Because the prediction was not more precise, no warning was issued and the earthquake took the population of Mexico City by surprise. Other predictions have turned out to be false warnings. For example, an earthquake warning was issued in August 1976 near Hong Kong [Bolt, 1988]. During the earthquake alert, people slept outdoors for two months. No earthquake occurred. I propose to paper, review the available literature on how geophysical precursors can be used for short-term predictions of earthquakes. In this review, I will achieve the following three goals: explain three commonly monitored geophysical precursors: ground uplift and tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of rocks; show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake; and. discuss how each of these precursors is Monteverdi Musical used for is urea, short-term earthquake predictions.

Geophysical precursors are changes in the physical state of the earth that are precursory to earthquakes. Musical! In addition to monitoring geophysical precursors, there are other strategies for predicting earthquakes-in particular, analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes. Analyzing statistical data on prior earthquakes, however, is solely a long-term prediction technique [Bolt, 1993]. For that reason, I will not consider it. In my review, I will discuss three common geophysical precursors: ground uplift and The Role of the in Stabilizing Essay tilt, increases in radon emissions, and changes in the electrical resistivity of Monteverdi, rocks. Earthquakes occur in is urea five stages as there is a build up of Musical, elastic strain within faults in the earth, followed by the development of cracks in a criticism of interest pluralism is the rocks, then the influx of Monteverdi Musical Essay, water into those cracks. The fourth stage is the turing, actual rupture of the fault and the release of seismic waves. The fifth stage is the Essay, sudden drop in stress in the fault. Business! In this stage, aftershocks occur. During these five stages, the geophysical precursors follow distinct patterns. For instance, the ground uplift and Essay tilt increases during the second stage as the volume of Western, rock increases.

In my review, I will relate how the three geophysical precursors relate to Monteverdi Musical Works, the five stages of an earthquake and how well this relation can be used to predict the oncoming fault rupture. This section presents my plan for obtaining the objectives discussed in the previous section. Because of the recent earthquakes in California and Japan, there has arisen a strong interest to predict earthquakes precisely. As a consequence of that strong interest, many books and journals have been written on earthquakes and earthquake prediction. I have gathered five books and several articles on Western, the subject. In addition, there are dozens of books and Works Essay articles available in the library.

These books and articles should provide sufficient information for me to write my review. The following paragraphs discuss how I will use these sources in my research. The first goal of my research is to explain the physical principles behind monitoring geophysical precursors. For example, why does the electrical resistivity of rocks decrease before an oncoming earthquake? Or, what does a sudden increase in radon emissions reveal about the factor affecting, future likelihood of a massive earthquake? The second goal of my research is to Works, show what happens to each of these precursors during the five stages of an earthquake. To achieve these two goals, I will rely on three books that give an overview to earthquake prediction: Earthquakes [Bolt, 1988], Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993], and Earthquakes and calkins Earth Structure [Hodgson, 1964]. A third primary goal of the literature review is to cover the accuracy of Monteverdi Essay, monitoring each precursor. By accuracy, I mean how well does the political affecting, method work in predicting the time, place, and size of earthquakes.

This discussion will not include many statistics on the predictions of earthquakes, because at present there just haven't been enough successful predictions to validate these types of statistics. Instead, I intend to evaluate the potential accuracy of monitoring each precursor based on the opinions of experts and preliminary data. To achieve this goal, I will rely on Monteverdi Works, two of factor affecting business, my most recent sources: The Great Earthquake Experiment [Mileti and Monteverdi Musical Works Fitzpatrick, 1993] and Earthquakes and Geological Discovery [Bolt, 1993]. Should I require additional sources other than the ones I have, I will search for them in the library system at a criticism of interest, the University of Wisconsin. Should I not be able to find that information, I will modify the scope of my research accordingly. Because the primary readers for my proposed literature review are engineering students who are probably not familiar with the theories behind earthquakes, I will have to Monteverdi Musical Works Essay, provide selected background information frommy sources. These engineering students already know that earthquakes are devastating.

They also know that if earthquakes could be predicted, people would be able to political factor, prepare for Monteverdi, them and lives would be saved. However, they may not know the different methods of predicting earthquakes. My intent is to inform these students of factor affecting, three methods of predicting earthquakes. A secondary audience for the review would be non-technical readers who either live in earthquake-prone areas or are affected financially when earthquakes occur. Musical! My proposed literature review will provide this group with an unbiased discussion of three methods for earthquake prediction. This discussion, drawing much from overview chapters in in urine Earthquakes, Animals and Man [Deshpande, 1987] and California Quake [Meyer, 1977], will put into perspective how accurate, or inaccurate, the named methods are and what hurdles face engineers who try to predict earthquakes.

This section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for performing the proposed research. Musical Works! The proposed research project culminates in a formal report that will be completed by December 6, 1995. To reach this goal, I will follow the schedule presented in Figure 1. A Criticism Of Interest Is! Because I already possess several books and articles on earthquake prediction, most of my time will be spent sifting through the information, finding the key results, and presenting those results to the audience. Figure 1. Works Essay! Schedule for completion of literature review. The two triangles represent milestones for the project, the Western Essay, first being the formal presentation on November 11, 1996, and the second being the Musical Works, formal report on alan paper, December 6, 1996. Given that I can obtain all my sources for the literature review from the Monteverdi Works, library, there is no appreciable cost associated with performing this literature review. The only costs, which will be minor, are for Colonization, copying articles, printing the review, and spiral binding the Monteverdi Essay, review. I estimate that I can do these tasks for Colonization, under $10. I am a senior in Musical Essay the Geological Engineering Department at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. In my undergraduate courses I have taken rock mechanics, soil mechanics, geophysics, and stratigraphy, all of which have included the mary, principles of seismology and stress-strain relationships.

In addition, I have taken field courses on structural geology that have introduced me to subsurface behaviors. I believe that these courses and my hands-on experience will aid me in assimilating the proposed literature review. For further information about my qualifications, see the Monteverdi, attached resume (not attached on this web site) . Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes (New York: W. H. Freeman and alan turing paper Company, 1988). Bolt, Bruce A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery (New York: Scientific American Library, 1993). Deshpande, Prof. B. Musical Works! G., Earthquakes, Animals and Man (Pune, India: The Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of alan turing paper, Science, 1987).

Hodgson, John H., Earthquakes and Monteverdi Works Essay Earth Structure (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964). Meyer, Larry L., California Quake (Nashville: Sherbourne Press, 1977). Mileti, Dennis S., and mary whiton Colleen Fitzpatrick, The Great Earthquake Experiment (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1993). All materials at this web site are the intellectual property of the editors and authors. You are more than welcome to make hypertext links as long as you give proper credit.

If you have comments, suggestions, or questions, please direct them to one of the editors.

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16 Free Medical Assistant Resume Templates. Monteverdi Works! There is an increasing demand for medical assistants in of the Central in Stabilizing, the coming years due to aging of the Monteverdi Musical Essay, population and advances in medical technology. According to the U.S. Bureau of factor, Labor Statistics (BLS), the medial assisting field is expected to grow by over 30% between the Works, years 2010 and 2020. Medical assistants are an The Role of the Central Essay, important part of the healthcare industry as they provide much needed support within healthcare facilities. A medical assistant#8217;s main responsibility is to provide patients with clinical and administrative assistance . They are employed in medical offices, clinics, and hospitals, and work closely with physicians and specialists. Their job duties often vary depending upon where they are employed. In some offices, the medical assistant is in Monteverdi, charge of the management and administration of the office, which allows the physician#8217;s time to be spent on providing better patient care. Other times, their responsibilities rest solely on providing patient care. Individuals who choose medical assisting as a career have a lot of Western Colonization, responsibility and Monteverdi Works can expect to earn an average salary of between $23,000 and $31,000 per Western, year . Although there is Essay, NO requirement for MA to have formal training, all employers will have different educational requirements and you might be expected to business, have at Musical Works, least 1-2 years of paper, formal training at a technical or vocational school or hold an associate#8217;s degree.

There are several different types of medical assistants . The first type is the clinical medical assistant . A clinical medical assistant#8217;s primary responsibility is Works, patient care, carrying out assessments, and performing other medical tasks. The second type of medical assistant is the Central Bank in Stabilizing the Economy, administrative medical assistant. The administrative medical assistant primarily performs administrative duties such as managing patient records, scheduling appointments, answering phones, performing general account billing, and Monteverdi Musical maintaining the front desk area. The final type of medical assistant is one who has chosen to specialize in a specific field of medicine . Specialty areas could be family medicine, geriatrics, internal medicine, OB/GYN, pediatrics, oncology, transplantation surgery, cardiology, urology, women#8217;s health, endocrinology, or another field. Size: Downloads: 9509 Download: zip and political factor affecting business docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3354. This is a general resume that is suitable for a Certified Medical Assistant or a Registered Medical Assistant. For the most part, writing a Medical Assistant Resume is the Monteverdi Musical Essay, same as writing resume for any other job. Your resume should accurately display your knowledge and commitment to the field as well as your desire for political factor, employment within the Monteverdi Works, field.

It should show your professional potential as well as your passion and commitment to paper, quality care. Include any relevant clinical experience you have as well as experience in specialized areas, if applicable. Maintaining a generalized approach is Musical Works Essay, appropriate if you don#8217;t have any specialty experience. Describe responsibilities you had, duties you performed, and affecting business success you achieved at your previous positions. What is Musical, included in Bank in Stabilizing, your resume will vary depending upon what types of Monteverdi Works, positions you plan to apply for. Make sure you only factor affecting, include duties that are relevant to position you are applying for. Some duties typically found on Medical Assistant resumes: Answer office phones and schedule appointments Greet patients and prepare them for examinations Obtain patient medical history and Musical Works Essay vital signs Assist physician during patient examinations Perform routine laboratory tests and factor affecting business administer injections Explain treatment procedures, medications, special diets, or doctor#8217;s instructions Perform electrocardiograms or other diagnostic tests Authorize drug refills and provide prescription information to pharmacies Assist with insurance, coding, and billing paperwork. Good communications skills, empathy, and people skills . These skills are important to help put patients at ease, as well as answer questions about medications, instructions, and Works Essay tests. Analytical skills . It is essential to understand information on medical charts such as diagnoses, as well as being able to code patients#8217; medical records for billing purposes, if required.

Detail oriented and in urine technical skills . Medical assistants use basic clinical instruments and Monteverdi Musical need to be accurate when taking and recording patients#8217; vital signs. If you hold any certifications, licenses, etc., they should be incorporated into your resume to show your dedication to Western Essay, furthering your vocational skills. Here is just one sample Medical Assistant Resume with objective, summary of skills, work experience, and education. As previously noted, the type of resume required for medical assisting will depend upon Monteverdi Musical Works Essay what type of skills you#8217;ve acquired as well as what type of in urine, environment you plan to Musical Works, pursue employment in. A professional resume should be tailored to portray who you are, what skills you possess, and be geared towards the type of job you#8217;re looking for . Here we#8217;ve helped to create examples of just how to achieve the Western Colonization Essay, perfect resume to Works, fit your needs. You will find three resume formats: chronological (focus on work history), functional (focus on skills and qualifications), or combination (both work history and skills). Whether you are a recent graduate, or someone who has experience as a medical assistant, you will be able to find one that will highlight your positive attributes and get you started on searching for in urine, the career you#8217;ve been looking for. This resume is suitable for someone who has some experience working as a Medical Assistant and has different clinical and administrative skills. Size: Downloads: 7169 Filename: Experienced-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3348. Chronological Medical Assistant Resume.

Chronological resume for someone who is experienced at working as a medical assistant; focus on experience, performed duties, and job skills. Size: Downloads: 2305 Filename: Chronological-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3340. Experienced Pediatric Medical Assistant. This is an example of a resume to be used for someone who has experience as a Pediatric Medical Assistant. Monteverdi Musical! Size: Downloads: 2424 Filename: Experienced-Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3350. The Role Of The Bank The Economy! This resume sample provides a generic template which can be used for an entry level medical assistant, or for a certified or registered medical assistant.

Size: Downloads: 4625 Filename: Entry-Level-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3344. This is a basic resume that can be used for anyone seeking employment as a medical assistant. Size: Downloads: 3410 Filename: Basic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3338. Musical Works! This is is urea, a medical assistant resume sample that focuses on administrative and clinical skills and experience in orthopedics. Size: Downloads: 1560 Filename: Clinical-Orthopedic-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3342. Entry-level Medical Assistant Resume. This resume is perfect for an entry-level position for someone who is just graduating and looking for their first medical assistant job. Size: Downloads: 2446 Filename: Entry-level-Medical-Assistant-Resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3346.

Functional Resume For Medical Assisting Field. This is an example of a functional resume for use when looking for a first-time job in the medical assisting field. It focuses on Monteverdi Musical, skills and qualifications rather than on political affecting business, work experience. Size: Downloads: 3420 Filename: Functional-Resume-for-medical-assisting-field.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3352. Generic Combination Medical Assistant. This resume can be used whether its your first or next medical assistant job. It highlights skills and Musical Works experience. Size: Downloads: 2205 Filename: Generic-Combination-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3356. This resume contains a summary of qualifications and is suitable for is urea, any medical assistant with some experience. Size: Downloads: 1986 Filename: Generic-Medical-Assistant-Sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3358. This resume can be used for a student medical assistant who has not worked in Monteverdi Works, the field yet.

It focuses on externships and volunteer experience in place of a criticism pluralism, work experience. Size: Downloads: 2358 Filename: Student-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3366. Sample resume for Medical Assistant Intern with example of qualifications, objective, related skills, education, and employment history. Musical Works! Size: Downloads: 1642 Filename: Medical-Assistant-Intern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3360. Political Business! This is a resume for an experienced Certified Medical Assistant who has experience as Medical Assisting Extern and Emergency Room Technician Extern. Size: Downloads: 1532 Filename: Medical-Assisting-Extern.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3362. This resume is for Medical Assistant experienced in working with pediatric patients, solid Clinical and Administrative skills.

Size: Downloads: 1957 Filename: Pediatric-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2013-11-13 21:03:00 / 3364. CMA with experience in a multi-physician family medical practice and additional healthcare experience as an RPT. Size: 148 KB Downloads: 2331 Filename: Certified-Medical-Assistant.docx Uploaded: 2015-08-11 21:02:00 / 8222. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.

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Essay on the Importance of Library. The library occupies a very important place in school. With its books suited to the interests and aptitude of students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to the students who go there and quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Monteverdi Musical Works Essay! Here they find an environment which is conductive to the building up of habit of self learning. The library is the center of the pluralism is, intellectual and Musical Essay social activities of school. The library has got very wholesome effect over paper, the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and occupies their attention. In the class room the books that are prescribed may not serve the purpose, some students may not be in a position to purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to Monteverdi them.

Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at alan turing the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. The library is thus, a common platform upon which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities. It is the nucleus of the school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the Works, school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for putting progressive methods into practice. But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of schools there are at present no libraries worth the of the Bank in Stabilizing Essay, name. Monteverdi Musical! The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to the students tastes and interests. They are stocked in a few book shelves, which are housed in an inadequate and unattractive room. The person in Essay charge of the Monteverdi Essay, library is often a clerk or an indifferent teacher, who does the work on a part-time basis and political business has neither love for books nor knowledge of library technique. What makes this situation particularly difficult is the fact that most teachers and headmasters and even the educational administrators and authorities do not realize how unsatisfactory this position is and, therefore, hey have no sense to take necessary steps for improving the condition.

The library must be made the most attractive place in the school so that students will be naturally drawn to it. It should be housed in Works Essay a spacious well lighted hall. The book shelves, tables, chairs, reading desks should be carefully designed with an eye to artistic effect as well as functional efficiency. As far as possible the open shelf system should be introduced so that students may have free access to books. The success of library depends largely on the proper selection of books, journals and periodicals. There should be a small committee of teachers, for selecting the books for Essay, the library. Musical Essay! The guiding principles in selection should be, not the teachers own idea of what books the students must read but their natural and psychological interests.

The Commission recommended that trained librarians who have a love for books and understanding of students interests should be provided in all secondary schools and all teachers should be given some training in the basic principles of library work in the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. As the proper use of well equipped school library is absolutely essential for the official working of every educational institution and for encouraging literary and cultural interests in Western students, every secondary school should have such a library. Works! Class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for the purpose. Western Colonization! The subject teachers should be in charge of subject library. Competent subject teachers can enrich their teaching greatly with the help of small collections of books in Monteverdi Musical Works their own subjects.

This should not be confined to text books only. Advance works, reference books, books on related subjects and allied field, all these will find a place in that collection. Most of the teachers in fact, have no idea of what a majority of students are reading or whether they are reading at a criticism of interest is all. So the Commission recommended that a systematic register should be maintained and each student must be allotted a few pages of the register in which all books studied by Monteverdi him are entered date-wise. This procedure will be very much helpful to the class teachers and of interest headmasters to give necessary advice and encouragement to individual student for developing their reading habit. Musical Essay! On the other hand each student is expected to maintain a diary in which he may enter date-wise, the names of all the books (with the names of the political affecting business, Authors) which he has read together with brief quotation or extracts that may appeal to him. The Commission further suggested that where there are no separate public libraries, the school libraries should, so far as possible make their facilities available to Monteverdi Musical Works Essay the local public and all public libraries should have a special section for children and adolescents. (i) It supplements class work by increasing students vocabulary, quickening their intelligence and extending their general knowledge; (ii) It enables the students to prepare themselves for taking part in the various co-curricular activities of the in urine, school. They get information which is very helpful to them in taking part in debates, giving lectures and writing for the school magazine; (iii) It develops habits of the students to derive pleasure and information from recreational and informative books; (iv) It broadens their outlook by placing a vast sphere of information before them; (v) It imparts training to the students for the proper use of books; (vi) It gives students training in punctuality by impressing upon them the necessity of returning and borrowing books at a fixed time; (vii) It provides suitable books to the students to satisfy their hunger of reading books and saves them from the harmful effects of reading unsuitable and injurious literature; (viii) It inculcates in the students the habit of Musical Works Essay silent reading ; (ix) It provides an opportunity to make the best use of leisure time thereby lessening the chance of indiscipline in the school. In the history of Indian Education the importance of Secondary Education Commission is of great significance.

Prior to turing this, various Commissions and Committees recommended for the improvement of Musical Works secondary education, but adequate steps were not taken at group pluralism is different levels for its practical application. The present system of secondary education was introduced by the British authority. But within the hundred years of its existence there was no remarkable improvement in the field of Works Essay secondary education. When everybody was feeling intensely for political, a progressive and workable change at this level, the Secondary Education Commission submitted its report with constructive suggestions. The Commission attempted to Musical Works investigate all the fundamental problem pertaining to secondary education and recommended certain concrete measures for alan paper, eradicating the evils that stood as stumbling block on the path of the progress of education. It probed deep into each and every aspect of the Works, secondary education and a criticism of interest pluralism made more practical and sound recommendations than those made by other Commissions appointed in the past. The government took initiative to implement some of the recommendation only because those were befitting to the time and made in the light of the recommendations of other Commissions and Committees. The Commission has put forth sincere efforts to Monteverdi Essay rectify those defects persisted in secondary education i.e. predominance of calkins bookish and Musical Works literary knowledge, lack of vocational and technical-education, defective system of examination, shortcomings inherent in the managing bodies and organisation of affecting business schools etc. Realizing the futility of single track institutions the Commission gave entirely original suggestion for the establishment of Multipurpose Schools catering to the needs of the Monteverdi, various ability, aptitude and interest of the students. Whiton! One of the most vital problems that confronting the country at Monteverdi Works present is the development of agriculture and industry.

Inclusion of these subjects in the curriculum of the Bank in Stabilizing Essay, secondary education and emphasis of education in them is a notable feature of the Commission. For improving the progressively deteriorating conditions regarding discipline, reorganization of administration and Monteverdi Musical Works Essay management of school at this level, the commission gave certain practical suggestions. It also made proposals for bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses which would include both general and vocational subjects. Besides, other suggestions for reforming examination and evaluation system, diversified of studies, improvement of teachers lot, reform of private management etc. are merely repetition and lack the a criticism of interest pluralism is, spirit of Monteverdi Musical departure from the beaten track. Factor Affecting! Different Commissions and Musical Essay Committees appointed earlier also highlighted some of these things. As government was not so very keen in eradicating the of interest is, fundamental defects in the sphere of secondary education, root and branch, the tangible result could not be arrived at. In-spite of the merits and significance of these recommendations there are certain limitations and Monteverdi Works shortcomings which should not be lost sight off. Mary! As a matter of fact the Commission has endeavoured to mould the pre-existing pattern of secondary education by suggesting improvements and Monteverdi Works changes which are not very sound and effective.

Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid for the improvement of female education and suggestion for teachers training is merely conventional. Its suggestion for financial resources and government responsibilities Sin this regard are most inadequate. In-spite of the turing paper, above shortcomings and limitations it can be said that the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission opened a new era of reconstruction and reform of education at the secondary stage. Works! These recommendations have got far reaching consequences and are likely to go a long way if faithfully implemented keeping in view to strengthen the weakest link in the system of political business education of the Musical Works, country. Steps were taken during 2nd plan to implement pattern of reorganization of secondary education as recommended by S.E.C. Accordingly financial allocation was made in the budget. Government took effective measures during 2nd plan period to introduce crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to mary whiton calkins higher secondary schools.

In the 1st plan about 250 multipurpose seconds were established. About 1150 high schools were converted into higher secondary schools by the end of the 2nd plan. As a result of the governments effort secondary education expanded considerably. At the end of the 1st plan the number of all types of secondary schools was 32,568 with 8,26,509 students and the number increased to 66,920 with 1,81,22,356 students by the end of 2nd plan. One of the major aims of the 3rd plan was to expand and intensify the educational effort and to Musical Essay bring every home within its fold so that in all branches of national life, education becomes the focal point of planned development.

Education programmes embodied in the 3rd plan were comprehensive in calkins scope. Monteverdi Musical Works Essay! The programme for the reorganization and improvement of secondary education, which had been implemented during 2nd plan period was continued. It was designed both to enlarge the content of secondary education and to make it a self contained unit within the educational process. During 3rd plan measures were taken for the conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of in urine a number of elective subjects, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the Musical Essay, examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for vocational education, increased facilities for the education of girls and the backward classes and encouragement to merit through scholarships. However steady progress was maintained during this period and the number of schools increased considerably. The number of higher secondary schools increased from 3,121 to 6,203 and The Role of the Central Bank the number of secondary schools increased to 90 thousands with 300 lakhs students by Monteverdi Musical Works the end of 3rd plan. During 3rd plan Indian Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S.

Kothari, which is popularly known as Kothari Commission, 1964-66. The Commission aimed at factor business an entire overhauling of the existing setup. Besides many other things it pleaded eloquently for the improvement of secondary education and recommended that: (i) Enrolment in Musical Works Essay secondary education should be regulated during the next twenty years by is urea proper planning of the location of Monteverdi Musical Works secondary schools, maintaining adequate standards and to that end, by determining the enrolment in terms of facilities available and selecting the best student; (ii) A developmental plan for secondary education should be prepared for each district and implemented in a period of ten years, (iii) The best students should be selected for admission into secondary schools, through a process of self selection at the lower secondary stage, and on the basis of external examination results and of the Bank in Stabilizing the Economy school records at the higher secondary stage; (iv) Secondary education should be vocationalised in a large measure and enrolments in vocational courses raised to 20 per cent of Monteverdi Works Essay total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and 50 per cent of total enrolment at the higher secondary stage by 1986. (v) A variety of part-time and full-time facilities in vocational education should be available at both these stages to meet the needs of the in urine, boys and girls, in urban and rural areas. Special sections should be set up in the education department to Monteverdi Musical help young pupils who drop out after class VIII or VII to obtain training on a full time or part time basis, and to Western Colonization be in overall charge of the Monteverdi Essay, organisation of political these courses; (vi) The central government should provide special grants to state governments in centrally sponsored sector for the vocationalisation of secondary education; (vii) Facilities for part-time education should be provided on a large scale at the lower and higher secondary stages in general and Monteverdi Works Essay vocational courses. Special emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses or those who have taken to farming as a vocation and on courses in Western home science or household industries for girls; (viii) Efforts should be made to accelerate the expansion of girls education so that the proportion of girls to boys reaches 1 : 2 at the lower secondary stage and 1:3 at the higher secondary stage in 20 years ; (ix) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools for Monteverdi Works, girls, provision of factor business hostels and scholarships and part-time vocational courses; (x) a national policy for the location of new institutions for each category should be adopted so as to avoid waste and duplication; (xi) Vocational schools should be located near the industry concerned; (xii) In non-vocational schools, a common curriculum of general education should be provided for the first ten years of school education and diversification of studies and specialization should begin only at the higher secondary stage; (xiii) At the higher secondary stage courses will be diversified in such a manner as to enable pupils to study a group of any three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and elasticity in the grouping of subjects. Musical Works! In order to ensure the balanced development of the adolescents, total personality the curriculum at this stage should provide half the time to the languages and one-fourth to physical education, arts and crafts, moral and a criticism pluralism spiritual education. After the recommendations of Kothari Commission, following measures were taken during 4th plan for the qualitative improvement of secondary education.

(i) Enrichment of the content of secondary education by adding one more class to the high school and making it higher secondary course of 11 year duration. (ii) Implementation of a long range programme of examination reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning process and methods of evaluation. (iii) Conversion of Musical Essay high schools into higher secondary and multi-purpose schools. Besides, improvement of science education, implementation of the pilot projects for the introduction of The Role of the Central Essay work experience and vocationalisation, development of school complex etc. were some of the measures undertaken during 4th plan period. As a result of the different measures, the Monteverdi Musical, number of schools at the secondary level increased considerably. By the year 1973-74, 74.40% boys and 29.60% girls were reading at the secondary stage. Different states accepted the new-pattern of education and introduced this system according to their own convenience. Though there is a lot of confusion and feeling of is urea in urine anxiety in the minds of the people regarding the practical application of the new pattern, yet in the overall interest of the student population and for national integration there is great need of Works Essay a uniform pattern of education.

So steps were taken to accelerate the pace of progress in implementing the new scheme. It was not only for the sake of uniformity that the new structural pattern was introduced, but it was meant to provide definite stages for pupils to branch off from the academic streams. If provision would not be made for students to branch off to vocational courses after completion of the particular stage of a criticism of interest pluralism is education, the change of pattern would only partially achieve the objectives and students who would do better in vocational courses would tend to go in for general education. During 5th plan, the objective in this sector was consolidated and controlled expansion. In order to raise the Works, standard of education reorganisation of the curriculum, improvement of the methods of teaching, reforms in Central in Stabilizing the Economy the system of examination, development of instructional materials and text books were undertaken during 5th plan period. Even then the achievement in this sector was not encouraging. So there were concerted efforts to achieve predetermined targets and objectives within the stipulated period. In the 6th plan, for the success of the new education policy of 10+2+3 necessary changes were made in the curriculum at the school stage in order to relieve the Monteverdi Works, burden on the child and make it realistic. It was expected that enrolment in secondary schools during the plan would be about paper 30 lakhs.

It had been proposed to achieve this objective by better and efficient utilisation of Musical Works Essay present secondary schools instead of opening new ones. However, the target would be fulfilled only through hard and sustained work, original and creative thinking, devotion and involvement of personnel associated with the planning and implementation of the new-pattern of education. The country had formally adopted a uniform pattern of education viz, the 10+2+3 pattern, consisting of 10 year school education followed by a two years higher-secondary or equivalent and !a three year degree course. Is Urea! Yet there was no uniformity in the number of years one spent in Musical Works Essay the three stages of school education; primary, upper-primary and secondary. However, classes VI to VIII were taken as components of the upper-primary stage.

When the first and mary whiton second All India Educational Surveys were conducted in the years 1957 and 1965, respectively, a distance of three miles or approximately 5 kilometers was considered to be a convenient walking distance for children in classes VI to VIII. Gradually, the distance limit was brought down to three kilometers. Besides, the pattern of upper primary schools prevailing in respective states and Musical Essay union territories varies. Therefore, the of interest, facilities for higher-primary education were available in different types of schools. Some secondary and higher-secondary schools also had upper-primary classes attached to them.

Unlike primary schools, the upper- primary schools were also managed by the government, local bodies, private bodies etc. As the government had been giving a major thrust to Monteverdi Essay the expansion of education in rural areas, private managements had been playing a dominant role in urban areas. However, the overall annual increase in enrolment at the upper primary stage between the third and fourth survey was found to be 5.75 percent while that of between the fourth and fifth survey was 6.8 percent. An encouraging feature was that the rate of increase in enrolment had been more in whiton calkins rural areas than in Monteverdi urban areas. The period between the first and the second survey witnessed a sharp increase in the percentage of habitations which had access to secondary stage education either within the habitation or up to a distance of eight kilometers (five miles). But it was reduced to five kilometers by turing paper the time of the third survey.

The fourth survey (1978) revealed that 72.54% habitations were served by secondary education within eight kilometers, which was increased to 78.92% by the fifth survey. In fact, it revealed that the facilities of secondary education had been extended to a larger number of habitations covering a higher proportion of rural population. Monteverdi Works Essay! As such, there were 52,560 secondary schools in affecting business India by 1986. Musical! Of these, 38,862 were located in rural acres and is urea in urine the remaining 13,698 in urban areas. At the time of 1978 (fourth survey) the number of secondary schools was 36,675. It may be mentioned that the increase in the number of secondary schools during the period between 1973 and 1978 was only 3.5%. The sixth five year plan envisaged for the extended educational facilities in rural and Works Essay backward areas specially for weaker section of the community in the field of Western Colonization Essay secondary and higher secondary education.

During this plan period greater facilities for secondary education had to provide due to the expansion of the base of education at the elementary stage. Since secondary education is considered as the means of social mobility and Essay economic independence, particularly among the a criticism pluralism, socially disadvantaged. Besides, the plan emphasized the Monteverdi Essay, importance of paying special attention to the quality of education at this stage and to improve the internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the employability of its products. Heathen, there was great need for more sustained and planned effort for the qualitative improvement of education at this level. Gradually the demand for secondary education had been growing.

The expansion of educational institution at the ground level provided a further impetus to this growth. For instance the number of upper-primary schools had increased from 1.35 lakhs to 1.46 laks from alan paper, 1985-86 to 1990-91, respectively. Musical Essay! Therefore, during seventh plan provision was made for whiton calkins, promoting distance learning techniques and Musical open school systems. As a result, unplanned growth of high and higher secondary school was checked. Norms for the establishment of secondary school were evolved and strictly observed in order to avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions.

In expanding the facilities, special attention was paid to the needs of backward areas of under privileged sections of the community. The teaching of science and mathematics at high and factor affecting business higher secondary stage was strengthened and made universal. Moreover, efforts were made to update and modernize science curricula, improvement of laboratories and libraries in schools and ensure the quality of science teachers through large-scale in service training programmes. In-fact, the progressive outlook of the authority is clearly evident from the introduction of environmental education in the courses of study which formed an important aspect of science education during this plan period. Musical! As such, the Socially Useful Productive Work (Work Experience) programme component constituted a link between work and education for the development of positive work ethics and work habits in learners. During sixth plan, a small beginning was made in providing computer literacy to students in selected secondary schools. Based on this experience, steps were taken to extend the programme to Colonization Essay cover different aspects of computer appreciation and application.

The NPE, 1986 laid down that access to secondary education will be widened to cover areas unserved by it at Musical Essay present. As such, it recommended for the strengthening of the State Board of Secondary Education, reorganization of teacher education along with in service training, examination reform, improvement and modification of the content of secondary education curriculum, strengthening of the open school system, provision of extended educational facilities, special arrangement for talented children with pronounced competence etc. However, there had been a significance increase in the number of secondary schools. It increased from 54,845 in 1987-88 to 59,468 in 90-91 and the quality of education at this stage was enhanced. Because the key issues in Central Bank secondary education, apart from access, were quality, modernisation and diversification. Though a considerable degree of uniformity had been achieved in regard to common education structure of 10+2+3, there was a considerable diversity regarding the location of the +2 stage. In quite a few states it was not a part of the school system. Musical! The secondary stage was divided in to two very distinct sub-stages- Secondary (up to class X) which was the stage of general education and higher secondary (class XI and XIl) which was marked by differentiation and diversification. For the national system of mary whiton education the NPE envisaged a national curriculum frame work. The work of curriculum revision for the secondary stage was undertaken in Works almost all the states and the UTs in the light of the guide-lines prepared by NCERT. Further, necessary steps were taken by extending the access to secondary education by opening new schools in the un-served areas and by extending and of the Bank Essay consolidating the existing facilities with particular emphasis on Monteverdi Works Essay ensuring substantially increased enrolment of mary girls and the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

Besides, greater autonomy was given to the Board of Secondary Education of different states for strengthening their structure and composition. Quality improvement programmes were under taken relating to teacher- education by according statutory and autonomous status to NCTE, strengthening and upgrading the Musical Essay, teacher-training colleges to Institute of The Role of the Central Essay Advanced studies (IASE) and College of Teacher Education. Moreover, pre-service and in-service teacher training programmes were designed and open school system at this level was extended. As time went on, the number of Monteverdi Musical Works secondary schools increased enormously from 59,468 in 1990-91 to 90761 by 2002- 2003. The number of Colonization Essay teacher at teacher at this sage was 996054 and teacher pupil ratio was 1:30 by 2002-03. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: